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telugu kavita – prastuta paristhiti

(9va ATA mahAsabhala vyAsAla pOTI lO rU. 15000 pAritOshikaM aMdukunna vyAsaM)

#[#iMdulO udahariMpabaDina kavitala yokka rachayitala pErlu telipitE vivAdAlaku dAritIyavachchunanna saMdEhaMtO rachayitala pErlu telupalEdu. kEvalaM kavitalu mAtraM udAhariMchabaDDAyi.#]

#kavita – kAvyaM

nEDu kavita ani pErkonabaDutunnadI, pUrvaM kAvyaM ani pErkonabaDinadI dAdApu samAnArthakAlE. parimANaMlO mAtramE tEDA. Adhunika pramANAlanu baTTi chUstE nUTa iravei SlOkAlatO kUDina ‘‘mEgha dUtaM’’ oka kavita kriMdanE lekka. kAni dAnini kAvyaM anE pErkonnAru. iravei nAlugu vEla SlOkAlatOkUDina rAmAyaNAnni kAvyamanE pErkonnAru.

InADu manaM pATistunna katha, kavita anE bhEdaM kUDA pUrvIkulalO lEdu. ‘‘kAvyAlu padyakAvyAlu, gadyakAvyAlu ani reMDu vidhAlu’’ aMTU padya gadyAlanu reMDiMTinI kAvyAlugAnE parigaNiMchAru. padyAnikI, gadyAnikI samAna pratipattinE ichchAru. sAhitya paraMgA vAru vAlmIki rAmAyaNAniki eMta pedda pITavESArO, guNADhyuni bRhatkathakU aMtE pedda pITavESAru. aMtEkAdu. paina cheppinaTTu vAru kAvyAla parimANAnni kUDA lekkalOki tIsukOlEdu. marikoMdareitE nEDu manaM ‘‘minI kavitalu’’ ani cheppukuMTunna vATiki pUrvarUpa manadagina SAlivAhana gAthAsaptaSatilOni okkokkagAthanU okkokka kAvyaMgA parigaNiMchavachchunu annAru. vAkyaM rasAtmakaM kAvyaM anna oka mATatO.

‘‘chUDa chakkaneina suMdari nijamadi
nEnu panikirAni dAna nijamu
kAni okkamATa dAni bOlagalEni
vAralella chAva valayunEmi?’’ (gAtha)

idi SAlivAhana gAthA saptaSatilOni oka rasAtmakameina vAkyaM. dInini kUDA oka kAvyaMgA parigaNiMchavachchunanna mATa.
EtAvAtA pUrvakAlaMlO vrAyabaDinavannI kAvyAlE, vATini vrAsina vAraMdarU kavulE. SAstrAla vishayaM ikkaDa aprastutaM. adi vErE prakriya.

kavita – pariNAmAlu

iravayyava SatAbdi madhya bhAgaMlO telugu sAhityaMlO viplavAtmakameina mArpulu anEkaM chOTuchEsukunnAyi. okaveipu pAMDitya pradarSanE kavitvamanE apOhatO sudIrtha saMskRta samAsAlatO poMtanalEni alaMkArAlatO, bhayaM kolipE Sabda vinyAsaMtO koMdaru kAvyAlu vrAstU uMDagA, marOveipu jAshuvA, karuNaSrI, duvvUri, rAyaprOlu vaMTi paMDita kavulE kratta puMtalu trokki sAmAnya vidyAvaMtulanu saitaM AkaTTukonElAgA khaMDakAvyAlU, laghukAvyAlU saraLameina bhAshalO vrAyasAgAru. marOveipu SrISrI lAMTi vAru ChaMdassunu vadilEsi mAtrAbaddha rachanalu sAgiMchi vardhamAna rachayitalaku krottadArulu chUpAru. iMkO veipu Arudra, kuMdurti, tilak^ modaleina vAru ‘‘vachana kavita’’ anE krotta prakriyanu chEpaTTi AbAla gOpAlAnni AkaTTukunnAru. I pariNAma kramaMlO Edi muMdu, Edi venuka ani nirdhAriMchaDaM kashTaM. annI dAdApu EkakAlaMlO pariDhavillinavE. ‘‘vachana kavita’’ anE prakriya telugu sAhityaMlO aDugupeTTi chAlA puNyaM kaTTukuMdi. chAlA nashTamU techchipeTTiMdi.

bhAvukuleina koMdaru rachayitalu tama bhAvAlanu vyaktaM chEyaDAniki ChaMdassU, mAtrAbaddhatA avarOdhaMgA ErpaDutU uMDagA vAri bhAshA paTima aMtaMta mAtraMgA uMDagA, padyAlu vrAyalEka, EdO okaTi vrAyakuMDA uMDalEka, satamatamavutunna taruNaMlO vachana kavitA prakriya vAriki AlaMbanagA nilichiMdi. chAlAmaMdi uttama bhAvukulu chakkani kavitalu vrAyaDAniki avakASaM ErpaDiMdi. idi vachana kavitala valla kaligina lAbhaM.

I AlaMbanatO bhAvukulu kAnivAru saitaM, kEvalaM utsAhaM mAtramE unnavArU, SabdAdhikAraM lEni vArU saitaM vachana kavitalu vrAyaDaM prAraMbhiMchAru. kavula saMkhya perigipOyiMdi. vIrivalla kavitA gauravaM digajAripOsAgiMdi. idi vachana kavitalavalla kaligina nashTaM. marO rakaM kavi kumArulu tamaku sphuriMchina chinna chinna bhAvAlanu chinna chinna kavitalugA vrAsi ‘‘minI kavitalu’’ ani vATiki nAmakaraNa chESAru. sudIrgha kavitalu chadivE OpikA, tIrikA lEni pAThakulaku I minI kavitalu bAgA nachchAyi. kanuka idi bAgA prachAraMlOki vachchAyi.

I minI kavitala prayOjanAnni kluptatanU gurtiMchina marOrakaM bhAvukulu haikUlU, nAnIlu anE krotta prakriyalanu ASrayiMchAru. ivi mana vEmana padyAlalAgA prajAdaraNa poMdAyi. j~nApakaM peTTukOvaDAnikI, samayaM vachchinappuDu udAhariMchukOvaDAnikI upayOgapaDutunnAyi. nAnIlu iMkA bAgA prachAraMlOniki rAvalasi uMdi.

kavitA lakshaNAlu

padyakAvyameinA, gadyakAvyameinA aMdali prAthamika lakshaNAlu samAnamE. vishayamU, vishaya vyaktIkaraNalO spashTata, kluptata, varNana, padabaMdha paTutvaM, SabdasauMdaryaM (SabdAlaMkAraM) arthasphUrti (arthAlaMkAraM), vyaMgyaM, dhvani, vakrOkti, auchityaM modaleina lakshaNAlu padyakAvyaMlO eMta virivigA pATiMpabaDutAyO gadyakAvyaMlO kUDA aMta virivigAnU pATiMpabaDAlani AnATi lAkshaNikulu nirdESiMchAru. kAgA kramaMgA gadya kAvyAlalO paicheppina lakshaNAlalO konni lOpiMchi pOtU uMDagA, padyakAvyAlalO marikonni kratta lakshaNAlu vachchi chErasAgAyi. I mArpula phalitaMgA gadyakAvyAlu Adhunika kAlaMlO kathalugA, navalalugA rUpoMdaDaM jarigiMdi. padyakAvyAlu padyaM, gEyaM, vachana kavita modaleinavigA rUpoMdaDaM jarigiMdi. kramaMgA navala, navalika, katha, kathAnika, galpika, skech^ modaleina prakriyalu ‘‘kathA navalA sAhityaM’’ anE pErutO oka tegagAnU, padyaM, gEyaM, vachana kavita, minIkavita haikU, nAnI modaleinavi ‘‘kavitA sAhityaM’’ anE pErutO marO tegagAnU khachchitaMgA vibhajiMchaDaM jarigipOyiMdi. rachayitalu kUDA EyE tegala prakriyalaku cheMdina vAru AyA tegala vArugA viDipOvaDamU jarigiMdi. vATikI, vITikI diSA nirdESAlU, lakshyAlU vEreipOyAyi.

kavita yokka uddESaM

kavita pAThakuniki EdO oka vishayAnni ‘‘idigO, I vishayAnni gurtiMchi chUDu’’ ani cheppE vidhaMgA uMDAli. pAThakuDu kavi cheppina vishayAnni chUchi ‘‘avunu sumA, nEnu iMtavarakU gurtiMchanE lEdE’’ anukOvAli. kavi cheppina vishayaM pAThakunilO oka saMtOshAnni gAnI, oka udrEkAnni gAnI, oka AScharyAnni gAnI, oka AvEdananu gAnI, oka navvunu gAnI oka jugupsanu gAnI, oka bhayAnni gAnI, rEkettiMchEdigA uMDAli. alA rEkettiMchabaDina bhAvaM pAThakunilO oka AlOchanAtmakameina spaMdananu, saMchalanAnni kaligiMchEdigA uMDAli. kavita pAThakuDilO rEkettiMchE bhAvAnni ‘rasamu’’ anI, pAThakuDilO spaMdananu, saMchalanAnni kaligiMchaDAnni ‘‘kAMtAsammitata yOpadESayujE’’ anI annAru. ‘‘kAMtA sammitata yOpadESaM’’ aMTE – pAThakuniki oka vishayAnni sunnitaMgA upadESiMchaDaM. A upadESaM elA uMDAli? ‘‘idigO nAku rachayita EdO upadESistunnADu’’ ani pAThakuniki teliyakUDadu. upadESaM mAtraM pAThakuni talakekkipOvAli.

bhAvapushTi

bhAvaM uMTEnE kavitvaM, bhAvaM lEnidi kavitvaM lEdu. oka bhAvaM kavi manassulO udbhaviMchi, rUpudiddukani, sarvAvayavAlU saMtariMchukani, ika lOpala niluvalEka trOsukoni bayaTapaDAli. appuDE adi maMchi kavitvamavutuMdi. dIninE bhAvapushTi anavachchu. alA hRdayaM nuMchi bayaTiki trOsukochchina bhAvaM chAlA tIvraMgA, sarvAMga saMpannaMgA paripUrNaMgA uMTuMdi. dIninE ‘‘bhAravEdArtha gauravaM’’ annAru pUrvulu ‘‘bhavya kavitAvESaM’’ annADu tikkana somayAji. kavi EdO okaTi vrAyAlani kUrchoni vrAsE kavitvaMlO bhAvapushTi uMDadu. bhAvaM tElikagA – nelatakkuva kAnpu biDDalAgA – balahInaMgA uMTuMdi. bhAvaM suvyaktaM kAni kavitaku oka udAharaNa –

‘‘bAdhA pIDituDu bAdhanu varNiMpa galiginA,
bAdhAdrashTI cheitanyaM, spaMdana, sAmAjika spRhatO
bAdhA taptuni miMchi
bAdhanu SaktimaMtaMgA cheppagalaDu’’ (oka kavitA saMpuTi)

okAnoka bAdhApIDituDu tana bAdhanu svayaMgA varNiMchaDaM kaMTE, A bAdhanu kaLLArA chUsina vADu tana sAmarthyaM chEta mariMta bAgA varNiMchagalaDu ani rachayita bhAvaM. I bhAvaM bAgAnE uMdi kAnI adi I kavitalO samagraMgA rUpudiddukOlEdu. upapattulu lEvu. idi kavitA lakshaNAlanu telipE siddhAMtaMlA uMdi. dInni kavitagA cheppAlaMTE ilA cheppavachchu –

‘‘tagilina pratilAThI debbaku
goMtu pekalchukoni aravaDamE
bAdhituDi smRti
vAtalatO chiTlina vIpU
raktaMtO taDisina juTTU
gOLLallO chippilu netturU
paMDlUDina pedavula vApU
talavAlchina nissahAyatA
lAThI kaLLallO krauryaM
bAdhituDiki kanabaDutuMdA
chUchE hRdayAnikI kAnI …’’

pairachayita yokka sTET^meMTu lAMTi bhAvAniki upapattulanU, layabaddhatanU kUrchi oka kavitA svarUpaM ivvabaDiMdi I kavitalO.

baruveina bhAvapushTI, AlOchanaku vistRtameina avakASamU unna kavitaku udAharaNa chUDaMDi –

‘‘dEvuDA, kRtaj~natalu. manushyulni SASvataM chEyanaMduku’’ (oka saMpuTi). manishi gaTTigA bratikitE nUrEMDlE ani telisinA manishi svArthaMtO chEsE duraMtAlakU, durAgatAlaku aMtulEdu. alAMTi manishi SASvituDeipOtE – vADEmEmi chEstADO UhiMchaDAnikE bhayaMvEstU uMdi. dEvuDu manishiki parimitameina Ayuvunu vidhiMchi prapaMchAniki mElu chESADu. aMduku dEvuDiki kRtaj~natalu arpiMchAli. bhAvapushTi aMTE ilAMTidi. ilAMTidE marO kavita –

‘‘simeMTu cheda tinna chEtulu salipAyA,
siggu lEkuMDA taDimina chUpulu salipAyA aMTE
eMDu chEpallAMTi emukalu kaMDapaDitE
vayassu selEstuMdEmO anna SaMka salipiMdi aMdi’’ (oka kavitA saMpuTi)

strIlu eMtasEpU bAhyameina dushTaSaktulaku bhayapaDutU gOla chEstunnAru. dushTaSaktulanu aNachivEsinaMta mAtrAna samasya tIripOdu. strI tanalOni aMtargata balahInatalakU aMtE bhayapaDi jAgratta vahiMchAli – anE bhAvaM I kavitalO chAlA tIvraMgA cheppabaDiMdi.

aMdameina bhAvapushTiki marO chakkani udAharaNa –

‘‘nEnu pravESiMchaDAniki muMdu I jagattunu AyattaparachiMdevaru?’’ bhUlOkaMlO manishi udbhaviMchaDAniki pUrvamE bhagavaMtuDu bhUmini manishi sukhajIvanAnikei sarvasaMpannaM chEsipeTTADu. ani I kavitalOni bhAvaM.

alAMTidE marO ati sunnitameina bhAvAniki udAharaNa –

‘‘Uri bayaTa pADubaDDa satraMlO O pichchidi.
chirugula ravike, molakoka tuMDu guDDatO –
aragaMTa Ti.vi muMdu kUrchuMTE AScharyaM kaligiMdi.
prapaMchaMlO iMta maMdi pichchivALLA ani’’ (oka kavitA saMpuTi)

oka pichchidi SarIra spRha lEkuMDA ardhanagnaMgA kanabaDutuMTE ‘‘pOnIlE pApaM pichchidi’’ anukOvachchu. kAnI TIvi chUstunnappuDu aMdulO nAgarikatakU, saMskRtikI pratIkaleina strIlu kUDA ardhanagnaMgA darSanamistuMTE vALLanu guriMchi EmanukOvAli? phyAshan^ anukOvAlA, pichchi anukOvAlA?

I madhya veluvaDutunna anEkAnEka kavitA saMpuTullO I bhAvapushTi lOpaM koTTavachchinaTTu kanabaDutuMdi. kAraNaM? rachayitalu toMdaragA kavitalu rAsEsi, toMdaragA achchuvEsi, toMdaragA ‘‘kavi’’ anna pEru poMdAlanE kaMDUti. rachayitalu tama bhAvAlanu sarigA paMDanivvaDaM lEdu. avayavAlu sarigA rUpudiddukOka muMdE sijEriyan^ kAnpulu chEsEsukuMTunnAru.

lOkavRtta parij~nAnaM

oka kavita vimarSalaku gurikAkuMDA nilabaDAlaMTE kavitalO bhAvapushTitO pATu lOkavRtta parij~nAnaM kUDA uMDAli. aMTE rachayita tanu chuTTU unna samAjAnni bAgA pariSIliMchina vADei uMDAli. samAjaMlOni AchAra vyavahArAlu, saMpradAyAlU, vividha prajala jIvana vidhAnAlU bAgA pariSIliMchi uMDAli. oka rachayitri oka kavitalO ilA rAsiMdi. (kavita yathAtathaMgA j~nApakaM peTTukonE lAgA lEdu. kanuka bhAvaM chebutAnu.)

‘‘oka unnata varga yuvati oka muriki vADalOni yuvatini kalusukOvaDAniki veLLiMdi. A murikivADa yuvati Imeku kUrchOvaDAniki paMdi charmaM parichiMdi’’.

paMdiki charmaM UDirAdu. marE jaMtu charmameinA oka Ita chApakaMTE anEka reTlu viluveinadi. ammukuMTAru kAnI kUrchOvaDAniki paruchukOru. idilOka vRtta parij~nAna hInataku udAharaNa. alAgE marO udAharaNa – oka rachayita kavitA saMpuTi nuMDi –

‘‘oka pUjAri kOnETi nuMDi pUjakOsaM nILLu testunnADu. oka harijanuDu edurochchADu. pUjAri A harijanuDipai tana kAli cheppunu visirADu’’.

pUjakOsaM nILLu techchETappuDu pUjArulu cheppulu vEsukOru. mari ilAMTi vishayAlannI gamaniMchakuMDA kavitalu rAstE apahAsyaM pAlukAka tappadu.

kavitallO kluptata

kathakeinA, kavitakeinA sAmAjika prayOjanaM okkalAgE uMTuMdi. kAni kathalO vistRti uMTuMdi, kavitalO kluptata uMTuMdi. katha oka mEghaMlAgA muMdu pratyakshamautuMdi. aMdulO rachayita cheppadalachukonna vyaktavyAMSaM oka merupulAgA merustuMdi.

adE ganuka oka kavitalO ayitE rachayita cheppadalachukanna vaktavyAMSaM modaTa merupulA merustuMdi. taruvAta pAThakuDu AlOchiMpagA AlOchiMpagA dAnivenuka unna vishaya vistAraM, nEpathyaM oka mEghaMlAgA darSanamistAyi.

modaTa mEghaM – taruvAta merupu – idi katha.
modaTa merupu – taruvAta mEghaM – idi kavita.

oka rachayita oka katha rAstADu. aMdulO oka aTTaDugu vargAniki cheMdina vADu svayaM kRshitO SAstrAlU, dharmAlU abhyasiMchi agravargAla vAriki dharmabOdhA, dharmanirdESamU chEyagala sthitiki chErukuMTADu. agravargAla vAriki anEkulaku ataDu mArgadarSakuDavutADu. I katha konni pEjIlu vistariMchi uMTuMdi. idi mEghaM. chivariki rachayita cheppadalachukonna vishayaM – aTTaDugu vargAla vAru agravargAla sthAyiki vachchAranI, agravargAla vAru tama sthAyi nuMchi digajAri pOtunnAranI. I vishayaM merupulA sphuristuMdi. idE vishayAnni oka rachayita tana kavitalO ilA aMTunnADu –

‘‘brahma mukhaM nuMchi kALLu puTTukostunnAyi’’.

brahma mukhaM aMTE agravarNAla janma sthAnamanI, pAdAlu aMTE aTTaDugu varNAla janmasthAnamanI aMdarikI telisiMdE. mukhaM nuMchi kALLu puTTukostunnAyaMTE aDugu varNAla vAru prastutaM agravarNAla sarasaku ekki vachchEstunnAranI. ika agravarNAla vAru tama abhijAtyaM kAraNaMgA murisipOvalasina panilEdanI arthaM. idi merupu. dInipai pAThakuDu AlOchiMpagA, AlOchiMpagA iMduku nidarSanaMgA samAjaMlO nelakoni unna anEka vishayAlu gOcharistAyi. idi mEghaM. idi kavitallOni kluptataku udAharaNa. kluptata kavitaku prANaM. dIninE prAchInulu ‘‘alpAksharamulananalpArtha rachana’’ annAru.

dhAraNA yOgyata

kavita yokka mukhya lakshaNAlalO j~nApakaM uMDipOvaDaM okaTi. kavitanu okaTi reMDusArlu chaduvagAnE adi pAThakuni manassulO yathAtathaMgA j~nApakaM uMDipOvAli. saMdarbhaM vachchinappuDu j~naptiki techchukoni udahariMchagalagAli. dIninE dhAraNAyOgyata anavachchu. I saulabhyaM kOsamE pUrvaM SAstrAlanu kUDA SlOkAlalO rAsukunnAru. rAta alavATulO lEni kAlaMlO rachiMpabaDinavi annI I dhAraNA yogyata vallanE maukhika paraMparagA mana varaku payaniMchAyi. dhAraNA yOgyataku mukhya sAdhanaM kavitanu oka layabaddhaMgA rAyaDaM. ChaMdObaddhaMgA rAsinA, gEyarUpaMlO rAsinA itaratrA E vidhaMgA rAsinA aMdulO aMtO iMtO layabaddhata uMDAli. oka Upu uMDAli. pAda baddhata uMDAli. dInikOsaM paMDita kavulu ChaMdassunu sRshTiMchukunnAru. jAnapadulu ragaDa, dvipada modaleina dIrgha prakriyalanu ASrayiMchAru. layabaddhata, pAdabaddhata lEni kavita eMta gaMbhIraMgA, bhAvabaMdhuraMgA unnA sulabhaMgA manassulO niluvadu. avasarameinappuDu yathAtathaMgA j~nApakaM rAdu. bhArata bhAgavata padyAlu modalukani monnaTi gurujADa mutyAla sarAlU, viSvanAthavAri kinnerasAni pATalU, SrISrI mahAprasthAnaM modaleina vATi nuMchi appuDappuDU konni mATalanu udahariMchu koMTunnAmaMTE aMduku kAraNaM avi layabaddhatanU, pAdabaddhatanU kaligi uMDaDamE –

‘‘tiMDi kaligite kaMDagaladOy^
kaMDa galigina vADe manishOy^’’
– – –
‘‘vaTTi mATalu kaTTi peTTOy^
gaTTi mEl^ talapeTTa pOy^’’
– – –

‘‘polAlanannI halAladunnI
ilAtalaMlO hEmaM paMDaga’’
– – –

‘‘gharmajalAniki dharmajalAniki
kharIdu gaTTE sharAbu lEDOy^.’’

iMtagA kAkapOyinA okiMta UpU, pAdabaddhata uMDinA chAlu. dhAraNA yOgyata siddhistuMdi:

‘‘nAdi kAni dEdI nE muTTAlanukOnu
nAdeinA sarE dAchipeTTAlanukOnu -’’ si.nA.re.

ilAMTi UpU, pAdabaddhatA kaligina kavitalu prajala manassulalO kalakAlaM nilichipOtAyi. kAbaTTi rachayita tana kavita kalakAlaM pAThakula hRdayAlalO nilichipOvAlanukuMTE, tana kavita prajala nAlukala paina nATyamADAlanukuMTE tappaka tana kavitaku ChaMdObaddhatanO, layabaddhatanO, pAdabaddhatanO, oka vidhameina UpunO kalpiMchAli. ivEvI lEni rachana gAliki koTTuku pOtuMdi. nETi vachana kavitA rachayitalalO nUTiki toMbhei tommidi maMdi rachanalu okasAri chadiviMchi taruvAta gAliki koTTukupOtunnAyi. dAdApu iravei padAlunna oka vachana vAkyAnni nAlugeidu mukkaluchEsi varasagA pErchEstunnAru. mukkalu chEyaDaM valla vAkyaMlOni samagrameina arthaM cheDipOyi apArthAlU, dushTArthAlU ErpaDutunnAyi.

viSEshOkti

rachayita tAnu cheppadalachukanna vishayAnni yathAtathaMgA chebitE adi kavita anipiMchukOdu. sTET^meMT^ avutuMdi. pravachanaM avutuMdi. kavitalO EdO oka viSEshOkti uMDAli.

udAharaNaku – oka abbAyini aMgaDiki veLLi EdO oka vastuvunu temmani paMputAM. vADu manaM UhiMchina dAnikaMTE vEgaMgA veLLi vastADu. appuDu akkaDunna ayidugurU ayidu rakAlugA ilA aMTAru –

‘‘bhEsh^, chAlA toMdaragA vachchESADu’’.
‘‘abbO! chAlA toMdaragA vachchESADE’’
‘‘OhO, jiMkalAgA veLLi vachchADu’’
‘‘ikkaDunnaTTu gAnE vachchESADu’’
‘‘asalu veLLADA? ikkaDE unnADE’’

paivAkyAlalO modaTidi mAmUlu mATa. adi oka sTET^meMTu. takkina nAlugu vAkyAlU koMta viSEsharItilO cheppabaDinavi. I nAlugu mATalU varusagA oka dAnikaMTE okaTi viSishTatarameinavi. vITiki alaMkAra SAstraMlO guNIbhUta vyaMgyamu, upamAlaMkAramu, atiSayOkti, dhvani ani pErlu. kavitalO ilAMTi EdO oka alaMkAramO, dhvaniyO, chamatkAramO uMTEnE adi kavita avutuMdi. dIninE ‘‘ramaNIyArtha pratipAdakaSabda: kAvyaM’’ annAru pUrvulu. I kavita chUDaMDi –

‘‘…. nIkasalu buddhuMdA?
vADu nIkEM takkuva chESADani!
kuMDala niMDA aMbalichchADu
rAteMDi gaMjala niMDA gaTakichchADu
ayinA praSnistAvA ….’’ (oka telaMgANA rachayita saMkalanaM nuMchi)

I kavitalOni vyaMgyaM chakkagA bOdhapaDutU uMdA pettaMdAru yokka vaMchanA pUritameina dAtRtvAnni pogaDutU unnaTTugAnE eMDagaDutU uMdi. dInikaMTE marikoMta takkuva vyaMgyaM unna I kavitanu chUDaMDi.

‘‘mAkE teliyani sukhamulu mIkeTTula chUpagalamu
aMduko~rake muMdu mEmu anubhaviMchi chUstunnAM’’

I kavitalOni vyaMgyaMtO bATu layabaddhata, pAdabaddhata uMDaDaM viSEshaM. pUrtigA dhvaniSakti kaligina kavita marI viSishTameinadi. dhvani aMTE kavitalO vAchyaMgA kanabaDE vishayaMkAka marEdO arthaM sphuriMchaDaM.

‘‘idi mallela vELayanI idi vennela mAsamanI,
toMdarapaDi O kOyilA muMdE kUsiMdi’’

amAyakatvaMtO tana yauvanAraMbhaMlOnE mOsapOyina oka kanne vishayaM iMdulO cheppabaDiMdani evarikeinA arthamautuMdi. kAnI I kavitalO kannepilla mATa ekkaDA lEdu. unnadi kOyila mATE. ilA cheppagalagina vAru (dEvulapalli kRshNaSrAsti) mahAkavulugA lekkiMchabaDatAru.

‘‘…. samudrAnni
ASAkiraNAlatO arthiMchi arthiMchi
bhaMga paDDa mArtAMDuDu
ukrOshaMtO prachaMDuDE ayyADu.
maMDuvEsavilO
maMDina guMDelatO
niMDina saMdraM kaDupulO
baDabAgnulu rEpADu’’ (oka kavitA saMpuTi)

udyOgapu yAchanalO anyAyAniki baleina oka yuvakuDu visigi vEsAri ukrOshaMtO samAjaMlO viplavAgnini ragilchADani bhAvaM. I kavitalO pratIkala mUlaMgA dhvani sAdhiMchabaDiMdi. sUryuDu yuvakunikI, niMDina saMdraM kaDupuniMDina samAjAnikI pratIkalu. iMdulO mArtAMDuDu, baDabAgnulu anna padAlu sArdhakameinavi.

‘‘ADadAni mIsAllAgA
asaMdarbhaMgA molichina pETalatO
gUnivADi vIpulAgA
asahyaMgA perigina pETalatO
nagaraM ninnu AhvAnistuMdi.’’

I kavitalOni upamAlaMkArAlu chAlA chamatkAraMgA unnAyi.

‘‘sarkAru davAkhAnAku pOyinODu tirigirADu’’ anaDaM kaMTE ‘‘vADu sarkAru davAkhAnAku pOyiMDE! eTlA tirigochchADabbA!’’ anaDamE chamatkAraM. ivE viSEshOktulu. ivE kavitvAniki mUla bIjAlu.

ilA elAMTi viSEshOktulu lEkuMDA ‘‘kavitalu’’ anE pErutO nAlugu vAkyAlu rAsi achchuvEsukaMTunnAru koMdaru rachayitalu. I kavita chUDaMDi. kavulapErlu cheppaDaM bAguMDadu – kavitalu mAtraM chUputAnu.

‘‘reituku kRshi phalaM dakkaDaM lEdu.
SrAmikuDiki SramaphalaM dakkaDaM lEdu
udyOgiki jItaM Dabbulu chAlaDaM lEdu.
vidyArthiki bhavishyattu kanabaDaDaM lEdu’’ (oka prasiddha rachayita)

idi oka elekshan^ prachAra karapatraM avavachchu gAnI, EkOSAnneinA kavitvamanagalamA? alAgE marO saMkalanaMlOni I kavita chUDaMDi.

‘‘nEnO vastuvuni /nA ishTaMtO panilEdu /nAmanassutO panilEdu /
nI ishTaM unnappuDu / nA ishTAnika vyatirEkaMgA / nannanubhaviMchavachchu /
nannu mAnabhaMgaM chEyavachchu / adi mAnabhaMgaMgA parigaNiMparu /
nannu rEp^ chEsinA / adi rEp^kAdu / nEraM kAdu / adi nI hakku

dInni kavita ani eTlA parigaNiMchAlO teliyaDaM lEdu. ikkaDa kavita kUDA rEp^ chEyabaDiMdi. adi rachayita hakku. nEraMkAdu. dInni paMDreMDu paMktulalO mukkalu mukkalugA rAyaDaM idi kavita ani bhramiMpajEyaDAnikE.

konnichOTla E viSEshOkti lEkapOyinA sahajOkti saitaM aMdali bhAva tIvratanu baTTi manOharaMgAnE kanabaDutuMdi. idi chAlA arudugA kanabaDutuMdi. kavi chAlA samarthuDei uMDAli.

taMDri kannIriMki pOvaga
tAnutechchina kaTnakAnuka
lirugu poruguku chUpimurisE
ADadennaDu bAgupaDunOy^.

I kavitalO mAtrAbaddhata kUDA uMDaDaM viSEshaM. ADavALLu tAmu puTTiMTi nuMchi techchina kaTna kAnukalanu irugu porugu vAriki chUpi murisi pOtuMTAru. garvapaDipOtuMTAru. kAnI kaTna kAnukalanu samakUrchaDaM kOsaM tama tallidaMDrulu paDina kashTAlanu gUrchi chiMtiMcharu anEmATa sahajaMgA cheppinA paTTishTaMgA, karuNArdraMgA cheppabaDiMdi.

SabdasaushTavaM

oka kavitaku bhAvaM eMta mukhyamO SabdasaushTavaM (hakku) kUDA aMtE mukhyaM. dAninE kALidAsu ‘‘vAgarthAviva saMpRktau vAgartha pratipattayE’’ annADu.

bhAvAnni baTTi SabdaM – aMTE padajAlaM – mArutU uMDAli. gaMbhIrameina bhAvAniki gaMbhIrameina padajAlaM, lalitameina bhAvAniki lalitameina padajAlaM uMTEnE A kavita AkaTTukuMTuMdi. bhAvAniki tagina padajAlaM lEkapOtE guDilOni pUjAriki sUTU, bUTU vEsinaTTU, pOlIsuku paMchekaTTU jubbA, kaMDuvA vEsinaTTU uMTuMdi. bhAvAniki tagina bhAsha vADAlaMTE rachayita bhAshapaina paTTu sAdhiMchAli. aMduku vistRtaMgA chadavaDamE Ekeika mArgaM. aTlA ani rachayitalaMdarU bAla vyAkaraNamU, pANInIyaM, saMskRtAMdhra paMchakAvyAlU chadavamani nEnu cheppaDaM lEdu. chadivitE mAtraM tappEmiTi? marI maMchidE kadA. prastutaM telugubhAsha anyabhAshA saMparkaMvalla chAlA vistRtameipOyiMdi. sarvavidha vyavahArAlakU paryAptamei nilichiMdi. bhAshA saushTavaM lEkuMTE kavita pElavamei pOtuMdi. I saMdarbhaMlO tennETi hEmalata gAri mATalanu gurtuchEsukOvAli –

‘‘nAku mATalochchu. mATala arthaM telusu. samayOchitaMgA vADakapOtE mATalu chachchipOtAyani nAku telusu. manaM mATalni nammukunna vALLaM. aMchEta mATalni vADukoni batakAli tappa mATalni chaMpukoni batakakUDadu’’ aMTArAme. SrISrI gAri I kavita chUDaMDi –

‘‘nippulu chimmukuMTU, niMgiki nEnegiripOtE
nibiDAScharyaMtO vIru.
netturu kakkukuMTU nElaku nE rAlipOtE
nirdAkshiNyaMgA vIrE’’

Sabda saushTavAniki iMtakaMTE miMchina chakkani udAharaNa marokaTi kanabaDadaMTE atiSayOkti kAdu. SrISrIgAri SabdAdhikAraM ananya sAmAnyaM.

saraLameina bhAvAniki saraLameina bhAsha elA uMDAlO I kavitalOchUDaMDi.

‘‘vadalanI nAjUku tanamunu
viDuvanI madi pirikitanamunu
chUDanI kanu vichchi lOkaM
ADa dappuDu bAgupaDunOy^.’’

alAgE Arudra gAri kavita –

‘‘proddunnE yedurochchE praSastameina viSvasta
balavaMtapu peLLilOni mudanashTapu peLLikUturu
mUgavAni bhAvaprakaTana pEdavAni mUDO peLLAM.’’

I kavitalO saMdarbhOchita, bhApOchita bhAsha uMDaDamE kAka, viMta viMta upamAnAlU, layabaddhatA pAdabaddhatA uMDaDaM viSEshaM.

ilAMTi bhAshA saMpada Arudra, SrISrIlAMTi tolitaraM vachana kavitA rachayitalaku abbaDAniki kAraNaM vAru prAchIna sAhityAnni kshuNNaMgA chadivina vAru kAvaDamE. I taraM vachana kavitA rachayitalaku pUrvasAhityaM paina prItI, AsaktE koravaDDAyi. rachayitalu pUrva sAhityAnni bAgA chadavAlani vachana kavitA veitALikulalO prasiddhuleina SrI kuMdurti gArE oka iMTarvyUlO ilA selavichchAru –

‘‘modaTi daSalO Adhunikuleina vAru pUrvakavitvAnni guriMchi EmI teliyakapOyinA vachana kavitvaM rAyavachchu. adi pravESArhata. Apaina pUrva saMpradAyaM paina adhikAraM sAdhistEnE gAnI goppa vachana kavitvaM rAyalEru.’’ kuMdurti gAri amUlyAbhiprAyAnni vardhamAna rachayitalu aMdarU tappaka SirasAvahiMchAli.

konni kavitalalO SabdasaushTavaM eMta daridraMgA uMTU uMdO I kavitalO chUDaMDi –

‘‘peLLAM chachchi nEnu aghOristU uMTE
nannE kaTTAlani chUstArA
nEnu I hatya chEyalEdu
du:khiMchE vADini, bAdhapaDE vADini
nannu dOshi anI, haMtakuDanI
bAdhistArA – bAdAlani chUstArA’’

dInni kavita ani elA anAlO, eMdukanAlO teliyaDaM lEdu. idi kavitA saMpuTilO mudritameipOyiMdi mari. I kavita chaduvutU uMTE sAnubhUti kalugadu sarikadA, vIDE peLLAnni chaMpi doMga EDupulu EDustU bukAyistunnADanipistuMdi. I kavitalO utkRshTameina bhAvamU lEdu E vidhameina viSEshOktI lEdu. layabaddhatA lEdu. pAda baddhatA lEdu SabdapaushTavaM aMtakannA lEdu. idi kavitaku paTTina grahaNaM anavachchu.

I bhAvAnnE ilA rAyavachchu. ‘‘bhArya chachchiMdani EDvanA, nIvu koDutunnAvani EDvanA. biDDalu dikkulEni vArayyArani EDvanA. attamAmalu niMdamOputunnArani EDvanA, bhAryachitiki kaTTelu techchukOnA, urivEsukOvaDAniki bAreDu tADu techchukOnA. EM cheyyamaMTAvu pOlIsU elA chAvamaMTAvu’’

prasannata

kavita yokka lakshaNAlalO prasannata atimukhyameinadi. rachayita cheppadalachukanna bhAvAnni eppuDeitE pAThakuDu saMpUrNaMgA – koMcheM kUDA vadalakuMDA grahiMpagalaDO, saMdigdhaM lEkuMDA, aTU iTU porlakuMDA grahiMchagalaDO appuDE A rachana sArthaka mautuMdi. A rachana yokka prayOjanaM siddhistuMdi. I lakshaNAnnE prasannata anavachchu. dIninE nannaya ‘‘prasanna kathA kalitArthayukti’’ annADu.

sudIrgha saMskRta samAsAlatO rAsina kavitanu nighaMTuvula sahAyaMtO arthaM chEsukOvachchu, kAni anvaya sAraLyaM, prasannatA lEni kavitalanu – avi eMtaTi sulabha vyAvahArika bhAshalO unnA – arthaM chEsukOvaDaM kashTaM. rachayita svayaMgA vachchi vivariMpavalasiMdE.

I madhya veluvaDina konni kavitalalO I prasannatA lakshaNaM pUrtigA lOpiMchiMdi. bhAvaM tala pagalagoTTukunnA aMtu chikkaDaM lEdu. kAraNaM EmiTi? A rachayitalu tama kavitalalO ekkuvagA vAdana pratIkalU, rUpakAlaMkArAlU utprEkshalu oka dAnikokaTi poMtana lEkuMDA gaMdaragOLAnni sRshTistunnAyi. oka kavitA saMpuTilOni I kavita chUDaMDi.

‘‘viSvamaMtranagari sarihaddula kavATAla AMtaryAlapai
viphala prahArAla vijayAnubhUtinistuMdi.’’

dIniki saMbaMdhiMchina bhAvaM rachayita hRdayaMlO EdO uMDE uMTuMdi. kAni adi pAThakuniki aMdAli kadA. pratIkalanU, rUpakOtprEkshalanu rachayita UhiMchukuMTE chAladu. pAThakuniki aMdivvAli.

I rachayitE marOchOTa rAsina kavita –

‘‘prati OTamI toligelupu
prati nirASA ASaku Upiri
prati du:khamU AnaMdAniki punAdi.’’

dInini prasannataku chakkani udAharaNagA cheppavachchu. alaMkArAlanU viSEshOktulanU prasannataku dOhadakArulugA upayOgiMchukOvaDaM kashTameinappuDu rachayita A prayatnaM mAnukoni unnadi unnaTTu varNiMchi hRdyaMgA cheppavachchu. dInnE svabhApOkti aMTAru.

‘‘pasi pApalannA, naksaleiTlannA
nAkeMtO ishTaM
pApalakA nishkApaTyaM
prapaMchaM teliyaka vachchiMdi.
annalakA svArtha rAhityaM
prapaMchaM telisi vachchiMdi’’ (oka kavitA saMpuTi)

annalanU naksaleiTlanU okachOTa kUrchObeTTaDaM rachayita chamatkAraM. I kavitalO E viSEshOktI lEdu. unnadaMtA svabhApOktiyE.I kavitalOni prasannatA, SabdAlaMkAramU chUDaMDi –

‘‘navabhAshpa dhAralO navvu kAgalavu
muLLa tIgalalOna puvvu kAgalavu
yatniMchi chUDamani aMTAnu nEnu
rALLa rAsulalOna ravva kAgalavu’’ (oka saMkalanaM)

prayatniMchi kRshichEstE pratikUlata nuMchi anukUlatanU, lEminuMchi kaliminI, du:khaM nuMchi saMtOshAnnI sAdhiMchagalavu annabhAvaM chakkagA AlaMkArikaMgA cheppabaDiMdi. prasannata debbatinalEdu. dhAraNA yOgyata unna kavita idi. ilA alaMkArAlU, pratIkalU, dhvanulU prasannataku dOhadaM kaligiMchEvigA uMDAli. bhaMgaM kaligiMchEvigA uMDarAdu.

ijAlU. vAdAlU

telugu sAhityaMlO sAmyavAdaM, daLitavAdaM, strI vAdaM, meinAriTI vAdaM, sarriyalijaM, pOsTu mADaranijaM modaleina anEka siddhAMtaparameina SAkhalu chOTuchEsukunnAyi. vITilO sAmyavAdaM, sAmrAjya vyatirEkavAdaM SrISrIkAlaM nuMchi prachAraMlO unnavE. rAjakIyAlalO mitavAdulU, ativAdulU, tIvravAdulu lAgAnE I sAmyavAda rachayitalalO kUDA abhyudaya rachayitalu, viplava rachayitalu, digaMbara kavulu bayaludErAru. vIru kEvalaM sAhitya sRshTitO saripuchchukOka saMghAlugA chEri tama siddhAMtAlanU, sAhityAnni balOpEtaM chEsukuMTunnAru. vIri sAhityaMlO sAhitya viluvala kaMTE siddhAMtAla viluvalE ekkuva. kAbaTTi I sAmyavAda sAhityAniki anukUluru, pratikUluru anE khachchitameina vibhajana jarigipOyiMdi.

padahaidu iravei saMvatsarAla kritaM buDagalu buDagalugA lEchina strI vAdaM kramaMgA balaM puMjukuMdi. modaTa strIlalOni bAnisa bhAvAlanu pAradOlaDaM, vArilO cheitanyaM kaligiMchaDaM – lakshyAlugA prAraMbhameina strIvAda kavitvaM kramaMgA purushAdhikArAnni, liMga vivakshanU, atyAchArAlanU, gRha hiMsanU niladIsi khaMDiMchaDaM varaku purOgamiMchiMdi. strIvAda rachayitrulu rachayitrulugA kaMTE strIvAda nAyakurAMDrugA ekkuva prachAramU, pEru pratishThalU poMdutunnAru.

iTIvala padahaidu saMvatsarAlugA daLitavAdamU, aidAru saMvatsarAlugA meinAriTI vAdamU bayaludErAyi. meinAriTI vAdAniki appuDE aMtargata pratikUlata bayaludEriMdi. daLitavAdaM bAgA puMjukuMdi. daLitEtarulu daLitavAda kavitalu rAstuMDagA daLitulu vArini kaTuvugA vimarSiMchi ‘‘mA vAdAnni mEmE vinipiMchukuMTAM’’ annAru. daLitavAdaM kUDA strI vAdaM lAgAnE modaTa daLitulalO nyUnatA bhAvAnni tolagiMchaDaM, cheitanyaM kaligiMchaDaMtO prAraMbhamei kramaMgA pettaMdArlanU, agravarNAlanU panigaTTukani vimarSiMchaDaM varakU veLLipOyiMdi. aMtaTitO Agaka saMpradAya kavitA rItulni kUDA vimarSiMchaDaM modalupeTTAru daLita sAhityakArulu. tirupatilOni ‘‘kOnETigaTTu mitrulu’’ anE saMghaM vAru tama rachanalalO ilA aMTAru. ‘‘mEmu chebitE bUtu, mIrU chebitE SRMgAramA? bUtu mI ‘‘gOpI pIna payOdhara mardana’’lO uMdA mA ‘‘ettu pirrala eMkI’’lO uMdA’’ sAmAjika asamAnatalanu eMta tIvraMgAneinA vimarSiMchavachchugAnI sAhityarItulni vimarSiMchaDaM ArOgyakaraM kAdu. ivi avAMChanIyaM.

ika sarriyalijaM, pOsTu mADaranijaM modaleina ijAlu AyA siddhAMtAlu telisina vArikE – pASchAtya sAhityaMtO parichayamunna vArikE – parimitamei pOyAyi. sAmAnya pAThakuniki avi korakarAni koyyalu. sAhityaMlO siddhAMtAlU, ijAlU pravESiMchaDaM valla sAhityaM Ekamukhamei stabdhameipOtuMdani koMdari abhiprAyaM.

padya kavita

AMdhrasAhitya prapaMchaMlO InADu prati saMvatsaramU konni vaMdala saMkhyalO vachana kavitA saMkalanAlU, padula saMkhyalO padya saMkalanAlU, padyakAvyAlU veluvaDutunnAyi. nirdushTameina padya rachanaku kAsta pAMDityamU, bhAshA paTima avasaraM. ivi kEvalaM kAlEjI, yUnivarsiTIla valla labhiMpadu. kAsta pratyEka, viSEsha svayaMkRshi avasaraM. ilA svayaMkRshitO pAMDityAnni saMpAdiMchi itara vRttula vAru – iMjanIrlu, lAyarlu, jaDjIlu, nyAyavAdulu, DAkTarlU, kAryAlaya udyOgulU modaleina vAru – vidyAsaMsthalalOni bhAshA paMDitula kaMTE rasavattarameina padya rachanalu chEstunnAru.

ayitE eMdukO gAnI koMdaru kathA, navalA rachayitalU, tatsaMbaMdhita vimarSakulU padyaM paina vyatirEka prachAraM chEstunnAru. padyaM chachchipOyiMdanI, padyaM rAyaDaM tirOgamana lakshaNamanI, patrikA mukhaMgAnU, sabhala lOnU nirmogamATaMgA ghOshistunnAru. inni avarOdhAlanU, inni vyatirEka paristhitulanU taTTukoni padya kavitvaM pariDhavillutUnE uMdi.

idivaraku padyakavulu pUrva saMskRtiki tAmE pratinidhuleinaTTu, pUrva saMskRti tama bhujaskaMthAlapainanE unnaTTU bhAviMchE vAru. phalitaMgA chAlAmaMdi padya kavulu tama kavitvAnni SatakAlakU, stOtra graMthAlakU, bhakti sAhityAnikI, purANa gAthala viSishTatA prachArAnikI, avadhAnAlakU parimitaM chEsukunnAru. patrikalalO prachuristunna ‘‘graMtha svIkAraM’’ SIrshikanu chUstE sagaTuna vArAnikoka SatakamO, bhakti sAhityamO veluvaDutuMDaDaM gamaniMpavachchu.

padya kavitvaM idi varaku elA unnA prastutaM padya kavitvaMlO vastu veividhyaM pushkalaMgA kanabaDutU uMdi. gata iravei saMvatsarAlalO I dhOraNi bAgA perigipOyiMdi. padyaMlO vADE bhAsha kUDA mArutU uMdi. prauDha grAMdhikaM nuMchi saraLagrAMdhikaM, vyAvahArikaM, jAnapada bhAsha – ilA padya kavitalOni bhAsha mArutU uMDaDaM gamanArhaM. dIni valla padyaM SObhistuMdO SOshistuMdO vEchi chUDAli.

bhArataM SrImannArAyaNa gAri ‘‘pAMchAli’, gADEpalli sItArAmamUrti gAri ‘‘aSvatthAma’’ modaleina paurANika kathalalOni kotta pOkaDalu, yArlagaDDa veMkaTa subbArAvu gAri ‘‘kAkatIya taraMgiNi’’. DA॥ mallela guravayya gAri ‘‘sItArAma rAjIyamu’’ modaleina chAritraka kAvyAlu, mannava bhAskara nAyuDu gAri sAmAjika itivRttaMtO kUDina ‘‘svEda sUryOdaya’’ kAvyamU, karaNaM bAla subrahmaNyaM piLLe gAri bhArata saMbaMdhameina ‘‘vishAda mAdhavi’’, sAmAjika itivRttaMtO kUDina ‘‘oka rAghavareDDi katha’’, jOsyaM vidyAsAgar^ gAru vyAvahArika bhAshalO rAsina ‘‘amma’’, goTTi mukkala subrahmaNya Sarma gAru jAnapada bhAshalO rAsina ‘‘mallI O mallI’’, bEtapOlu rAmabrahmaMgAri varNanAtmaka rachana ‘‘krotta gOdAvari’’, aTuvaMTidE ayina nIlaMrAju narasiMhArAvu gAri ‘‘nA palleTUru’’, vITi anniTi madhya duggirAla rAmArAvu gAru anuvadiMchina prauDha alaMkAra graMthaM ‘‘rasamaMjari’’ ilA anEka kavulu rAsina vastu veividhyaM kala anEka kAvyAlu I madhya kAlaMlO veluvaDi padya sAhityAnni susaMpannaM chESAyi. mottaM mIda okE mUsalO veluvaDutU uMDina padya kavita tana SRMkhalAlanu teMchukoni svaira vihAraM modalupeTTiMdani cheppavachchu. prastutaM vachana kavitA rachayitalU, vAri graMthAla saMkhya vaMdalakoladi uMdi. padyakAvyAla saMkhya takkuva. kAbaTTi padya kavula pErlu pErkonnAnu. vachana kavula pErlu pErkonalEdu.

ikkaDa oka vishayaM gamaniMchAli. vachana kavitalu sUkshmAMSAniki saMbaMdhiMchina kavitalu. ivi dIrghaMgA uMDalEvu. iMdulO kAvyAlu rAyaDAniki vIluMdA ani evarU prayatniMchalEdu. kavitA rUpaMlO oka paripUrNameina itivRttAnni cheppAlaMTE prastutAniki padyAnni ASrayiMpavalasiMdE. vachana kavita paniki rAdu.
I vishayamei vachana kavitA rachayitalu AlOchiMchAli.

I madhya padya kavitvaM kAsta taggumukhaM paTTi maLLI ippuDu puMjukuMTU uMdi. kAni pAThaSAlalO telugusthAyi ghOraMgA taggiMpabaDaDaM, kAlEjIlalO telugu mAyaM kAvaDaM, Debbei SAtaM vidyArthulu iMglIshu mIDiyaM skULLalO chaduvutU uMDaDaM modaleina anEka kAraNAla valla InATi vidyArthitaraM pedda vArayyE sariki AMdhrapradES^lO telugu padyaM E sthitiki chErukuMTuMdO UhiMchalEkuMDA unnAru. telugu padyaM rAsEvAru bottigA uMDaka pOyinA AScharyapaDavalasina avasaraM lEdu. InATi yuvatarAniki padyaM chadavaDamE chEtakAdu.

ika avadhAna padyAlU, rEDiyO, TivI samasyA pUraNa padyAlU tIsukuMTE vATilO nUTiki toMbei tommidi padyAlalO kavitva lakshaNAlu EvIkanabaDavu. kanapaDAlani kOrukOvaDaM atyASayE avutuMdi. pUrvaM tirupati vEMkaTa kavulu, gADEpalli vIra rAghavaSrAsti gArU modaleina mahAmahulu avadhAnAlalO kUDA kavitva viluvalu gala padyAlanU bhadraparachukOdagina padyAlanU cheppEvAru. ippuDu alAMTi vAru arudu.

haikUlU, nAnIlu

minI kavitala kaMTE kluptameinavI SaktimaMtameinavI ayina haikUlU, nAnIlu anE kotta prakriyalu sAhitya raMgaMlO pravESiMchAyi. ati sUkshmameina, sunnitameina bhAvAnni ati takkuva padAlatO vellaDiMchaDamE vITi pradhAna prayOjanaM. ivi venukaTi vEmana ATa veladula vale aushadha guLikalu gAnU, rasaguLikalu gAnU sAhitya samAjAniki upayOgapaDatAyi. iMdulO cheppabaDina dAnikaMTE UhiMpavalasiMdi ekkuva. I haikUlu chUDaMDi –

‘‘saptavarNAla – (5)
uDupulu mArchEstU – (7)
buDaga bujji.’’ – (5)

nITi buDagapaina sUryakiraNaM parAvartanaM cheMdi saptavarNAlugA mAraDaM. idi nITibuDaga anE bujji (chinnabiDDa) dustulu mArchukunnaTTu unnadanaDaM viSEshaM.

haikUlulO mUDu pAdAluMDAli. avi aidu, EDu, aidu aksharAlu kaligi uMDAli. guruvulU, laghuvulU, mAtralU anE beDadalEdu. idi japAn^ nuMchi digumati ayina prakriya aMTAru. ayitE haikUlu rachayitalu appuDE I nibaMdhanalanu ullaMghiMchaDaM prAraMbhiMchAru. chUDaMDi –

‘‘ravi sAnnidhyaM – (5)
puri vippana mayUri – (8)
tOkachukka’’ – (4)

‘‘nITi palaka – (5)
vRttAlu diddutU – (6)
chinuku bAluDu’’ – (6) (ivi mUDu DA॥ vi.ke.sabhApati gArivi)

nAnIlu aMTE nAvI, nIvI, manaMdarivI ani arthaM. I prakriyanu AchArya gOpIgAru prachAraMlOki techchAru. iMdulO nAlugu pAdAluMTAyi. oka pAdAniki inni aksharAlu anE niyamaM lEkuMDA mottaM iravei nuMchi 25 varaku aksharAluMDavachchu.’’ haikUlunu kAsta sAgadIstE nAnI’’ ani chebutAru. nAnIki oka udAharaNa chUDaMDi –

‘‘vIDkOleppuDU
maunamE
niSchabdaMlOki
SabdaM kruMgipOtuMdi.’’

I niyamAnni kUDA atikramiMchaDaM appuDE prAraMbhamayiMdi.

‘‘maTTi manasu / cheTTuku telusu / aMdukE / chigurunavvu’’ -(19)
oka rakaMgA chUstE ivannI vachana kavita yokka vibhinna rUpAlE.

neimittika kavitalu

kArgil^ yuddhaM, sunAmI, bhUkaMpaM, reitu Atmahatya, vidyArthini dAruNahatya, mahAnAyakuni durmaNaM, paMDugalu, iTuvaMTi saMghaTanalanU, saMdarbhAlanu nimittaM chEsukoni rAsE kavitalni neimittika kavitalu anavachchu. ivi tAtkAlika prayOjanaM kalavi. vITiki kAvya gauravaM lEdu. kAraNaM? I saMghaTanalu jarigina veMTanE – A saMghaTanala vEDi challAraka muMdE – gabagabA kavitalu rAsEstunnAru. A saMghaTananu E dRshTi kONaMlO chUDAli. tanalOni spaMdananu elAprOdichEsukOvAli. elA pOshiMchukOvAli. elAMTi padajAlaM vADAli ani rachayitalu lOtugA AlOchiMchaDaM lEdu.

kuMbhakONaM paTTaNaMlO oka pAThaSAla dagdhameipOyi dAdApu vaMdamaMdi chinnAri pillalu niluvunA kAlipOyAru. dAnni E dRshTitO chUDAli. nA dRshTi idi – oka talli udayaM tana chinnArini baDiki paMpi, oka gaMTa lOpala baDi kAlipOyiMdani telisi akkaDiki veLLi kAlipOyina tana biDDanu chUstuMdi. Ame AvEdananu Ame mATalalOnE varNistU nEnu konni taruvOja padyAlu rAsi paMpagA prakASaM jillA rachayitala saMghaM vAru tama ‘‘tharuvOja’’ padyasaMkalanaMlO prachuriMchAru. dAnini chadivina koMdaru ‘‘kaMTa taDipeTTiMchiMdi’’ ani uttarAlu rASAru. A kavitalO kanni pAdAlu –

‘‘I lEta tanuvalli iTlukAlaMga, neMta rOdiMchitO eTularachitivo
talachina hRdayammu dagdhameipOvu, deivamA I hiMsa tagadErikeina
Silayeina karugunE chenaTideivaMba, SiSuvulajaMpa nI chEtuleTlADe.
kAlina biDDala kanulArajUchi kannulu prElavE kAladE guMDe
kAladE deivaMbu kAladE bhUmi, kAlipOrE baDikaTTina vAru’’

oka sunAmI kavitalO merupullAMTi reMDu pAdAlu –

‘‘muppAvu nIkanI, pAvu mAkani cheppi
mEra mIrAveMduku O nIrarAjamA.’’

bhUgOLaMlO muppAvu bhAgaM jalaM, pAvubhAgaM bhUmi. kAni jalaM I kaTTaDini atikramiMchi bhUmini AkramiMchAlanukunnadi. alA eMduku chEstunnAvani nITini praSnistunnADu rachayita. neimittika kavitaneinA sarE rachayita chakkagA maluchukani tadanuguNameina SabdajAlaMtO rAyAli. appuDE dAniki kAvyagauravaM kAkapOyinA kanIsaM pratyEka gauravameinA labhistuMdi.

niyaMtraNa

telugu sAhitya saubhAgyaM EmiTO gAnI, kavulu vEla saMkhyalO puTTukostunnAru. vEla saMkhyalO kavitalu rAsi patrikalaku paMputunnAru. saMkalanAlugA mudristunnAru. patrikalu tama sAhityAnubaMdhAlalO prachuriMchi rachayitalanu prOtsahistunnAyi. kanni patrikalu pAritOshikAlu kUDA istunnAyi. konni saMsthalu uttama kavitalaku, kavitA saMkalanAlakU avArDulu prakaTistunnAyi. kavitA kEdArAllO digubaDi ibbaDi mubbaDigA perigipOtU uMdi.

kAnI I kavitalalO ‘‘poTTu’’ eMta? ‘‘gaTTi’’ eMta?

I kavitalanu guriMchO, kavulanu guriMchO oka apahAsyapu ‘jOk^’ vinavastU uMdi. ‘‘ULLO karphyU uMdA’’. ‘‘lEdu chaurastAlO kavi sammELanaM jarugutU uMdi’’. ‘‘adigO kavi vastunnADu. A saMduguMDA veLLipOdAM pada’’.

kavitaleinA, kavuleinA I vidhameina apahAsyAniki gurikAvaDAniki kAraNaM EmiTi? kavitalalO prajalanu alariMpajEsEvi takkuvei pOtunnAyi. chedaragoTTEvi ekkuvei pOtunnAyi. mari kavitala sthAyini chakkabeTTAlaMTE EmichEyAli.

kavulaku, kavitalaku oka niyaMtraNa uMDAli. kavitalaku diSAnirdESaM, mArganirdESaM chEsEMduku, kavitala niggu tElEMdukU oka vyavastha uMDAli. pUrvaM kAvyAlannI paMDita sabhalalO charchiMpabaDi niggu tElchabaDEvani chebutAru.

padya kavitaku prAchIna lakshaNa graMthAlU, alaMkAra graMthAlu eppaTi nuMchO mArganirdESaM chEstunnAyi. vATini prastuta kAlAniki taginaTTu savariMchukuMTE chAlu.

kathA, navalA sAhityAlaku rAshTra vyAptaMgA sadassulu, seminArlU, vark^shApulU nirvahiMpabaDutunnAyi. pratyEkaMgA kathAnavalA vimarSakulaMTU koMdaru sAhitI mEdhAvivargaM bayaludEri kathA navalA sAhityAniki mArganirdESaM chEstunnAru.

haikUlaku iMDiyan^ haikU klab^ anE saMstha ErpaDi haikU rachanalanu paryavEkshistU uMdi.

eTochchI vachana kavitalaku E dikkUlEkuMDA pOyiMdi. I raMgaMlO prAmANikuleina vimarSakulu lEru, prAmANika graMthAlu lEvu, kavi sammELanAlu tappa seminArlU, sadassulU vark^shApulU nirvahiMpabaDaDaM lEdu.

saMvatsarAnikokasAri rAshTrasthAyi seminArlu reMDu mUDu rOjula pATeinA jaragAli. A saMvatsaraM veluvaDina kavitA saMkalanAlapai nirmogamATaMgA charcha jaragAli. jillA sthAyilO kUDA ilAMTi charchalu jaragAli. rachayitalu techchina kavitalapai parasparaM charchiMchukOvAli. I charchalu yuva rachayitalanu prOtsAhiMchAligAni nirutsAhaparachi moggalOnE tuMchivEyarAdu. vachana kavitalaku oka diSA nirdESaM lEkapOtE kavitalu aDavi cheTlalAgA chIkiri bAkirigA vaMkara TiMkaragA, bhayaMkaraMgA tayArautAyi. kavitA prapaMchaM naMdanavanaMlA uMDAli kAnI daMDakAraNyaMlAgA uMDarAdu.

svAtaMtyraMlO kramaSikshaNA, saMyamanaM eMta mukhyamO sAhityaMlO kUDA niyaMtratA, saMyamanaM aMtE mukhyaM.

chivaragA – rachayitalu

gamaniMpavalasina mukhyAMSAlanu marOsAri parAmarSiddAM. rachayitalu viSvaSrEyassu kOsaM rAsinA, rasAtmakaMgA rAsinA, AtmAnaMdaM kOsaM rAsinA avi chivaraku chEravalasiMdi pAThakula vaddakE anna vishayaM maruvarAdu. kAbaTTi rachanalu pAThakulanu AkaTTukonElA, prasannaMgA, uttEjakaraMgA uMDAli. chadiviMchElA uMDAli. j~nApakaM peTTukuMdAmA anipiMchAli. j~nApakaM peTTukOvaDAniki vIlugA uMDAli. tama kavitalu alA unnAyO lEpO ani rachayita tana rachanalanu rasaj~nuleina sahRdayula samakshaMlO charchiMchukOvAli.

rachanalO vastuveividhyaM uMDAli. SrIrAmuni charitra nuMchi aggipullA kukkapillA, sabbu biLLA varakU annI kavitA vastuvulE. kavi vATini chUchE dRshTikONAnni baTTi kavita yokka viSishTata ErpaDutuMdi. kavi tana bhAvukata chEta, pratibhA vyutpattula chEta elAMTi itivRttAnneinA manOharaMgA tIrchididdagalagAli.

pratibhAvyutpattula kOsaM rachayitalu vistRtaMgA chadavAli.

chiTTa chivaragA cheppinA moTTamodaTagA telusukOvalasina vishayaM. kavilO cheitanyajvAla uMDAli. samAjaM kOsaM EdO rAyAlanna tapana uMDAli. vAlmIki lOkAniki AdarSaMgA oka mahApurushuDi charitra rAyAlani tapiMchE samayaMlO nAraduDu ataDiki rAma kathanu kluptaMgA cheppi ‘‘ika rAyi’’ annADu. vyAsuDu lOkAniki EdO aMdiMchAlanE tapanatO ‘‘Atma saMtasamaMdadAtmalO nISuMDu saMtasiMpaka yunna jADadOche’’ ani chiMtistU uMDagA maLLI nAraduDE vachchi bhAgavataM rAyamannADu. alA rAsEdE kavita. kavita kavi hRdayaMlO bAgA rUpudiddukani pUrtigA edigina taruvAtanE akshara rUpaMdAlchAli. toMdarapaDi rAsEdi kavitakAdu. yathAlApaMgA rAsEdi kavita kAdu.

kEvalaM kutUhalaMkoddI, kaMDUtikoddI rAsEdI kavita kAdu.

aMdukE ‘‘kAvyAlA pAMSchavarjayEt^’’ annAru.

aMTE prayatna pUrvakaMgA kAvyanirmANaM chEyAligAnI yathAlApaMgA, ubusupOkaku, vadarubOtutanaMgA kavitalu rAyakUDadu ani bhAvaM.

‘‘gaganamaMta bhAvaM padamavvAli
gAli pOguchEsi kavita kaTAlTanukOnu’’ – si.nA.re.

aMTADu j~nAna pIThAnni adhishThiMchina – mahAkavi si.nArAyaNareDDi.

‘‘EdIlEni pATa narakAniki bATa’’ aMTADu nUtalapATi gaMgAdharaM.

vIrilAgAnE prati rachayitA tana kavitaku muMdugAnE diSAnirdESaM chEsukOvAli.

‘‘nA kavitva madharmAya, mRtayE, daMDanAyacha
ku kavitvaM punassAkshAt^, mRti mAhurmanIshiNa:’’

kavitvaM cheppakapOtE koMpalaMTuku pOvu, yugadharmAlu cheDipOvu, prANAlupOvu, evarU vachchi daMDiMchadu. kAni cheDDa kavitvaM chebitE maTTuku chachchinaTTE annAru pUrvulu.

kAbaTTi SramapaDi, bAgA chaduvukoni, bAgA AlOchiMchi, SraddAbhaktulatO maMchi kavitvaM rAyAli. alA chEtakAnappuDu – mari – mari – UrukOvaDaM mElu – aMTE autsAhika rachayitalanu nirutsAha parachinaTTavutuMdEmO – kanuka – alA ananu. elAgeinA prayatniMchamaMTAnu. *