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chAritraka navala: kollAyi gaTTitE nEmi?

kollAyi gaTTitE nEmi? (oka uttama chAritraka navala)

1919-20 nATi Ardhika, sAMghIka, rAjakIya paristhitulanu chitriMchE prayatnaMlO SrI mahIdhara rAmamOhana rAvu gAru rachiMchina navala “kollAyi gaTTitEnEmi?” paMjAb^lO raulaT chaTTaM aMtakumuMdE amallOki vachchiMdi. jaliyan vAlAbAg hatyAkAMDa appuDappuDE jarigiMdi. briTish vyatirEkata pai vargAllOnE ayinA dAvAnalaMlA vyApistunnadi; jAtIyatAbhAvaM grAmasImallOkI, sAmAnya janaMlOki pravESistunnadi. dIniki chihnaMgA kAMgresu mIda gAMdhI AdhipatyaM balapaDutunnadi. aMtavarakU vidhyAdhikula saMsthagA vuMDina kAMgres sAmAnya prajala rAjakIya saMsthagA rUpAMtaraM cheMdutunnadi. briTish prabhutvaMpaTla sahAya nirAkaraNakU, vidESI vastu bahishkaraNakU gAMdhI nAyakatvAna kAMgresu pilupu yichchiMdi. sahAya nirAkaraNalO bhAgaMgA vidyArdhulu kAlEjIlu vadilipeTTi jAtIyOdyamaMlO pAlgoMTunnAru. vidESavastu bahishkaraNalO bhAgaMgA vidESa vastradahanaM AvESapUritamaina udyamarUpaM dhariMchiMdi. khaddaru dhAraNa dESabhakti chihnaMgA, nUlu vaDakaDaM pavitra dIkshA chihnaMgA, jailuku pOvaDaM rAjakIya vIrakRtyaMgA chalAmaNilOki vachchinAyi. ivi 1920 nATi rAjakIya paristhitulu. vidESavastu bahishkaraNa, khaddaru dhAraNa, rAjakIya pradarSanalu mAtramE. vATiki rAjakIya nAyakulE peddagA Arthika prAmukhyaM ApAdiMchalEdu. vATi Arthika prAmukhyaM guriMchi epuDainA E rAjakIya nAyakuDainA mATlADitE adi kEvalaM mEdhAvi vargAlalO – rAjakIyaMgA briTish prabhutvaMtO rAjIpaDi, jAtIyOdyamaM paTla viSvAsaMlEni mEdhAvi vargAlalO – dESabhakti, kAMgres naDipE jAtIyOdyamaM paTla viSvAsamU kaligiMchaDAniki chEsE prayatnaM mAtramE.

ArdhikaMgA chUstE AMdhradESaM purANakAlaM nuMDi vunnaTlE vyavasAyaM mIda pradhAnaMgA AdhArapaDi batikEdi. nAmamAtraMgA migilina chEti vRttulu tappa pariSramalu lEnE lEvu. kRshNA gOdAvarula mIda gataSatAbdilO kaTTina AnakaTTala phalitaMgA madhya kOstA jillAlalO karuvu kATakAlu mAyamainAyi. grAmasImallOni vyavasAyaka samAjaM nuMDi madhyataragati vargaM udbhaviMchaDAniki, pASchAtya vidyavaipU, pASchAtya bhAvAlavaipU AkarshiMpabaDaTAniki avakASAlu ErpaDinAyi. pASchAtya vidyaku prabhutva naukari tappa paramalakshyaM marokaTi uMDE avakASaM lEdu.

sAMghika paristhitulu tadanuguNaMgAnE uMDinAyi. varNadharmAlu grAmasImallO chekku chedarakuMDA sAgutunnAyi. vidyAdhikullO E koddimaMdikO vATilO viSvAsaM sannagillinA vALLaku AchArabalAnni dhikkariMchE sAhasaM lEdu. tegiMchina vALLu, hiMdU samAjAnni mArchalEka brahmasamAjIkulautunnAru. brahmasamAja udyama phalitaMgA vitaMtu vivAhAlU, varNAMtara vivAhAlU ekkaDainA okachOTa jarugutunnAyi. pASchAtya bhAvAla prabhAvaM valla sAMghika AchArAlu mArakapOyinA vATimIda viSvAsaM saDalutunnadi.

1919-20 nATi rAjakIya Ardhika sAMghIka paristhitulu ivi. A rOjullO rAjamaMDri kAlEjIlO biyyE chaduvukuMTunna oka brAhmaNa yuvakuDu svAtaMtryOdyamaM chEta prabhAvituDai tana millu baTTalananniTinI kAlchivEsi chaduvu mAnukuni svagrAmamaina muMgaMDaku vastADu. dArilO svarAjyaM anE nAyuLLa ammAyitO parichayamautuMdi. svarAjyaM taMDri abbAyinAyuDu brahmasamAjIkuDu. strI vidyAbhimAnaMtO kUturuku iMglIshu chaduvu cheppiMchinADu. ADapillaku chaduvEmiTani Ame attavAru tIvraMgA abhyaMtaraM cheppinA vinalEdu. A kAraNaMgA svarAjyaM bharta maLLI peLLichEsukunnADu. svarAjyAnni kApurAniki paMpistAmannA, chaduvukunna ADapillaku tama iMTlO uMDE arhata lEdannAru attavAru. yiravai yEMDla misimi vayassulO vunna svarAjyaM vidhavO, sadhavO, vivAhitO, avivAhitO, yEdaiMdI teliyani viMta paristhitilO vuMdi. chEsEdEmI lEka kAlEjI chaduvuku pOvAlanukuMTunna svarAjyaM AlOchananu dESabhakti prEraNatO kAlEjI chaduvu mAnukonna rAmanAthaM harshiMchalEkapOyinA, Ame Adhunika dRkpathAnikI, manassaMkOchAlu lEni nirmala hArdika pravartanakU manasulO harshiMchakuMDA vuMDalEkapOyinADu.

rAmanAthaMku nAlugEMDla kritamE vivAhamaiMdi, mAma nArAyaNamUrti pOlIsu sarkil ins^pekTar. AchAraparuDu, rAjabhakti parAyaNuDu, durahaMkAri, adhikAragarvi. rAjadrOhaM chEsina alluni mIda dvEshaMtO kUturu bhavishyattunu kUDA lekkachEyani vaTTi pOlIsu buddi. atani durusutanaMtO tudaku kUturu kApuraM cheDaka tappalEdu. rAmanAthaM peMpuDu taMDri SaMkaraSAstri naishThikuDukAdu gAnI, AchAra bhaMgaM sahiMchalEDu. pAta samAjaMlO maMchi phalitAlanichchina atani laukyamU, buddhi chAturyamU rAmanAthaM veMTa vachchina kotta sAmAjika niyamAla dhATiki nivverapOvaDaM tappa ediriMchi niluvalEvu. peMpuDu koDukuni ai.si.yas. AphIsarugA chUDAlani kalalu gaMTunna SaMkaraSAstriki rAmanAthaM rAjadrOhi kAvaDamU, jailuku pOvaDamU du@hkhakAraNAlainAyi. kAnI aMtakaMTE bAdhAkaramainadi rAmanAthaM sakala sanAtana kulamata dharmAlanU nirAkariMchi, saMpradAyaka AchArAlanU, kuTuMba vyavasthanU dhikkariMchi pAta vaivAhika niyamAlanu kUDA tiraskariMchi, mottaM samAjAnikE veligA batakaDAniki pUnukOvaDaM.

rAmanAthAniki yiTu taMDri mAmalatO gAnI, aTu mottaM samAjaMtO gAnI vachchina gharshaNaku mUlakAraNaM okaTE. Adhunika vidyatO rAmanAthaMku abbina Adhunika bUrjuvA sAMghika rAjakIya bhAvAlakU, atanu puTTi perigina pAta phyUDal samAjapu sAMghika rAjakIya bhAvAlakU pottu kudarakapOvaDamE. kEvalaM sAMghika bhAvAla gharshaNE aitE, yEdO oka vidhamaina sahajIvanamO, paraspara sahajIvanamO sAdhyamai vuMDavachchu. kAnI gharshaNa rAjakIya raMgaMlO prAraMbhamainaMduna, AnATi chAritraka paristhitulalO sAMghika bhAvAlaku lEni takshaNa prAmukhyaM rAjakIya bhAvAlaku vuMDinaMduna, rAmanAthaM mana@h prapaMchaMlO sAMghika bhAvAlaku lEni tIvrata rAjakIya bhAvAlaku vuMDinaMduna, A gharshaNa – rAmanAthAniki samAjaMtOnU, baMdhuvulatOnU vachchina gharshaNa – kramakramaMgA tIvrataramU, bahumukhamU kAka tappalEdu.

alluDu rAjadrOhi ainaMdukE maMDipaDutunna rAmanAthaM attamAmalu atanu jailuku pOyi vachchinatarvAta prAyaSchittaM chEsukOnaMduku pratikriyagA atanitO bAMdhavya baMdhAlannI teMchukuni, atani bhAryani kApurAniki paMpaDAniki nirAkaristAru. phyUDal pitRsvAmika kuTuMbaMlO, ChAMdasa AchAra parAyaNa vAtAvaraNaMlO, pOlIsu adhikAri mAnavatAdhvaMsaka kramaSikshaNa kiMda perigina suMdari (rAmanAthaM bhArya) bhartanu vishapurugulAga chUstuMdi. prAyaSchittaM chEsukODAniki nirAkariMchina rAmanAthaM peMpuDu talidaMDrula nuMchi viDivaDi, baMdhuvulanuMDI, mottaM brAhmaNyaM nuMDI viDivaDi tOTalOni pAkalO oMTarigA makAM peDatADu. kramakramaMgA svarAjyaMlOni bhAvasvAmyaM chEtA, ArdrahRdayaM chEtA, saMkalpa balaM chEtA AkarshituDai Amenu jIvita sahachAriNigA, jIvita bhAgasvAminigA svIkaristADu.

I vyakti jIvita kathA (#Biographical)# ghaTanala madhya rAmanAthaM rAjakIya jIvitaM kUDA pariNAmaM cheMdutuMdi. vidESI vastra dahanaM chEsi, kAlEjI chaduvu mAnukOvaDaMtO rAjakIyAlu prAraMbhiMchina rAmanAthaM tana tOTa lOni bAvi nITini tODukODAniki grAmaMlOni harijanulaku anumati yistADu. dIniki kASInAthuni nAgESvararAvu vachchi prAraMbhOtsavaM chEstADu. 1921 mArchi 31, Epril 1va tEdIllO bejavADalO jarigina akhila bhArata kAMgres kamiTI samAvESAniki rAmanAthamU, svarAjyamU valaMTIrlugA pOtAru. A veMTanE jarigina gAMdhI AMdhradESa paryaTana saMdarbhaMlO gAMdhIni muMgaMDaku AhvAnistAru. gAMdhIjIki yivvabOyE svAgata satkArAla koraku chEsE sannAhAlaku grAma brAhmaNulu yichchE hRdayapUrvaka sahakAraMtO navala aMtamautuMdi.

I kathAkramaMlO 1920 nATi AMdhradESa chAritraka paristhitulu vipulaMgA, gADhaMgA, kannulaku kaTTinaTlu chitritamainAyi. rachayita dInni kEvalaM sAMghika navalagA kAka, chAritraka navalagA uddESiMchinaTlu spashTaMgA telustunnadi. chAritraka navalakuMDavalasina mukhyalakshaNAlannI yI navalakunnAyi.

chAritraka navalakuMDavalasina modaTi lakshaNaM chAritrakata. sAdhAraNaMgA sAMghika navalalannI samakAlika samAjAnni vAstavikaMgAnE chitristAyi. kAnI sAmAjika paristhitulu yeMta vAstavikaMgA, yeMta vipulaMgA, yeMta kaLAtmakaMgA chitriMchinA, A dESakAla paristhitulu alA yeMdukunnAyanE praSna eppuDU utpannaMkAdu (praSnE lEdu ganaka samAdhAnamU lEdu). yathArtha jIvitaM lOni dESakAla paristhitulanu yelA vunna vATini alA chitriMchaDamE sAmAjika navala kartavyaM. A paristhitula pUrvAparAla pariSIlana kAnI, kAryAkAraNAla pariSIlana kAnI dAniki anavasaraM. kAnI, chAritraka navalalO dESakAla paristhitulaku chAritrakata vuMTuMdi. anagA, A dESaM yokka gata charitra phalitaMgA AnATi samAjaM alA vuMdanI, A dESapu chAritraka pariNAmakramaMlO adi oka daSA viSEshamanI pAThakuniki oka spRha (#Consciousness)# kalugutuMdi. navalalOni dESa kAla paristhitulu oka chAritraka daSA viSEshaM ganuka, avi SASvataMgA vuMDavanI, kAlakramAna mArutAyanI kUDA pAThakuniki spRha kalugutuMdi. I spRha yelA kalugutuMdaMTE bhUtakAla SaktulakU, vartamAna kAla SaktulakU jarigE gharshaNa kIlakapAtra vahiMchaDaM dvArA.

chAritraka navalalOni maroka viSEshaM dESakAla nirdishTata. sAmAjika navalalOni dESakAla paristhitulu chitraMlO pUrvaraMgaM (#Background)# lAgE vuMTAyi. kAnI, vATiki aMtaku miMchina prAmukhyaM vuMDadu. dESakAla paristhitulu mArchinA kathaku tIrani nashTaM EmI jaragadu. A katha A dESaM lOnE, A kAlaM lOnE jaragAlanna nirbhaMdhaM EmI lEdu. beMgAlI navalalOni katha (apradhAnamaina konni vivarAlu mArchi vEstE) telugudESaMlO jaragavachchu. telugu navalalOni katha mahArAshTra dESaMlO jaragavachchu. iMglaMDu navalalOni katha phrAnsulO jaragavachchu; phreMchi navalalOni katha yUrap^lO marekkaDainA jaragavachchu. lEdA amerikAlO jaragavachchu. Dikens, DAsTOyevaskIla navalala vaMTi yUrOpiyan navalalu bhAratadESaMlO yekkaDainA jaragavachchu. yidi elA sAdhyamaMTE A pAtralU, A sannivESAlU sAmAjika paristhitula nuMDi udbhaviMchinavE ayinA, A sAmAjika paristhitulu A dESaM, A kAlaM yokka viSishTa paristhitulu kAvu. udAharaNaku yInADu bhAratadESaMlOni anni prAMtAlakU sAmAnyamaina sAmAjika paristhitulu anEkaM vunnAyi. nijAnikavi chAlA mukhyamainavi kUDA; yuga dharmAnni pradhAnaMgA nirNayiMchEvi avE. aMduvalana sAmAjika navalAkAruni dRshTilO avi prAmukhyaM vahiMchavachchu. kAnI chAritraka navalAkAruDu telugu vADayitE telugudESaMlOni viSishTa paristhitulaku prAmukhyaM yistADu. mahArAshTruDayitE mahArAshTra viSishTa paristhitulaku prAmukhyaM yistADu. A dESakAla viSishTa paristhitulalO tappa A katha alA jaragadani anipistuMdi chAritraka navala. yidi elA sAdhyamaMTE, yiTu navalalOni pAtralakU, sannivESAlakU, aTu dESakAla viSishTa paristhitulakU kAryakAraNa saMbaMdhaM vuMTuMdi. pAtrala manOdharmAlU, jIvita paddatulU, pravartanA rItulU, vyaktAvyakta ASayAlU, aTlE sannivESAla pUrvA parAlU dESakAla viSishTa paristhitula chEta nirNayiMpabaDatAyi.

chAritraka navalalOni maroka mukhya lakshaNaM pAtralanu AnATi chAritraka SaktulakU, sAmAjika dharmAlakU pratinidhulugA chitriMchi, vATi madhya jarigE gharshaNanu pAtrala madhya jarigE gharshaNagA chitriMchaDaM. pAtrala madhya jarigE gharshaNa kEvala vaiyaktika svArthAlavallanO, kEvala vaiyaktika kAraNAla vallanO jaragadu. A pAtralu bhinna chAritraka Saktulaku pratinidhulainaMduna gharshaNa tappanisari avutuMdi. samAjaMlO nityaM gharshaNapaDE dharmAlakU, chAritraka SaktulakU, jIvita vidhAnAlakU pAtralu prAtinidhyaM vahiMchaDamaMTE A pAtralu yOchiMchi, charchiMchi, lAbhanashTAlu bErIju vEsukuni oka pakshaM vahiMchaDaM kAdu. A pAtrala jIvita paddhatulU, manOdharmAlU, avyaktakAMkshalU annI kalisi AyA pAtralu AyA pakshaM vahiMchETaTTu (gatyaMtaraM lEdani anipiMchE vidhaMgA) nirNayistAyi.

chAritraka navalalO chAritraka paristhitulakU, chAritraka vAtAvaraNAnikI prAmukhyaM vuMTuMdi. kAnI aMtamAtrAna rAjakIya charchalakU, upanyAsAlakU, tIrmAnAlakU prAmukhyaM vuMTuMdanukOvaDaM porapATu. tArIkhulakU, dastAvEjulakU charitra adhyayanaMlO viluva vuMDavachchu gAnI, chAritraka navalalO vuMDadu. yeMdukaMTE chAritraka navala chAritrakaMgA vuMTUnE navalA lakshaNAlanu aNumAtraM kUDa kOlpOkUDadu. kanuka chAritraka navalalO chAritraka pariNAmakramaMlOni vividha ghaTanala vipula chitrIkaraNakU, A ghaTanala pUrvAparAla vistRta pariSIlanakU tAvuMDadu. chAritraka pariNAmaMlOni sArabhUtamaina (#Essential)# konni ghaTanalaku mAtramE tAvuMTuMdi. anagA chAritraka pariNAma kramAniki kluptIkaraNA (#Condensation)# sAMdrIkaraNA (#concentration)# jarugutAyi. tatphalitaMgA charitra nATakIkRtaM avutuMdi. aMtEgAka, sArabhUtamaina A mukhya ghaTanala chitraNa kUDA (ghaTanala Ardhika sAMghika rAjakIya phalitAlU kAraNAlU aMTU) Sushka SAstracharchaku digakuMDA, A ghaTanalu vyaktula jIvitAlanu E vidhaMgA mArchivEsiMdI, vyaktula hRdayAlanu yE vidhaMgA kalachi vEsiMdI kaLAtmakaMgA pradarSistuMdi. kaLAtmakaMgA aMTE vyaktula kashTasukhAlakU, rAgadvEshAlakU, hRdayagatamaina anubhUtulakU prAmukhyaM yivvaDaM. appuDE nATakIkaraNa paripUrNamU avutuMdi. sAphalyamU poMdutuMdi, appuDE AnATi samAjamU, AnATi prajAjIvitamU raktamAMsapushTaMgA mana kaMDlamuMdu pratyakshamautAyi. appuDE adi sAhityamautuMdi. vyaktula hRdayAnubhUtulatO nimittaM lEkuMDA kEvala chAritraka pari~m~nAnamE chAlunanukuMTE, dAniki charitra graMthAlu vunnAyi; chAritraka navalalu rAyaDaM anavasaraM. A chAritraka daSalOni prajAjIvitaMtO pAThakuDu tAdAtmyaM poMdagaliginappuDE chAritraka navala sArthakamautuMdi.

chAritraka navalaku atimukhya lakshaNaM marokaTi vuMdi. navalalO chitritamaina charitra tana gatacharitrE ani pAThakuniki anubhUti kAvAli. gatacharitrakU vartamAnacharitrakUgala kAryAkAraNa saMbaMdhaM pAThakuni bOdhapaDAli. AnATi charitra alA vunnaMduvallanE yInATi charitra ilA vuMdanE spRha pAThakuniki kalagAli. navalalO sAhitya lakshaNAlu yenni vunnappaTikI, chAritraka vAstavikata yeMta vunnappaTikI yI aMSaM koravaDitE, adi uttama chAritraka navala kAlEdu. yeMdukaMTE vartamAnAniki kAraNaM kAjAlanidi gatacharitra kAlEdu. vartamAnAnni subOdhakaM chEyajAlani gatAnni manaM smariMpavalasina avasaramU lEdu.

rAmamOhanarAvugAru rachiMchina I navalalO pai lakshaNAlannI yEvidhaMgA sAphalyaM poMdiMdI vivariMchaDaM I vyAsaMlO sAdhyaMkAdu kAnI, 1920 nATi rAjakIya paristhitulU, sAmAjika paristhitulU pAtralanu tIrchaDaMlOnU, sannivESAlanu kUrchaDaMlOnU, nirNAyaka pAtra vahistAyi. rAjakIya paristhitulalO AMdhradESa pratyEkata anadagiMdi yekkuvagA lEni mATa nijamE. yekkuva pratyEkata vuMDaDAniki avakASaMlEdu kUDA. briTish AdhipatyaM kiMda bhAratadESamaMtA rAjakIya EkIkaraNa poMdina tarvAta rAshTrAlaku rAjakIya pratyEkata yEmI migalalEdu. rAjakIya EkIkaraNa yErpaDiMdi ganukanE rAjakIya svAtaMtryaM koraku jarigina mana jAtIyOdyamaM AvirbhaviMchaDAnikI, vistariMchaDAnikI, tudaku vijayaM poMdaDAnikI vIlu kaligiMdi. ainappaTikI 1920nATi rAjakIya vAtAvaraNaMlO konni aMSAlu gamanArhaM. beMgAl lOnU, paMjAb lOnU AnADu TerrarisTu udyamaM balaMgA uMDiMdi. AMdhradESa rAjakIyAllO adi yepuDU pravESiMchanE lEdu. mahArAshTra lOnu, yitara uttara bhArata prAMtAlalOnU jAtIyOdyamaMlO hiMdU matAbhimAnamU, sanAtana dharma punaruddharaNa vAda prAbalyamU penavEsukoni vuMDinAyi. AMdhra rAjakIyAllO vATikeppuDU sthAnamE lEdu.

matAbhimAnamU, sanAtana dharmamU, briTish vALLa tAbEdArlugA vyavahariMchinAyE gAnI dESabhaktuleppuDU vATini AdariMpalEdu. kAMgresu maMtrulakU, svataMtra pArTI nAyakulakU tirupati dEvuDu ilavElupainADu gAnI, AnATi jAtIya nAyakulu tama udyama phalasiddhiki tirupati dEvuni keppuDU muDupulu kaTTukOlEdu. nijAniki telugu jAti jIvitaMlO jAtIyOdyamaM kaMTE muMdE saMgha saMskaraNA, tadanubaMdhaMgA mata saMskaraNA udyama rUpaMlO pravESiMchinAyi. anagA 1920nATiki telugudESaMlO phyUDal viSvAsAlamIda tirugubATU, bUrjuvA manastatva vikAsamU bahumukhAlugA prAraMbhamai vuMDiMdi; idi AnATi AMdhradESa pratyEkata anukOvachchu. yI pratyEka lakshaNaM navalalOni vAtAvaraNaMlO prasphuTaMgA vuMDaTamE gAka, ghaTanAkramaMlO nirNAyaka pAtra vahistunnadi.

kathAnAyakuDaina rAmanAthaM rAjakIya kAraNAlavalla kAlEjI chaduvu mAnukOvaDaMtO atani jIvitaM malupu tiriginappaTiki, atani tadanaMtara jIvitamaMtA sAMghika durAchArAla mIda pOrATamE. A pOrATaMlO vachchina agniparIkshalE atani jIvita sarvasvAnni nirNayiMchi, atanni oka manishigA oka vIrunigA tIrchididdutAyi. nijAniki kAlEjI chaduvu mAnETappaTikE ataniki phyUDal sAmAjika dharmAla mIda viSvAsaM naSiMchiMdi. appaTikE atanilO jAgRtamaina bUrjuvA manOdharmamE atanni rAjakIya raMgaMlOki AkarshiMchiMdani kUDA cheppavachchu.

phyUDal, bUrjuvA dharmAlaku jarigina chAritraka gharshaNE yitivRttaMgA gala yI navalalO bUrjuvA dharmAniki rAmanAthaM pratinidhi. brAhmaNa grAmamaina muMgaMDanu kathAsthalaM gAnU brAhmaNa yuvakuDaina rAmanAthAnAnni kathAnAyakuDu gAnU rachayita svIkariMchinADu. telugudESaM lOni vElAdi grAmAlaku oka brAhmaNa grAmaM pratinidhi kAjAladanI, telugudESaM lOni lakshalAdi yuvakulaku oka brAhmaNa yuvakuDu pratinidhi kAjAlaDanI anipiMchavachchu. kAnI, phyUDal dharmAlakU bUrjuvA dharmAlakU jarigina gharshaNanu chitriMchETappuDu phyUDal vyavasthanu atyaMta ghanIbhUtarUpaMlO chitristE tappa A gharshaNa yekka tIvrata, vyagrata vyaktaM kAvu.

phyUDal AchArAlu, AlOchanalu, viSvAsAlu eMta kaThOraMgA, yeMta amAnushaMgA, yeMta mUrkhaMgA vuMDagalavO chUDAlaMTE brAhmaNa grAmAllOnU, brAhmaNa kuTuMbAlalOnU mAtramE chUDagalaM; jailunuMchi vachchina rAmanAthAnni, jaillO kulabhrashTuDainADanna kAraNaM chEta atani talidaMDrulE yiMTlOki rAnivvaru. atanu muTTukunna biMde mailapaDiMdani kaMsAli kAmayya, atanu muTTukuMTE chEda mailapaDutuMdani paDava saraMgU viSvasistAru. SivarAmayya tallidi marI viparItamaina AchAraM. vIdhilOnuMDi yiMTlOki yevaru vachchinA vAkiTlO nilabaDi cheMbeDu pEDanILLu kALLamIda challukuni rAvalasiMdE; lEkapOtE yillaMtA mailapaDutuMdani Ame bhayaM. ika mUDukALla musalamma, narasamma, AchAra parAyaNatvaM mUrkhatvAniki parAkAshTa. AchArAlu puNyapApAlakU, paralOka gatulakU mUlamanI sanAtanulaMdarU viSvasistAru. kAnI, Ame “EmO evaru chUDochchAru? paralOkaM aMTU vuMdO lEdO! dAnini nammukuni ikkaDa anAchArapu bratuku gaDapa maMTAvA?” aMTuMdi. Ameku AchAraM anEdi paralOkaM kaMTE kUDA viluvainadi, viSvasanIyamainadI. paralOka gatulu kAkapOtE ika AchArAniki prayOjanamEmiTani aDigitE bahuSA Ame samAdhAnaM cheppalEka pOvachchu, cheppagaligitE (#virtue is its own reward)# anna dhOraNilO vuMTuMdi. AchAraM maMchidi, ganuka AcharistunnAM, dAniki prayOjanameMduku ?” aMTuMdi. AchAraM Ame raktaMlO jIrNiMchipOyina alavATu. alavATlaku bAnisalaina vALLu vATi prayOjanAlanu guriMchi AlOchiMcharu. A alavATlu chinnappuDE Uha teliyakamuMdE yErpaDitE, ika AlOchiMchE Sakti vuMDadu vALLa medaDuku. AchAraM guriMchi Ame AlOchiMchadu; AlOchiMchalEdu. yevarnI AlOchiMchanivvadu.

phyUDal vyavasthalOni prathamasUtraM adE. AlOchiMchakuMDA AchArAlakU, adhikArAlakU tala voggaDamE daivabhakti. rAjabhakti, patibhakti, pitRbhakti, mataM, chAturvarNyaM, samAjaMlO prakRti siddamaina aMtasthulu, daivadattamaina tara tama bhEdAlu – yEdO oka pErutO manushulanu AlOchiMchanIyakuMDA aNakuvA, vidhEyatA, A~m~nApAlanA, bAnisabuddhi modalaina sadguNAlanu uggupAlatO nErpEdE phyUDal vyavastha. I vyavastha yokka paramamaina (#absolute)# rUpaM chUDAlaMTE brAhmaNa agrahArAllOnE sAdhyamautuMdi. phyUDal bUrjuvA vyavasthalanu vATi paramamaina rUpAlalO chitriMchinappuDE vATi paraspara saMgharshaNa yeMta bhayaMkaraMgA, yeMta bhIbhatsajanakaMgA vuMDEdI vyaktamautuMdi. A saMgharshaNalO chikkukunna vyaktulaku adi yeMta marmavidArakaMgA vuMDEdI appuDE pAThakulaku anubhUtamautuMdi. aMdukE rachayita muMgaMDanu kathAraMgaMgAnU, rAmanAthAnni kathAnAyakunigAnU, yennukunnADu.

rAmanAthaM mAma nArAyaNamUrtini pOlIsu ins^pekTar^gA chitriMchaDaMlOni aMtaryaM kUDA aTuvaMTidE. alluni prabhutva vyatirEki aina satyAgrahi gAnU, mAmanu prabhutvapu baMTu aina pOlIsu udyOgi gAnU chitriMchaDaM marI nATakIyaMgA (#dramatic) # vuMdanI, sagaTu vAstava jIvitAniki dUraMgA vuMdanI yevarainA niMdiMchavachchu. kAnI oka chAritraka yugAnni mAnava hRdayAnubhUtula paribhAshalOki anuvadiMcha valasinapuDu charitranu nATakIkariMchaka tappadu. sumAru araSatAbdaM pATu sAgina mana jAtIyOdyamaM kEvalaM iMglIshu vALLakU, bhAratIyulakU madhyanE sAgina pOrATaM kAdu. adi mottaM bhArata dESAnnE jAtIyavAdulU – prabhutva pakshapAtulU anE reMDu kUTAlugA chIlchiMdi. phyUDal bUrjuvA Saktula paraspara saMgharshaNa kUDA yI jAtIya saMgrAmaMtO penavEsukoni pOvaDaMtO yI chIlika mariMta gADhaMgAnU, mariMta saMklishTaM gAnU, mariMta sarvakAshTaM gAnU jarigiMdi. tatphalitaMgA mana jAtIya pOrATaMlO aMtaryuddha svabhAvaM pragADhaMgA vuMDiMdi. nijAniki phyUDal vyavastha mIda bUrjuvA Saktula pOrATaM iMglAMDu, phrAnsu, amerikA modalaina anEka dESAlalO aMtaryuddha rUpaMlOnE sAgiMdi.

itara kAraNAlatO pATu, manadESaMlOni bUrjuvA viplavaM jAtIya pOrATarUpaM dhariMchina pradhAna kAraNaM chEta, aMdulOni aMtaryuddha svabhAvAnni manaM sarigA gurtiMchaDaM lEdu. mottaM jAtinE reMDu SibirAlugA chIlchina aMtaryuddhaM aMtaTitO AgalEdu. anEka lakshala kuTuMbAlanu – mukhyaMgA madhyataragati kuTuMbAlanu kUDA reMDu SibirAlugA chIlchiMdi. jAtIya pOrATaMlO pAlgonna vALLU, phyUDal niraMkuSa SAsanAlanU, vikRta sanAtana dharmAlanU yediriMchina vALLU, yenni lakshalamaMdi yuvatI yuvakulu tama talidaMDrulanu dhikkariMchavalasi vachchiMdO, tama AlubiDDala saMkshEmAnni tRNIkariMchavalasi vachchiMdO, tama AtmIyula hRdayAlalO agni ragiliMchavalasi vachchiMdO, tatphalitaMgA tAmE eMta manOvEdanaku guri kAvalasi vachchiMdO manaku telusu; charitrakArulu cheppakapOyinA manaM UhiMchukOgalaM. mari oka aMtaryuddhAniki navalArUpaM ivvavalasi vachchinappuDu, oka chAritrakadaSalO chAritraka kAraNAla valla strI purushulalO kaligina hRdaya saMtApAnnI, hRdaya saMkshObhAnnI (InATi) pAThakulaku kaLA paribhAshalO aMdajEyavalasi vachchinappuDu, kuTuMbAlanE aMtaryuddha raMgasthalaMgA chitriMchaka tappadu, charitranu nATakIkariMchaka tappadu.

navala lOni maroka ghaTananu kUDA yikkaDE spRSiMchaDaM nyAyaMgA vuMTuMdi. nArAyaNamUrti iMTlOki vachchi tana kUturutO mATlADutunna alluni chUsi, yevarO tuMTari tana kUturunu allari peDutunnADanE apOhatO venaka muMdulu AlOchiMchakuMDA takshaNamE chEtilOni koraDAtO paSuvunu bAdinaTlu alluni bAdutADu. A sannivESaM #Melodramatic #(atiSaya nATakIyaM, lEka kshudra nATakIyaM)gA vuMdanE vimarSa rAvaDaM sahajamE. aMtEgAka A ghaTana oka chinna porapATu valla jarigina yAdRchChika ghaTana; aTuvaMTi yAdRchChika ghaTanamIda tadanaMtara kathAgati AdhArapaDaDaM uttama kaLA lakshaNaM kAdanE vimarSa kUDA I navala mIda vuMdi.

I ghaTana atiSaya nATakIyaMgA kanapaDE mATa nijamE. kAnI nArAyaNamUrti vyaktitvaM (#Character)# dRshTyA adi asahajamEmI kAdu. atanu durahaMkArI, adhikAra garvI mAtramE kAdu; yedaTi vALLanu purugunu chUsinaTlu hInaMgA chUDaDamU, muMduvenakalu chUDakuMDA koraDAlU, lAThIlU prayOgiMchaDamU ataniki alavATu. alluDu kAlEjI chaduvu mAnukoni jAtIyavAdigA mArina vArta vinnappuDu atanu alluni “gULLu viragaboDichEsi bokkalO tOsEstE” rOgaM kudurutuMdani viyyaMkuni tOnE anagaligina kirAtakuDu. alluni dArilOki techchukODAniki kUturuku kAryaM chEsE AlOchanalO vunna bhAryatO A SubhakAryaM tana iMTlO jaragaDAniki vIllEdani nishEdhistU, “nA udyOgAniki saMbaMdhiMchinaMtavarakU alluDU lEDu, kUturU lEdu. A kurravADu nA yiMTa aDugupeTTaDAniki vIlulEdu. O chIrapeTTi pillani paMpiMcheyyi. A SubhakAryaM vALLiMTlOnE chEsukuMTAru” ani anagaligina vaTTi karkOTakuDu atanu. bejavADalO akhila bhArata kAMgres kamiTI samAvESa saMdarbhaMlO valaMTIrugA panichEstU railusTEshanulO vunna oka paDuchunu (svarAjyaM) kEvalaM kakshatO, Ame ’magavALLa vETakOsaM’ vachchina paDupukatte anE nepaM peTTi Amenu yIDchuku rammani heD kAnisTEbul^nu paMpina kEvalaM pOlIsu jaMtuvu atanu. kanuka atanu alluNNi koraDAtO bAdaDaMlO asahajatvamU lEdu, atiSaya nATakIyatA lEdu.

kAkapOtE, nArAyaNamUrti pAtra kalpana lOnE A lakshaNAlu vunnAyani yevarayinA AkshEpiMchavachchu. kAnI svAtaMtryaM vachchina 20 yEMDla tarvAta kUDA mana pOlIsu adhikArla atyAchArAlU, amAnushatvamU chUstunna manaM 1920 nATi pOlIsu adhikArlalO paSutvaM mUrtIbhaviMchinaMduku AScharyapaDanakkaralEdu. nArAyaNamUrti pravartana kEvalaM kathA saukaryaM kOsaM kalpiMchiMdi kUDA kAdu. AnATi pOlIsu udyOgula paSutvaM guriMchi rachayitakunna niSchitamayina avagAhanalO nuMDi udbhaviMchina mUrtE nArAyaNamUrti pAtra. dAnni guriMchi saMdEhaM gAnI, aspashTata gAnI migiliMchalEdu rachayita. AnATi pOlIsu manastatvaM lOni paSutvamU, nIchatvamU navala prAraMbhaMlOnE pAThakuniki parichayamautAyi. rAmanAthAniki paDava prayANaMlO oka pOlIsu javAnutO gharshaNa jarugutuMdi. gharshaNa chinnadE ainA pOlIsu juluM chavichUsina rAmanAthaM “chaduvukoni I durmArgulakI, dushTulakI sahAyaM chEyaDamE kadA mA ASayaM. A udyOgamE bratukki paramArthaM anukonnAM. mA pUrvulu chEsina puNyakAryAlU, mA bhAryalu chEsina pUjalU mAchEta I luchChAlaki chEtulu nalipiMchaDaM kOsamEnA, Ori dEvuDA!” aMTU AkrOSaMtO, AtmaglAnitO, abhiSaMsanatO kaMThaM ruddhamai niluvunA
kRMgipOtADu.

ika alluni koTTaDaM anE yAdRchChika ghaTana kathAgatiki AdhArabhUtaM kAvaDaM kaLAbhaMgaM anE vimarSavuMdi. adi yAdRchChika ghaTana annamATa nijamE kAnI, tadanaMtara kathAgatiki AdhAramaiMdanaDaM (sthUladRshTiki alA anipiMchinA) sUkshmapariSIlanaku nilichEdi kAdu. mAma chEta debbalu tinna tarvAta kUDA rAmanAthaM tana bhAryanu techchukODAnikI, vIlaitE mAmagAri kuTuMbaMtO satsaMbaMdhAlu konasAgiMchaDAnikI sakala prayatnAlu chEsinADu. kAni nArAyaNamUrti lOni pOlIsu tatvamE A prayatnAla nanniTinI kAladanniMdi. rAjadrOhi ayinavADu alluDayinA tanni jailuku paMpiMchina rAjabhakti tatparuDanE praSaMsala muMdu ataniki alluDanE abhimAnaM gAnI, kUturu bhavishyattu sarvanASanamautuMdanE kanIsa vivEkaM gAnI migallEdu. kAbaTTi kathAgati A yAdRchChika ghaTana mIda AdhArapaDiMdanaDaM nijaM kAdu. katha aMtA AnATi chAritraka sannivESaMlO alluDu jAtIyavAdi, mAma pOlIsu udyOgi kAvaDaM anE kIlaka paristhiti mIdA, mukhyapAtrala manOdharmAla mIdA saMpUrNaMgA AdhArapaDiMdi.

nijAniki yI navala atiSaya nATakIyaMgA kAnI, nATakIyaMgA kAnI vuMdanE vimarSakaMTE, vuMDavalasina chOTa taginaMta nATakIyaMgA lEdanE vimarSa samaMjasaMgA vuMTuMdi. navalalOni anEka sannivESAlanu rachayita nATakIyaMgA kalpiMchukoni kUDA, A sannivESAlalOni nATaka tatvAnni (#Dramatic element)# pUrtigA viniyOgiMchukOlEka pOyinADanE anipistuMdi. udAharaNaku saMbhAshaNalOni nATaka tatvAnni rachayita sarigA gurtiMchinaTlu lEdu.

navala anEdi gataMlO jarigina oka kathanu chitristuMdi. kanuka kathanaM yeppuDU bhUtakAlaMlO (#Past tense) # vuMTuMdi. idi yeppuDO jarigi pOyina katha anE spRha (#consciousness)# pAThakuni yeppuDU vennADutU vuMTuMdi. aMduvalana katha chaduvutunnaTlu vuMTuMdE kAni, pratyakshaMgA chUstunnaTlu uMDadu. eMtO nATakIyaMgA vunna sannivESAlalO mAtramE pAThakuDu A spRha nuMDi bayaTapaDi, pAtralatO tAdAtmyaM poMdi, A sannivESAlanu pratyakshAnubhUtulugA anubhaviMchagalaDu. navalA tatvamE aMta – yeppuDO jarigina kathanu yevarO chepputU vuMTE manaM viMTunnaTlu vuMTuMdi. nATakaMlO aitE katha aMtA mana kaMDla yeduTanE jarugutunnaTlu manaku anubhUtamautuMdi. iMdulO abhinaya kaLakugala prAmukhyaM yeMta vunnA, nATakAnikI, navalakU rachanA saMvidhAnaMlOnE vunna bhEdamE kIlaka aMSaM. nATakaM aMtA saMbhAshaNala rUpaMlO sAgutuMdi. A saMbhAshaNalu manaku vinapaDatAyi. pAtralu svayaMgA vachchi mana kaMDla yeduTa mATlADukuMTAru. katha aMtA vartamAnakAlaMlO jarugutuMdi. saMbhAshaNala madhyalO rachayita pravESiMchi vivaraNalU, vyAkhyalU yivvaDaM jaragadu. pAtralu mukhAmukhigA nilabaDi, parasparaM gharshiMchukuMTAru. pAtrala manObhAvAlU, hRdaya tApAlU, vividha rAgadvEshAlU manaku pratyakshAnubhavaMlOki vastAyi. katha yevarO cheppagA manaM viMTunnaTlu gAka, mana eduTa jarugutunna kathanu manaM chUstunnaTlu vuMTuMdi. saMbhAshaNallOgala yI kaLAmarmaM grahiMchina #Hemingway# vaMTi navalA kArulu tama navalallO saMbhAshaNalaku viSEsha prAmukhyaM yichchinAru.

rAmamOhanarAvugAri yI navalalO saMbhAshaNala pAtra chAlA takkuvagA vuMDaTamE gAka, yeMtO nATakIyaMgA vunna sannivESAlalO kUDA pAtrala saMbhAshaNa svEchChagA sAgadu. aDugaDugunA rachayita pAtralamadhya pravESiMchi vALLa mATalaku vyAkhyalU, vivaraNalU yistADu. lEdA pAtrala pAtranu tAnE svIkariMchi vALLa mATalu tAnE #indirect speech# lO cheptADu. aMduvalana pAtrala mukhAmukhi gharshaNa patAkasthAyilOvunna sannivESAlalO kUDA vATi nATakIya avakASAlu nashTamaipOyinAyi. saMbhAshaNallOni nATaka tatvAnni sarigA viniyOgiMchukOlEkapOvaDAniki rAmamOhanarAvugAri rachanAtatvaMlOni lOpamE kAraNamani tOstuMdi. navalaku gAnI, yE sAhityarUpAnikigAnI charama prayOjanaM okaTE: pAThakuniki uttama saMskAraM kaligiMchaDaM. idi pAThakuni hRdayaM mIda gADhamayina anubhUtula mudralu vEyaDaM dvArA jarugutuMdi kAnI, pAThakuniki vivEkAnni prabOdhiMchaDaM dvArA jaragadu. rAmamOhanarAvugAri rachanA tatvaMlO ~m~nAnadAnadRshTi (#Didactic or pedagogic approach)# balaMgA vunnaMduvallanE gataMlO Ayana rachiMchina ’evarikOsaM’, ’kattula vaMtena’ anE navalalu kaLAtmakaMgA debbatinnAyi. A ~m~nAnadAna dRshTi yI ’kollAyigaTTitEnEmi?’lO aMta balIyaMgA lEdu gAnI, A vAsana pUrtigA chAvanaMduvallanE navalalOni saMbhAshaNalu nirjIvaMgA tayArainAyani nA anumAnaM. saMbhAshaNalu mariMta sajIvaMgA, mariMta nATakIyaMgA vuMDi vuMTE, navalalOni anEka sannivESAlu pAThakula hRdayAla mIda mariMta gADhamaina mudralu vEyagaligi vuMDEvi; navala mariMta kaLAtmakamaina viluvanu saMtariMchukoni vuMDEdi.

rachayitalOni ~m~nAnadAnadRshTi maroka vishayaMlO kUDA vellaDavutunnadi. bejavADalO kAMgresu kamiTI samAvESaM jarugutunnapuDu valaMTIrla samme jarigiMdi. tatphalitaMgA bahiraMga sabha allakallOlamai, gAMdhImahAtmuniki A rAtri bhOjanaM tappipOyiMdi. idi charitra. I chAritraka ghaTanaku navalalOni kathatO saMbaMdhaM yEmI lEkapOyinA, navalalO chOTu chEsukuMdi. AnATi charitralO jarigina oka Asaktikaramaina ghaTananu pAThakulaku teliyajEyAlanE ~m~nAnadAnadRshTi tappitE, yI ghaTana valla navalaku origina prayOjanamEmI kanipiMchadu. I ghaTanavalla navalaku jarigina nashTamEmI lEdanukunnA, rAma mOhana rAvugAri rachanA tatvaMlOni balahInata mAtraM vyaktamautunnadi.

I navalalO gamaniMchadagina viSEshAMSAlu konni unnAyi. rAmanAthAniki chinnappuDE peMDli ayiMdi kAnI, atani bhArya kApurAniki rAnani atanitO tegateMpulu chEsukuMdi. svarAjyAniki kUDA chinnappuDE peMDli ayiMdi. kAnI, Ame bharta maLLI peMDlichEsukoni svarAjyAnni parityajiMchinADu. brahmasamAjapu viSvAsAlu gala abbAyinAyuDu (svarAjyaM taMDri) kUturuku punarvivAhaM chEyaDAniki prayatnAlu chEstunnADu. kulaM yEdainA sarE vi~m~nAna vivEkAlunna varuDu kAvAlani mAtramE atani kOrika. kAnI svarAjyaM tAnu prEmiMchina rAmanAthAnni peMDli chEsukuMTAnannappuDu abbAyinAyuDu talamIda piDugu paDinaTlu bAdhapaDatADu. kUturunu gaddiMchi loMgadIsukODAniki prayatnistADu; lAliMchi nachchajeppaDAniki prayatnistADu. svarAjyaM A prayatnAlanniTinI dhikkariMchi, rAmanAthaM paTla ataniki gala abhyaMtaramEmiTO cheppamaMTuMdi. nijAniki abhyaMtaramEmiTO atanikE teliyadu. kUturukEmani cheppagalaDu! ’rAmanAthaM aMdagADu, ArOgyavaMtuDu, maMchi chaduvuMdi. saMgha saMskaraNa dRkpathaM vuMdi. dESaM aMTE prEmuMdi. nAyuDu abhimAniMchE anni lakshaNAlU vunnAyi. kAni atanini kUturu varuDugA aMgIkariMchalEkunnADu, chEtakAvaDaM lEdu. A abhyaMtaramEmiTO mATaku aMdaDaMlEdu.’

A abhyaMtaraM yEmiTO manaku telustUnE vuMdi. adi kEvalaM aMtarAtmaku saMbaMdhiMchiMdi. aMtarAtma anEdi mAnavuni vyaktAvyakta manassulO (#Sub-conscious mind) # gUDu kaTTukunna viSvAsAla saMpuTi. dharmAdharmAlakU, nItyavinItulakU saMbaMdhiMchina viSvAsAla saMpuTi. mAnavuni chuTTU vunna samAjaMlOni viSvAsAlE pasitanaM nuMDi atani manasulO pravESiMchi vayasu vachchETappaTiki sthirapaDi aMtarAtma rUpaM dharistAyi. vayasu vachchina tarvAta oka vyakti arjiMchE nUtana vidyA vi~m~nAnAla phalitaMgA dharmAlanu guriMchi atani abhiprAyAlu mAravachchu. kAnI vyaktAvyakta manassulOni atani viSvAsAla paTTu sulabhaMgA saDaladu. anagA, vyakti vivEkaM yediginaMtagA atani aMtarAtma yedagadu. tatkAraNaMgA vyaktulaku aMtarAtma pIDanalU, aMtassaMkshObhAlU ErpaDutuMTAyi. rAmamOhana rAvugArI aMSAnni charitraku anvayiMchina tIru Ayana UhASaktiki goppa nidarSanaM mAtramEgAka, samAjAnikI, vyaktikI gala nigUDha saMbaMdhAlanu guriMchi Ayanakunna gADha gaMbhIra pari~m~nAnAnni vellaDi chEstuMdi.

charitra yE mArpulakU lOnu gAkuMDA niluva nIru lAgA vunna kAlaMlO dhArmika viSvAsAlu taratarAlugA niSchala niSchitAlugA vunna samAjaMlO yiTuvaMTi aMtassaMkshObhAlu sAdhAraNaMgA yevarikI kalagavu. kAnI, A viSvAsAlu taratarAnikI mArutunna yugasaMdhilO janmiMchina mAnavulaku yI aMtassaMkshObhAlu tappavu. abbAyinAyuni avastha adE. atani kUturu punarvivAhaM chEsukODAniki hiMdU dharmaSAstramU, brahmasamAja dharmamU oppukOkapOyinA atanikadi dharmaMgA kanapaDiMdi; atani brahmasamAja mitrulevarU abhyaMtaraM cheppalEdu. kAnI rAmanAthAniki aMtakumuMdE peMDli ayi bhArya sajIvaMgA kUDA uMdi. atani punarvivAhAniki brahmasamAjaM oppukOdu. abbAyinAyuni aMtarAtma brahmasamAjanItula mEraku yedigiMdE kAnI, A paina yedagalEdu. vadhUvarula kiruvurikI gataMlO vivAhAlainA, ubhayula vivAhAlU saMpUrNaMgA bhagnamainAyi ganuka ubhayulU punarvivAhAni karhulE ani atanu aMgIkariMchalEkapOtunnADu. nijAniki atani vivEkaM aMgIkaristuMdi. kAnI aMtarAtma aMgIkariMchadu. rAmanAthaM vivAhaM bhagnaM kAvaDaMlO atani dOshamEmIlEdu ganuka atanu maLLI peMDli chEsukOvaDaM E mAtraM tappulEdaMTADu nAyuDu. kAnI tana kUturuku mAtraM atanni varuDugA aMgIkariMchalEDu. rAmanAthaM punarvivAhAnni hiMdU samAjaM AmOdistuMdi. svarAjyaM punarvivAhAnni brahmasamAjaMlO aMdarU kAkapOyinA koMdarayinA AmOdistAru. A yiruvuri paraspara vivAhAnni E samAjamU AmOdiMchadu. evarU AmOdiMchani vivAhaM vivAhamelA avutuMdi? adI nAyuni bAdha. sAmAjika AmOdaM lEnidE vivAhaM anEdi vuMDajAladanE viSvAsamE atani aMtassaMkshObhAniki kAraNaM. vivAha vishayaMlO atani aMtarAtma samAjAnikichchina nirNAyaka sthAnamE atani bAdhaku hEtuvu. vALLa saMbaMdhAnni prajalu vivAhaMgA gurtiMcharu. vyabhichAraM aMTAru. uMchukunnADaMTAru; dAnikadE pEru. phalAnA nAyuDu kUturni evaDO lEvadIsuku pOyADaMTAru, uMchukunnADaMTAru. adI atani aMtarAtma paDE AMdOLana.

chivaraku atani aMtarAtma mIda atani vivEkaM jayistuMdi. vALLa vivAhAniki aMgIkaristU, “EdO tappu chEsinaTlu, erigivunna vALLaki mukhaM mATu chEsukunE manasthiti mI peLLiki pradhAnamaina Satruvu. mana saMghaMlO unna AchArAlU, alavATlU A manasthitiki mUlaM. dAninuMchi bayaTapaDi sukhapaDaM”Dani ASIrvadistADu.

“mana saMghaMlO unna AchArAlU, alavATlU A manasthitiki mUlaM” anaDaMlO aMtarAtma janmasthAnamEmiTO spashTaMgA vivaristunna rAmamOhanarAvu gAru yeMdukO ’aMtarAtma’ anE padaM mAtraM vADakuMDA, ’manasthiti’ anE annAru. bahuSA aMtarAtmanu daivAMSagA bhAviMchE saMpradAyaM dESaMlO unnaMduvalla A mATanu Ayana bahishkariMchinaTluMdi. ‘aMtarAtma’ anE mATanE rachayita upayOgiMchi uMTE abbAyinAyuni manassaMkOchAniki mUlamEmiTO pAThakulaMdarikI sulabha grAhyaMgA vuMDEdi. adE debbatO aMtarAtmalOni daivAMSa kUDA chAvudebba tini vuMDEdi.

padaprayOgaM yeTlunnA, yugasaMdhilO jIviMchEvALLu tama aMtarAtmalatO chEyavalasina pOrATaM EmiTO, elA uMTuMdO abbAyinAyuni pAtra dvArAnE gAka, svarAjyaM, rAmanAthaMla pAtrala dvArA kUDA chitriMpabaDiMdi. oka yugasaMdhilO bhinna chAritraka dharmAla madhya jarigE chAritraka sagharshaNanu vyaktula vyaktitvAlalO jarigE aMtassaMgharshaNagA chitriMchaDaM chAlA arudaina kaLAbhi~m~nata. charitra sArAnni I vidhaMgA mAnava hRdayAnubhUtula paribhAshalO avagAhana chEsukOvaDaM chAlA arudaina bhAvukata. yugasaMdhilOni vyaktula aMtaraMgika AvEdanalakU, sAmAjika vyavasthalakU gala saMbaMdhAnni vivariMchaDaMlO rachayitaku gala mEdhA paripAkaM apurUpamainadi. ‘A vivAhAnni saMghaM oppukOdu. chaTTaM oppukOdu. prAchIna saMpradAya paddativAri vivAhabaMdhAnni kUrchalEdu. Adhunika saMpradAyamaMTU ErpaDalEdu.’ Adhunika saMpradAyaM vUrakE ErpaDadu; Adhunika jIvulu yErparistE tappa. adi ErpaDiMdAkA bAdhalu tappavu. adE yugasaMdhi tatvaM. prAchIna saMpradAyAlanu bhagnaMchEsi vATi SithilAla mIda Adhunika saMpradAyAlanu nirmiMchaDamE yugasaMdhi lOni vyaktula chAritraka kartavyaM. evaDO okaDu viplavakAruDayi muMdu nilabaDitE tappa, vIruDai takkinavALLaku mArgadarSakatvaM vahistE tappa, Adhunika saMpradAyAlaMTU ErpaDavu. Adhunika saMpradAyAlu nityaM ErpaDutuMTE tappa samAjaM niluva nITi murikiguMTa avutuMdi; I navala dvArA charitra manakichchE saMdESaM yidE.

I navalalOni maroka viSEshAMSaM pAtrala pravartanalOni aMtarvairudhyAlu. rAmanAthaM tana millubaTTalu agni sAkshAtkAraM gAviMchi ‘satyAgraha prati~m~na tIsukonnappuDu tOTivALLaMtA (tOTi vidyArdhulu) chappaTlu koTTEru. hushAru chEsEru. vALLE maLLI rAtri tana gadiki vrElumogAlu vEsukuvachchi chaduvu mAnEstunnaMduku aMta bAdhapaDDAru. prati~m~na nuMchi bayaTapaDEMduku anni mArgAlu chUpiMchEru.’ vidyArdhula pravartana lOni yI aMtarvairudhyaM navala prAraMbhaMlOnE manaku parichayamautuMdi.

rAmanAthaM paDavalO prayANaM chEsETappuDu paDava gumastA atanni saraMguku parichayaM chEstU, “paMtulugArevarO telusA? gAMdhIgAri manishi, puli. monna sabhalO EM mATlADESAru. eMta bAguMdi! Oh!” aMTU paravaSaMtO praSaMsistADu. adE gumastA rAmanAthaMtO paDavagadiki kEvu (ChArjI), itarulatO kaMTE reMDaNAlu yekkuva vasUlu chEstADu.

abbAyinAyuniki kAMgres annA, gAMdhI annA eMtO bhakti. aTuvaMTivADu O pakka gAMdhI kAlEjIlu vadalamaMTU uMTE, tana kUturunu kAlEjIki paMpaDAniki siddhapaDDADu.
rAmanAthaM pedanAnna viSvanAthaM kUDA aMtE. A chuTTupakka grAmAlalO atanE prathama jAtIyavAdi. kAMgres sabhalakanI, samAvESAlakanI tiragaDaMlOnE Asti aMtA pADayiMdi. kAnI, chaduvu mAni grAmAlaku rAvalasina vALLalO tana koDukunu mAtraM ennaDU lekkaveyyalEdu.

gAMdhIki muMgaMDalO svAgataM yivvaDAniki jarigE prayatnAlalO gavarayya rEyiMbavaLLU pAlgoMTunnADu. ‘svarAjyagItA’lanE pustakAlu techchi UrlO ammutunnADu. kurravALLa lOni dESabhakti utsAhAnni viniyOgiMchukoni atanu A pustakAlamIda ekkuva dhara guMjinADu. “nEnevvarinI mOsaM cheyyalEdu. reTTiMpu kharIdu istE pustakAlu yistAnannAnu. balavaMtaM EmuMdI?” ani vAdistADu. “lEkapOtE I tiragaDAniki DabbulEvI? panneMDu pustakAlu ammEnu. reMDurOjula bhatyAlochchAyi.” ani samardhiMchukoMTADu.

rAmanAthaMtO pATu kAlEjI chaduvu mAnukoni satyAgraha prati~m~na tIsukonna vidhyArdhulalO maMgarAju okaDu. atani taMDri sUpariMTeMDiMg iMjanIru. A marudinamE tana palukubaDivalla koDukuni maLLI kAlEjIlO chErpistADu. A iMjanIrE gAMdhI prayANa saukaryArthaM prabhutvAniki arthaMkAni paddhatilO konni ErpATlu chEstADu. ’AtmAbhimAnaM chaMpukoni, prinsipAl ku kshamArpaNa cheppukoni, koDuku kAlEjIlO chErETaTlu ottiDi peTTina iMjanIru InADu gAMdhIgAri prayANa saukaryaM kOsamE rAjOlu prayANaM peTTukoni vuMTADannadi’ rAmanAthaM Uhalaku kUDA aMdani vishayaM.

rAmanAthaM peMpuDu taMDri SaMkara SAstriki gAMdhI mIdA, kAMgres mIdA yeppuDU sadabhiprAyaMlEdu. atani AchAra parAyaNatvamU, jAtIyOdyama prabhAvaMtO tanakoDuku sarvanASanamainADanE bhAvamU kAraNaM kAvachchu. gAMdhI muMgaMDaku vastunnappuDu A SaMkaraSAstrE tATAku mIda bhagavadgItA SlOkaM okaTi chakkaTi guMDrani aksharAlatO jAgrattagA rAsi, aksharAlu sphuTaMgA kanipiMchETaMduku kAkarAku pasaru ruddi, gAMdhIki virALaMtO pATu samarpiMchaDAniki tayAru chEsinADu. gAMdhIni talchukoni ‘okkokka jAtakaM..’ aMTU ’EdO adRSya Saktiki O namaskAraM chESADu.’

vyaktula vyaktigata pravartana lOni I dvaMdva svabhAvamE gAka, sAmAnya janula sAmUhika pravartana lOni dvaMdva svabhAvaM kUDA navalalO nirdvaMdvaMgA chitriMpabaDiMdi. AchAra saMpadakU, vEdavidyA saMpadakU, brAhmaNa agrahArAlaku muMgaMDa talamAnikaM vaMTidi. cheruvulO chEpalu paTTitE jIvahiMsa jarugutuMdanI, cheruvulO nILLu paMchamulu muTTukuMTE cheruvE maila paDutuMdanI cheruvuku rEyiMbavaLLU kAvali vuMTAru A vUri brAhmaNulu. rAmanAthaM tana tOTa lOni bAvi nITini harijanulu tODukODAniki anumatiMchaDaM evarikI AmOdayOgyaM kAdu. kAnI A paniki prAraMbhOtsavaM chEyaDAniki kASInAthuni nAgESvararAvu vachchinappuDu A sadbrAhmaNulE chitraMgA pravartistAru. ’kASInAthuni nAgESvararAvugAru vachchEru. Ayanni palakariMchE vADuMDaDEmOnani rAmanAthaM digulu. kAnI, Ayana mattumaMdu challinaTlu muMgaMDa brAhmaNyAnni tanachuTTU tippukunnAru… (UrEgiMpugA) rAjavIdhi veMTa veDutuMTE reMDu mUDu iLLavadda daMDalu vEsi hAratulichchEru. jailulO mailapaDi AnATi varaku saMgha bahishkRtuDugA vunna rAmanAthaMtOnU, nAgESvararAvutOnU kalisi brAhmaNa yuvakulu koMdaru saha paMkti bhOjanaM chEsinAru; vALLaku vIrasanAtanuDaina sAMbAvadhAni vaDDana. vULLO peddalu padimaMdi tAmu bhOjanAlu chEstuMTE sAvaTlO kUrchuni unnAru. vAtAvaraNamaMtA I anAchArAnni muMgaMDa paMDitulu ASIrvadistunnArA anipiMchETlu vuMdi.

nAgESvararAvu paTlanE kAdu. gAMdhI paTla kUDA vALLa pravartana aMtE. aMTarAnitanAnni nirmUliMchaDAniki kaMkaMNaM kaTTukunna gAMdhIni vEdOktASIssulatO samAdariMchaDAniki tayAravutAru, aMTarAni vALLani brAhmaNa vIdhullO kUDA naDavaniyyani sadbrAhmaNulalO koMdaru. vaiyaktika pravartana lOnU, sAmAjika pravartana lOnU aMtarvairudhyAlunna pAtralu yI navalalO yAdRchChikaMgA chOTuchEsukunnavi kAvu. rachayita uddESa pUrvakaMgAnE chitriMchinaTlu ardhamautUnE uMdi. aitE dIniki kAraNaM yEmiTi? pAtralu tama svabhAvAlaku bhinnaMgA pravartistunnArA? svabhAvamaMTE yEmiTi? hEtubaddhaMgA pravartiMchavalasina pAtralu hEturahitaMgA pravartistunnArA? dIni prayOjanamEmiTi?

jIvitaMlOni anaMta vaividhyAnni sAhityaM sarigA pratibiMbiMchalEdanE vimarSa anAdigA uMdi. sAhityaMlOni yI lOpAniki kAraNaM #Aldous Huxley# vaMTivALLu yI vidhaMgA cheptAru: sAhityaM yeppuDU hEtubaddaMgA (#rational) # uMTuMdanI, jIvitaM chAlA hEturahitaMgA (#irrational)# uMTuMdanI. hEtuvAdaM (#rationalism)# mIdA, kAryakAraNa sUtraM (#law of causality)# mIdA viSvAsaM lEni oka rakaM manushulaku – mArmika vAdulU (#mystics),# atIMdriya vAdulU (#transcendentalists)# modalayina vALLaku – yI vAdaM chAlA prItipAtraM. I kOvaku cheMdina gOpIchaMd lAMTi vALLu sAhityaM jIvitamaMta viSAlaMgAnU uMDAlaMTU rachiMchina navalalu lakshyaSuddI, bhAvaikyamU, kathana pATavamU kOlpOyi, chivaraku jIvitamaMta gaMdaragOLaM gAnU, jIvitaM kanipiMchETaMta ardharahitaM gAnU, jIvitaMkaMTE nissAraM gAnU tayAru kAvaDaM manamerigina vishayamE. vILLu jIvitAnnI, sAhityAnni arthaM chEsukOvaDaMlOnE oka maulikamaina porapATu vuMdi.

jIvitaM hEturahitaMgA kanabaDutuMdE kAni, nijAniki hEturahitaM kAdu. kAraNarahitamaina kAryaM kAnI, kAryarahitamaina kAraNaM gAnI jIvitaMlO uMDavu. kAnI, jIvitaMlO pratikAryAnikI anEka kAraNAlu uMTAyi. aTlE prati kAraNAnikI sAdhAraNaMgA anEka kAryAlu uMTayi. aMtEgAka, prati kAraNAnikI sadya@h phalitamaina kAryAlE gAka kAlAMtara phalitAlu kUDA vuMTAyi. prati kAryAnikI sadya@h kAraNamE gAka kAlAMtara kAraNAlu kUDA vuMDavachchu. aMtEgAka, kAryamE maLLI kAraNaMlO mArpu techchi, tAnE kAraNa rUpaM dharistuMdi. (bharta pravartananu baTTi bhArya pravartana mArutuMdi. tatphalitaMgA bharta pravartanalO mArpu vastuMdi. aMduvalla bhArya pravartanalO maroka mArpu vastuMdi. aMduvalla bhartalO oka kotta mArpu vastuMdi.) anaMtaMgA sAgE yI kAryakAraNa gharshaNalO kAraNamU, kAryamU niSchala tatvAlu kAvu. reMDU okadAnikokaTi kAraNAlE. reMDU okadAnikokaTi kAryAlE. dIninE #dialectics# aMTAru. aMduvalla vAstava jIvitaMlO kAryakAraNAlu annI okadAnitO okaTi bIrakAya pIchulAgA penavEsukoni, yEdi dEniki kAraNamO, yEdi dEniki kAryamO viDadIyaDAniki sAdhyaM gAkuMDA uMTAyi. tatkAraNaMgA jIvitaM hEtu rahitaMgA kanapaDavachchunE gAni, nijAniki atyaMta hEtubaddhamainadi.

ika sAhityaM achchaM jIvitaM lAgE uMDAlanukOvaDaM kUDA tIvramaina porapATE. jIvitAnni arthaM chEsukODAniki mAnavuDu chEsE prayatnaMlO oka bhAgamE sAhityaM (marokabhAgaM sainsu). okadAnni arthaM chEsukOvaDamaMTEnE dAnilOni kAryakAraNa saMbaMdhAnni telusukOvaDaM, dAnilOni hEtubaddhatanu grahiMchaDaM. kanuka jIvitaM mAnavuniki yE mEraku ardhamautuMdO, yE mEraku arthamainaTlu bhAsistuMdO, A mErakE jIvitaM sAhityaMlO pratiphalistuMdi. anagA hEtubaddhamaina jIvitamE sAhityaM lOki yekkutuMdi. anagA sAhityaM hEtubaddhaMgA tappa maroka vidhaMgA vuMDajAladu. sAhityaM marI hEtubaddhaMgA uMTunnadani niMdiMchaDaM I yugapu mEdhAvula ati teliviki mAtramE nidarSanaM.

kAni, apariNatulaina sAhityakArulu jIvitaMlOni saMkIrNa hEtubaddhatanu grahiMchalEka pAtralanU, sannivESAlanU saraLarEkha lAMTi kAryakAraNa sUtraMlO baMdhiMchi, sAhityAnni ekkAla bukku tarkasthAyiki diMchutunna diMchutunna mATa nijamE. jIvitaMlO prati vyakti mIdA nityaM paraspara viruddhamaina anEka aMtarbahi@hprEraNalu pani chEstuMTAyi. prati vyaktilOnU svArthamU vuMTuMdi, parOpakAra buddhI uMTuMdi; ahaMkAramU uMTuMdi; mamakAramU uMTuMdi; kAmakrOdhAdulU uMTAyi, SamadamAdulU uMTAyi; dhairyamU uMTuMdi, bhayamU uMTuMdi; sAhasamU uMTuMdi, pirikitanamU uMTuMdi. okoka saMdarbhaMlO okoka dAni prabhAvaM balIyaMgA uMDavachchu. okokarilO okokadAni pAlu adhikaMgA uMDavachchu. prati vyakti mIdA bhinna Saktula prabhAvaM nityaM uMTuMdi ganuka, yE vyakti pravartanA saraLarEkha lAgA jIvitAMtaM okE vidhaMgA uMDadu. vyaktulalOni yI aMtarvairudhyAlanu chitriMchEdE uttama sAhityamani pAtra chitraNalO pErennikaganna sOmarseT^ mAm sUkti.

rAmamOhanarAvugAri pAtrala pravartanalOni aMtarvairudhyAlu kUDA I jIvita yathArdhAnni ASrayiMchinavE. sUpariMTeMDiMg iMjanIrainA, paDava gumastA ainA, SaMkaraSAstri ainA sAdhAraNa manushulu. sAdhAraNa mAnavulalO svArthamU, gatAnugamana svabhAvamU, samAjaMlO yEdi balavattaraMgA vuMTE dAniki talavoggaDamU pramukhaMgA vuMDE guNAlu. kanuka vALLa nitya pravartanalO sAhasamU, tyAgamU kanipiMchavu. svArthamU, saMkuchitatvamE rAjyaM chEstuMTAyi. kAni konni pratyEka samayAllO, yE gAMdhI mahAtmuni vaMTi vADO yedurainapuDu, vALLalO sAhasamU, tyAgabuddhI kanipistAyi. kanIsaM goppavAni goppatanAnni gurtiMchi kIrtiMchE mErakainA vALLa saMkuchitatvaM braddalautuMdi. adi kshaNakAlaM mAtramE. A goppavADu adRSyamaina veMTanE adE saMkuchitatvamU, adE svArthamU, maLLI vachchi vALLa vyaktitvAlanu baMdhistAyi. sAdhAraNa vyaktulalOni dvaMdva svabhAvAniki mUlaM idE. yeMta dhIrOdAttulaina mahA purushulalOnainA yU dvaMdva svabhAvaM pUrtigA naSiMchadu. yepuDO okasAri bayaTa paDutUnE vuMTuMdi. kAni manushula dvaMdva sabhAvAnni grahiMchinaMta mAtrAna dAnni sAhityaMlO chitriMchaTaM sulabha sAdhyaMkAdu. yeMdukaMTE dvaMdva svabhAvaM anEdi hEturAhityaMgA vyaktaM kAkUDadu; pratipAtrA, dvaMdva svabhAvaM yeMta vunnA, hEtubaddhaMgAnE pravartiMchAli. pAtralU, sannivESAlU, annI kalisi, mottaM navalalO aMtassUtraMgA vunna hEtubaddhataku anuguNaMgAnU vuMDAli. rAmamOhana rAvugAri navalalO yenni pAtralu yeMta dvaMdva svabhAvaM pradarSiMchinA, hEtubaddhataku ekkaDA bhaMgaM vATillalEdu. yE pAtra yeMta chitraMgA pravartiMchinA, A chitrAniki prEraNa yEmiTO manaku telustUnE vuMTuMdi. okOsAri A prEraNa spashTaMgA teliyakapOyinA, udAharaNaku gAMdhI paTlA, nAgESvararAvu paTlA muMgaMDa brAhmaNyaM pradarSiMchina sAmUhika pravartana kEvalaM maMda manastatvaM (#mob psychology)# anukunnA – vALLa dvaMdva svabhAvaM vAstava jIvitAniki yeMta sannihitaMgA vuMdi! ani manaku anipistUnE vuMTuMdi.

I navala chAritraka navala ganuka iMdulOni pAtrala dvaMdva manastatvAniki pratyEka prAmukhyaM vuMdi. oka yugasaMdhilO bhinna chAritraka Saktula madhya jarigE chAritraka saMgharshaNaku aMtaryuddha svabhAvaM uMTuMdani muMdE gurtiMchinAmu. adi mottaM samAjAnnE gAka kuTuMbAlanE reMDu SibirAlugA chIlchi, taMDrIkoDukulanU, bhAryA bhartalanU paraspara SatrupakshAlalO nilabeDutuMdi. A chAritraka suDiguMDaMlO chikkukunna abbAyinAyuDivaMTi koMdariki adi tIvra aMtassaMkshObharUpaM dharistuMdi. mari yitarulamATa yEmiTi? chAritraka pravAhaMlO digakuMDA oDDuna unna sAdhAraNa vyaktulamATa yEmiTi? chAritraka pariNAmaMlO vALLa pAtra yEmiTi ? chAritraka saMgrAmAniki vALla pratispaMdana yEmiTi ? I praSnalaku samAdhAnamE A sAdhAraNa jIvula pravartanalOni dvaMdva svabhAvaM. tama sAdhAraNa pravRttiki bhinnaMgA pravartiMchaDamE chAritraka saMgrAmaM paTla vALLa pratispaMdana. bhinna chAritraka SaktulalO dEni prabhAvaM balIyamainapuDu dAniki anuguNaMgA pravartiMchaDamE vALLukUDA aMtaryuddhAniki veligA lEranaDAniki nidarSana. vALLa manastatvaMlOni aMtarvairudhyaM mottaM samAjaMlOni aMtarvairudhyAniki pratirUpaM. sAdhAraNa jIvulalOni aMtarvairudhyaM chitriMchakuMDA mottaM samAjaMlO sarvagrAsiyaina aMtaryuddhaM jarugutU uMdanaDaM asahajaMgA uMTuMdi. A aMtarvairudhyaM pElavaMgAnU uMTuMdi. chAritraka viplavAlanu pratyakshaMgA anubhaviMchinavADu, charitra sArAnni gADhaMgA grahiMchinavADU ganuka rachayita yU aMtarvairudhyAnni kEvalaM mAnavalakshaNaMgAnE gAka, chAritraka lakshaNaMgA kUDA chitriMchagaliginADu.

okaTi reMDu lOpAlu vunnA AnATi chAritraka vAstavAnni chitriMchaDaMlO I navala saMpUrNaMgA kRtArdhamaiMdi. AnATi sAMghika durAchArAlU, aMdhaviSvAsAlU, karaDu gaTTina ChAMdasa a~m~nAnamU, prabhutva damana nItI, prabhutva adhikArlalOni bAnisa tatvamU, vIriki vyatirEkaMgA yuvakulU, dESabhaktulU, vidyAvaMtulU sAgiMchina pOrATAla phalitaMgA yErpaDina hRdayatApAlu, mAnasika saMkshObhAlu, kuTuMba vichChEdAlu annI kannulaku kaTTinaTlu chitritamainAyi. annI pAThakulaku pratyAkshAnubhUtulugA rUpu dhariMchinAyi. cheppukOdagina chAritraka navala aMTU lEni telugu sAhityaMlO yI navalakunna sthAnaM amUlyamainadi. duradRshTavaSAttu telugulO chAritraka navalAkArunigA pErukekkina vALLaMdarU phyUDal kusaMskArAnikI, sanAtana mUDhAchArAlakU aMtO iMtO bAnisalainavALLE. vALLu rAsina navalallO gatakAlapu mUrkhatvAlakU, a~m~nAnAniki, bAnisa buddhiki, bhOgalAlasatakU dharma parirakshaNa pErutO paTTAbhishEkaM chEyaDaM tappa nijamaina chAritrakata anEdi dAdApu SUnyaM. phyUDal saMskArAnnE gAka, bUrjuvA saMskArAnni kUDA adhigamiMchi, paripUrNamaina bhautikavAda dRkpathaM jIrNiMchukunnavADu tappa charitranu sarigA arthaM chEsukOlEDu. gatakAlapu ghaTanalanu yInATi vi~m~nAna vivEkAlatO adhyayanaM chEyagaligEdE charitra. gatakAlapu rAjulanu guriMchi vALla vaMdimAgadhulu cheppina stOtrapAThAlE tirugulEni chAritraka pramANAlugA svIkariMchina vALLu rAsinavE yInATi varaku manaku chAritraka navalalugA prasiddhi poMdutU vachchinAyi. telugu navalA kArulalOnE kAdu, mana jAtIya pOrATa kAlaM nATi telugu kavula dESabhakti kavitvaM niMDA yI gatavaibhava saMkIrtanA jADyaM karuDu gaTTukoni uMdi. gurajADavale “maMchi gatamuna koMchemEnOy” ani cheppagaligina Adhunika manastatvaM mana rachayitala kevvarikI paTTubaDanE lEdu. gurajADa tana kAlaM nADu, rachiMchabaDina vijayanagara sAmrAjyaM anE chAritraka navala mIda rAsina vimarSanu yikkaDa smariMchaDaM aprastutaM kAdanukuMTAnu. chitramEmaMTE gurajADa maraNiMchina 50 yEMDla tarvAta kUDA telugu chAritraka navala dAdApu adE sthAyilO uMDaDaM. aMtakaMTE bAdhAkaramaina vishayamEmaMTE gurajADa aMtagA tiTTipOyina A navala yInATikI punarmudraNalu poMdutU telugudESapu viSvavidyAlayallO pAThya graMthaMgA mannanalu poMdutU vuMdi. telugudESapu vidyAvaMtula chAritraka pari~m~nAnAniki, Adhunika manastatvAnikI yiMtaku miMchina nidarSanaM vuMDabOdanukuMTAnu. telugu chAritraka navalanu AvariMchina yI gADhAMdhakArAnni chIlchukuMTU yInATiki vEguchukka lAga udhbaviMchiMdi, rAmamOhanarAvu gAri ’kollAyi gaTTitEnEmi?’. aMduvalla yI navalaku mana sAhityaMlO oka chAritrAtmakamaina sthAnaM uMTuMdi.

(I vyAsaMlOni chAritraka navalA lakshaNAlu prapaMcha prasiddha mArksisTu siddhAMtavEtta ayina #Georg Lukacs# cheppinavi.)
(saMvEdana – Epril 1968)

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