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vijayanagara charitra rachana: oka samIkshA vyAsaM

prabalarAjAdhirAja vIrapratApa
rAjaparamESvarArtha durgAnaTESa
sAhitIsamarAMgaNa sArvabhauma
kRshNadEvamahArAya kRtinigonumu

- nElaTUri veMkaTaramaNayya; #Further sources of Vijaya nagara history, 1946.

#kRshNadEvarAyalu siMhAsanamekki ayidu vaMdalELLayina saMdarbhaMlO Ayana pEru, vijayanagara sAmrAjyaM pEru vArtallO tarachugA kanapaDutunnAyi. I saMdarbhaMlOnainA rAyalu guriMchi, alAgE vijayanagara sAmrAjyaM guriMchi gata vaMdELLallO vividha bhAshallO veluvaDDa sAhityAnni, mukhyaMgA I kAlaMlO jarigina chAritraka pariSOdhanalani, krODIkaristU kanIsaM okka pustakamainA telugulO veluvaDutuMdani ASiMchAnu. kAnI alAMTidi, nAku telisinaMtalO, InATi varaku jariginaTlu lEdu#[1].

#AScharyakaramaina vishayamEmaMTE okappuDu vijayanagara charitra pariSOdhanalO teluguvAri pAtra peddadi, pramukhamainadi kUDAnu. ikkaDa tappakuMDA cheppukOvalisina vyakti, prasiddha charitrakAruDu, nElaTUri veMkaTaramaNayya. Ayana tana kRshNadEvarAyalu (AMdhrapradES prabhutva prachuraNa, 1972) pustakaM prAraMbhaMlO “labhyamaina charitrAMSamula nella grODIkariMchi SrIkRshNarAyala charitramunu sAdhyamainaMtavaraku saMpUrNamuga rachiyiMpavalayunani” tana uddESaMgA cheppukunnADu. gata nalabhayi yELLalO Ayana vArasatvAnni yevvarU aMdi puchchukunnaTlugA lEdu. kAnI idE kAlaMlO bhAratIyEtara bhAshallO vistRtamaina (nA dRshTilO, viSishTamaina) pariSOdhanalu veluvaDDAyi. I pariSOdhanA sAhityAnni kluptaMgAnainA parichayaM chEyAlannadE I vyAsaM yokka mukhyOddESaM.

mUla AdhArAlu

paina pErkonna kRshNadEvarAyalu pustakaMlOni toli ayidu puTallO veMkaTaramaNayya mukhyamaina chAritraka mUlAdhArAlanu poMduparichADu. vATilO Ayana pratyakshaMgA prastAviMchanidi, SAsana AdhArAlalO mukhyamainadi ‘tirumala tirupati dEvasthAnaM vAri SAsanAlu’ (6 saMpuTAlu, 1931-38). iMka vA~mmaya rachanalalO pramukhaMgA prastAviMchavalasinavi, 15-16 SatAbdAlalO rAyabaDina rAjakAla nirNayamu, vidyAraNya kAlaj~nAnamu, vidyAraNya vRttAMtamu. InADu telugudESaMlO vijayanagara sAmrAjya sthApana guriMchi sthirapaDipOyina abhiprAyAlaku (lEka prAchuryaMlOvunna kathalaku) I mUDu rachanalE mUlAlu anavachchu.

rAyavAchakamu, kRshNarAyavijayamu, sALuvAbhyudayamu, raghunAthAbhyudayamu, achyutarAyAbhyudayamu (rAjanAtha DiMDima virachitaM), kaMparAya charitra, varadAMbikA pariNayamu, anna rachanalu kUDA vijayanagara charitra rachanalO mukhyamaina AdhAra graMthAlu. iMkA I kAlaMlO veluvaDina palu rachanallOni ‘aMkita’ padyAllO AyA rAjakuTuMbAla vaMSacharitrala guriMchina samAchAraM koMtavaraku labhyamavutuMdi. idi manaku tikkana ‘nirvachanOttara rAmAyaNaM’ (telugu chODa rAjula prasakti) kAlaM nuMDi telisinadE. nAchana sOmana dvArA modaTi harihararAyalu, vallabharAyuni krIDAbhirAmamu dvArA reMDava harihararAyalu, jakkana vikramArkacharitralO modaTi dEvarAyalu guriMchina vishaya saMgrahaNa chEyavachchu. ilA SrInAthuDi rachanallO reMDava dEvarAyalu, timmana, peddana, kRshNadEvarAyalu rachanallO kaLiMga digvijayaM, rAmarAjabhUshaNuDu, chiMtalapUDi ellanArya, dOnEru kOnErunAthula rachanallO sALuva, tuLuva, AravIDu rAjula guriMchina prastAvanalu manaM chUDavachchu. alAgE siMgaya mallana, pinavIrabhadruDi rachanallO kUDA!

alAgE ‘sAhitya’ rachanalu kAkapOyinA, SAstra graMthAlalO kUDA koMta viluvaina samAchAraM labhistuMdi. udAharaNaku reMDava bukkarAyani AsthAna vaidyuDaina lakshmaNa paMDituDu rAsina vaidyarAjavallabhaM anE AyurvEda graMthaMlo saMgama rAjula guriMchi, gajapati rAjaina pratAparudruni sarasvatIvilAsamu anE dharmaSAstra graMthaMlO gajapati rAjula guriMchi, saMgItasUryOdayamu anE saMgItaSAstra graMthaMlO bhaMDAru lakshmInArAyaNa kRshNadEvarAyala kaLiMga rAjya vijaya prasakti, tuLuvarAjula charitra guriMchi cheppaTaM chUDavachchu. ilA telugu sAhityaM vijayanagara charitra rachanaku pramukhaMgA tODpaDiMdi.

okappuDu rAjAsthAnAllO vaMdi mAgadhulu (bhaTrAjulu) pADina birudu gadyAla nuMDi rAjya vRttAMtAlugA (#Chronicles)# rUpAMtaraM poMdina velugOTivAri vaMSAvaLi, rAmarAjIyamu#[2]# keLadinRpavijayamu, AravITivaMSacharitramu (kOnErinAthuDi dvipada bAlabhAgavataMlO oka bhAgaM) kUDA viluvaina AdhArAlE. ilA vividha bhAshala lOni (telugu, kannaDa, parshiyan… ) mUla AdhArAlani, mukhyaMgA vA~mmaya rachanalani oka kramapaddhatilO saMkalistU, konnichOTla saMkshiptaMgAnu, konnichOTla pUrtigAnu chEsina AMglAnuvAdAlatO modaTigA veluvariMchiMdi madrAsu viSvavidyAlayaMlO charitrAdhyApakulaina es. kRshNasvAmi ayyaMgAr (#Sources of Vijayanagara history, 1919).

#veMkaTaramaNayya, kE. E. nIlakaMThaSAstri sahasaMpAdakatvaMlO poMduparachina #Further sources of Vijayanagara history #(mUDu saMpuTAlu, madrAsu, 1946; mUDava saMpuTamikkaDa) anna graMthaM InATiki kUDA chAlA prAmANikamainadi. mukhyaMgA modaTi saMpuTaMlO rAsina sudIrgha pIThikalO cheduru modurugA vunna ennO AdhArAlanu kalupukuMTU modaTisArigA oka samagra charitranu, oka kAlakramaMlO Ayana pratipAdistADu.

kAlin mekeMjI (#Collin Mackenzie)# pOguchEsina asaMkhyAka rAtapratulu – kavilelu (lEka daMDakavilelu), kathalu (mekeMjI sahAyakulugA pani chEsina kAvali borrayya, kAvali veMkayya, kAvali rAmasvAmi, nArAyaNarAvulu maukhikaMgA saMgrahiMchina samAchAraM), kaiphIyatulu#[3]# kUDA charitra rachanalO chAlA mukhyamainavi. I mekeMjI bhAMDAgAraMlOni samAchArAnni krODIkaristU, saMkshipta AMglAnuvAdAlatO aMdiMchE goppa prayatnaM TI. vI. mahAliMgaM saMpAdakatvaMlO veluvaDina: #Mackenzie manuscripts; Summaries of the historical manuscripts in the Mackenzie collection (2 volumes), Madras, 1972-76.# ilA kaiphIyatula dvArA velugu chUsi, Adhunika pariSOdhakulachE viSlEshiMpaDutunna ‘kumArarAmuni katha‘ (1952) vATilO okaTi#[4].

#charitra rachana: 1900-1960

vijayanagaraM, kRshNadEvarAyalu, anna pErlu vinagAnE, mukhyaMgA telugu vALLu modaTigA uTaMkiMchE rachana rAbarT sUval (#Robert Sewell)# rAsina #A forgotten empire (London, 1900).# mukhyaMgA I pustakaMlO Ayana anuvadiMchina 16va SatAbdaM nATi pOrchugIsu yAtrikula rAtalu bAgA prAchuryaM#[5]# poMdAyi. I pustakaM dvArAnE mana dESaMlO vijayanagara charitra pariSOdhana prAraMbhamayyiMdi aMTE atiSayOkti kAdEmO. nijAniki pai pustakaMlO kaMTE sUval pariSOdhanA vivarAlu AyanE rAsina #List of the inscriptions and sketches of the dynasties of southern India, List of the antiquarian remains in the presidency of Madras (1882), The historical inscriptions of southern India (collected till 1923) and outlines of political history[6] (1932)# lalO chUDavachchu. vijayanagaraM paina panichEsina modaTi taraM bhAratIya charitrakArulu sUval dvArAnE Adhunika charitrA rachanA paddhatula guriMchi telusukunnArani sTain (#Burton Stein)# aMTADu#[7].

#sUval taruvAta, madrAsu viSvavidyAlayaMlO es. kRshNasvAmi ayyaMgAr, TI. vI mahAliMgaM, ke. E. nIlakaMThaSAstri, nElaTUri veMkaTaramaNayyalu pariSOdhanalani konasAgiMchAru. vITilO konni mukhyamainavi: kRshNasvAmi ayyaMgAr rAsina #Ancient India (1911), South India and her Muhammadan invaders (1921), Evolution of Hindu administrative institutions of southern India (1931);# TI. vI mahAliMgaM rAsina #Administration and social life under Vijayanagar (Madras, 1940), Economic life in the Vijayanagara empire (1951).# idE kAlaMlO boMbAyilO charitrAdhyApakuDigA pani chEstunna speyin dESasthuDu henrI hErAs (#Henry Heras)# pOrchugIs, iTAliyan, lATin rAtapratulanu vADukuMTU chAlA pariSOdhanalanu prachuriMchADu. alAgE 1931lO laMDan viSvavidyAlayAniki bi. e. sAletore (#Bhaskar Anand Salatore)# samarpiMchina pihech. Di thIsis – #Social and political life in the Vijayanagara empire A.D 1346-A.D. 1646, 2# bhAgAlu, madrAsu, 1934) – mukhyamainadi. sAletore rAsina maroka mukhyamaina pustakaM: #Medieval Jainism with special reference to the Vijayanagara empire (Bombay, 1938).

#I pariSOdhanalannI oka ettayitE, veMkaTaramaNayya chEsina rachanalu maroka ettu. 1929lO #Kampili and Vijayanagara# anna dAnitO prAraMbhiMchi 1940va daSakaM chivari bhAgaM varaku Ayana vistRtaMgA prachuriMchADu. #Studies in the history of the third dynasty of Vijayanagara (Madras, 1935)# anna rachana punarOkti dOshAlatO, oka jillA gajeT lAgA sAginappaTikI aMdulOni samAchAraM InATiki kUDA pariSOdhakula mannana laMdukuMTunnadi! #Vijayanagara – Origin of the city and empire (1933), The early Muslim expansion in south India (1942),# paina pErkonna #Further sources of Vijayanagara history# lOni modaTi saMpuTaMlO mUDu vaMdala pEjIlaku paibaDina parichaya vyAsaM, I pariSOdhanA kramaMlOni itara mukhya graMthAlu.

I kAlaMlOnE vijayanagara sAmrAjyaM mahammadIyula AkramaNalani nirOdhiMchaDAniki yErpaDina balamaina ‘hiMdU sAmrAjyaM’ anna pratipAdana balaMgA vachchiMdi. I bhAvAniki prAraMbhakuDu suvAl (”#a Hindu bulwark against Muhammadan conquests”).# dAnini veMkaTaramaNayya, nIlakaMThaSAstri balaparichAru. gata pAtika, muppayELLalO vijayanagara charitra pariSOdhanAraMgaMlO panichEsinavAraMdaru I pratipAdanalOni lOpAlanu spashTaMgA chUpiMchAru (#Phillip Wagoner, Hermann Kulke, Sanjay Subrahmanyam, Burton Stein, Richard Eaton,# modalagu vAru). appaTi valasa kAlapu AlOchanalu, hiMdU musliM matAla madhya dIrghakAla, nirmANAtmaka vairudhyaM nirmiMchAlanE valasa rAjanIti, dAnitO viDadIyaDAniki vIlulEkuMDA kalisipOyi yErpaDina jAtIyavAda prabhAvaM – vITi vummaDi phalitaMgA yErpaDina I pratipAdanalani I madhyakAlapu charitrakArulevarU AmOdiMchalEdu.

vijayanagara sAmrAjya sthApakulaina harihararAyalu, bukkarAyalu teluguvAru ani veMkaTaramaNayya chEsina pratipAdanani ‘karnATaka’ charitrakArulu vyatirEkiMchAru. I vAdanalu eMta dUraM veLLAyaMTE vijayanagara sthApakulaina saMgama vaMSIkulE kAdu, kRshNadEvarAyalu kUDA teluguvADanE varaku. avi InATikI konasAgutUnE vunnAyi! I paraspara vAdOpavAdAllO udahariMcha valasinadi: vijayanagara shashTyatItama smAraka saMpuTaM (#Vijayanagara sexcentenary commemorative volume, Dharwar, 1936).

#purAtattva SAkha pariSOdhanalu

ArkiyAlajisTulu daSAbdAlugA AMdhra karnATaka sarihaddullO, mukhyaMgA haMpI prAMtaMlO chEstunna pani ekkuvamaMdiki telisinadE. I prAjekTuku saMbaMdhiMchi vishayAlu chAlA vivaraMgA vAri veb^saiT^lO poMduparachapaDutunnAyi kAbaTTi maLLI cheppavalasina avasaraM lEdu. I prAjekTulO bhAgaMgA prachuriMpabaDina pariSOdhanA pustakAla, vyAsAla vivarAlu kUDA aMdulO chUDavachchu.

Adhunika pariSOdhanalu: 1960-2010

sUval anuvAdAniki (1900) mUlaM pOrchugIsu dESasthuDu, arab charitrakAruDaina DEviD lOpej (#David Lopes) 189#7lO prachuriMchina #Cronica dos Reis de Bisnaga: Manuscripto Inédito do Século XVI# anna pustakaM. idi vAskO da gAmA (#Vasco da Gama)# tana bhAratadESa naukA yAtra pUrti chEsi 400 ELLu pUrtayina saMdarbhaMlO prachuriMpabaDiMdi. I reMDu rAtapratulu ataniki phreMch jAtIya graMthAlayaM bibliyOthek nEshanAl lO (#Bibliothèque Nationale de France)# dorikAyi. I reMDu pOrchugIsu rAtapratulaku rachayitalugA nyUnej, pEs (#Fernao Nunes, Domingo Paes)# pErlani jataparachinappaTikI vATi kartRtvaMpaina aMgIkAraM lEdu#[8].

#pEs rAsinadigA cheppabaDE 44 pEjIla niDivaina pratilO vijayanagarAnni guriMchina jAtyadhyayana, bhaugOLika samAchAraM vuMTuMdi. idi sumAru 1518 prAMtaMlO rAyabaDiMdi. nyUnej 1535 kAlaMlO rAsinadigA bhAviMchabaDE 80 pEjIla pratilO ekkuva vivarAlunnAyi. itanu gurrAla vyApArigA mUDu saMvatsarAlu vijayanagaraMlO gaDipinaTlu, tana rAtapratini gOvAku paMpinaTlu telustuMdi. sUval I reMDu anuvAdAlaku adanaMgA mAnyuyEl ba~r~rAdAs (#Manuel Barradas)# anna jEjuyeT (#Jesuit)# mataprachArakuDu padihEDava SatAbdaM modaTlO rAsina maroka pOrchugIs rAtapratini koMtavaraku jataparachi 1900lO prachuriMchADu. ilAMTi rachanalu elAMTi kAlamAna paristhitulalO rAyabaDDAyO charchiMchE vyAsaM mAriyA kruj (#Maria Cruz)# rAsina #Notes on Portuguese relations with Vijayanagara, 1500-1565 (Santa Barbara Portuguese studies, Vol2, pp. 13-39,1995).

#alAgE I rachanalu pUrtigA AyA pOrchugIsu rachayitalu appaTikE sthAnikaMgA prachAraMlO vunna vishayAlanu (udA: vijayanagara rAjya sthApana, vistaraNa), vAru vinna kanna saMgatulanu kalupukuMTU chEsina oka kotta ‘anuvAdaM’gA cheppukOvachchunani saMjay subrahmaNyaM#[8]# aMTADu (pE. 388). adanaMgA padihEnu, padahAru SatAbdAlalO vachchina yAtrAcharitralanu – nikOlO kAMTi (#Nicolo Conti),# abdul samarkhaMDi (#Al Samarkandi),# nikitin (#Nikitin),# vertemA (#Ludovico di Verthema),# taditarulavi – chErustU 1977lO vasuMdhara philiyOjAT#[9]# sUval anuvAdAlanu puna@hpariSIliMchAru. e. raMgasvAmi sarasvati 1925lO AmuktamAlyadalOni rAjanItini charchiMchi rAsina vyAsaM samagraMgA lEdu. velchEru nArAyaNarAvu, DEviD shUl^man, saMjay subrahmaNyaM 2004lO A kAvyaMlOni rAjanIti bhAgAnni pUrtigA anuvadiMchi#[10]# dAnipai oka vyAsaM prachuriMchAru. appaTivaraku AmuktamAlyada aMTE rAjanIti mAtramE anE abhiprAyaM vuMDEdi. dInini savariMchaDAniki kUDA I vyAsaM upayOgapaDiMdi.

telugu, kannaDa charitrakArula vAdanalalOnu, viDigAnu bahu charchanIyAMSamaina vishayaM vijayanagara rAjya ‘sthApaku’laina harihara rAyalu, bukkarAyalu – vIrini guriMchinadi. I iddarU prathamaMlO kAkatIya pratAparudruni koluvulO vunnArani, kaMpili yuddhaMlO baMdIlugA DhillIki taraliMpabaDDArani, akkaDa mahammadIya mataM svIkariMchArani, DhillI sultAnu vILLani dakshiNabhArataMlO SatrurAjyAlanu aNichivEyaDAniki paMpiMchADani, A taruvAta vILLu vidyAraNyuni prabhAvaMtO marala hiMdU matAnni svIkariMchi sanAtana hiMdU dharmarAjyAnni sthApiMchArani oka katha vuMdi. I kathaku mUlAlugA ‘rAjakAla nirNayamu’, ‘vidyAraNya kAlaj~nAnamu’, ‘vidyAraNya vRttAMtamu’ vaMTi 16va SatAbdaM nATi rachanalanu, sUval anuvAdAlanu, 14va SatAbdaM nATi parshiyan, arabik rachanalanu udaharistU modaTagA veMkaTaramaNayya oka saMgraha charitra rAsE prayatnaM chESADu.

taruvAta nIlakaMThaSAstri ippaTikI mudraNalO vunna, pramukha pAThya pustakaM #A history of south India (1955)# lO, veMkaTaramaNayya chEsina sudIrghavAdAnni chAritraka satyaMgA pErkonnAru. idE vishayAnni veMkaTaramaNayya kluptaMgA, pApular SaililO majuMdAr saMpAdakatvaMlO bhAratIya vidyA bhavan^vAru prachuriMchina #History and culture of the Indian people# Arava saMpuTaMlO (1967) cheppaTaM jarigiMdi. I vAdanatO vibhEdistU, A kAlaMlO pramukha kEMdraMgA DhillIkunna sthAnAnnI, vijayanagara charitra rachanalO mata guruvulu, mukhyaMgA SRMgEri pIThaM pAtranu, adE kAlaMlO vachchina ilAMTi kathalanu kshuNNaMgA pariSIlistU maMchi pariSOdhanA vyAsAlu11-13 vachchAyi. DAlapikOlA (#Anna Dallapiccola)# saMpAdakatvaMlO,reMDu saMpuTAlalO vachchina chAlA vyAsAlu#[11]# chadavadaginavi.

vijayanagara sainyaMlO pedda saMkhyalO turushkulu, Aphghanulu kirAyi sainikulugA vuMDEvAru, arab dESAlanuMchi (pOrchugIsuvAri dvArA) gurrAlanu digumati chEsukunEvAru. vijayanagara kAlaMlO vastradhAraNa, bhavana nirmANaMpai vAganar #[13],# vANijyaMpai saMjay subrahmaNyaM#[14]# rAsina palu vyAsAlu, dEvAlayAla pAtrapaina tirupati AlayaM pradhAnAMSaMgA barTan sTain, saMjay subrahmaNyaMla vyAsAlu #[15-16]# kUDA vijayanagara kAlAnni oka kotta kONaMlO manaku chUpeDatAyi. 1993 lO vAganar prachuriMchina #Tidings of the king: A translation and ethnohistorical analysis of the Rayavacakamu# vijayanagara pariSOdhanalalO veluvaDina uttama graMthAllO okaTi. dInilO rAyavAchakAnni anuvadiMchaDaMtO pATu chErchina viSlEshaNAtma vyAsaM, poMduparachina samAchAraM chAlA viluvainavi. vijayanagara charitranaMtaTinI samanvayistU rAyaDAniki chivarigA prayatnaM chEsinadi barTan sTain#[7].# kAnI ‘vijayanagara’ anna A pustakaM (#Cambridge, 1989)# aMdarinI saMtRpti parachalEka pOyiMdi.

teluguvAru chEsina pariSOdhanalu, janapriyamaina rachanalu

nElaTUri taruvAta 1800ku muMdunATi charitra pariSOdhanalO cheppukOvalasina pEru si.vi. rAmachaMdrarAvu. rAmachaMdrarAvu manaku chEsina goppa sEva, Ayanakunna parimitulalOnE, rAyavAchakaM (1982), kRshNarAya vijayaM (1981), EkAmranAthuni pratAparudra charitraM (1984) modalaina chAritraka graMthAlanu pUrti pAThAlatO, chAritraka viSlEshaNatO aMdiMchaTaM. migilina vArilO cheppukOvalasina konni pErlu: OrugaMTi rAmachaMdrayya (#Studies on Krsnadevaraya of Vijayanagara,# vAltEru, 1953. 1946lO AMdhra viSvavidyAlayaM nuMDi pihech.Di paTTA kOsaM samarpiMchina thIsis.), bi. sUryanArAyaNarAvu (#Short history of Vijayanagar, 1909),# chilukUri vIrabhadrarAvu (ALiyarAmarAyalu, 1931), nUtalapATi pErarAju (vijayanagara charitramu, bAlasarasvatI buk DipO,karnUlu, 1941). iMkA bhArati, AMdhra sAhityaparishatpatrika, prabuddhAMdhra, #A.P. historical journal# modalaina patrikallO virivigA chAritraka vyAsAlu vachchAyi kAnI, I vyAsaM prAraMbhaMlO cheppinaTlu gata 40 saMvatsarAlalO saMkhyA paraMgAnu, vasturItyA pratyEkaMgA prastAviMchadaggavigA nA dRshTilOki rAlEdu. alAgE telugu viSvavidyAlayAlalO kUDA peddagA pariSOdhanalu jarugutunnaTlugA kanapaDaTaMlEdu.

janapriyamaina rachanallO konni: vEdaM vEMkaTarAyaSAstri rAsina vijayanagara yugamu (1976), chiTTA rAmakRshNarAvu rAsina SrIkRshNadEvarAyalu (1944), vishNubhoTla sUryanArAyaNa rAsina SrIkRshNadEvarAyala charitamu (1951), duggirAla rAghavachaMdrayya chaudari rAsina vijayanagara sAmrAjyamu (1914) anE kAlpanika rachana, nelaTUri veMkaTaramaNayya rAsina paSchAttApamu (vijayanagara kathAtaraMgiNi – prathama taraMgamu, 1955) anna kAlpanika chAritraka navala.

pariSOdhanala avasaraM

mAmUlugA charitra rachanalO SAsanAlalOnu, yAtrA charitralalOnu vunna samAchAraM‘vAstavAlu’ gAnu, sAhityaMlOni vivarAlu ‘kalpanalugAnu, kaTTukathalugAnu’ chUpiMchaDaM rivAju. kAni SAsanAlalOni padyAlu kUDA kAvyAlalOni padyAlalAgA AlaMkArika ADaMbaraMtOnu, yAtrA rachanalalOkUDA kathalu, vadaMtulu vuMTAyani spashTaMgA chUpiMchaDaM iTIvala kAlaMlO jarigina pani. kAni katha ayinaMta mAtraM chEta chAritrakaM kAdani koTTEyakkaralEdani, SAsanaM ayinaMta mAtraM chEta dAnilO unnadaMtA chAritraka vAstavamEnani tIsukOvakkaralEdani vimarSAtmakamayina abhiprAyAlu I kAlaMlOni pariSOdhanalalO pratipAdiMchabaDDAyi. I saMdarbhaMlO velchEru nArAyaNarAvu, DEviD shUl^man, saMjay subrahmaNyaM rAsina #Textures of time[17]#anna pustakaM charitra pariSOdhanani oka malupu tippiMdi. bhAratIyulaku iMglIshuvALLu rAkamuMdu charitra rachana lEdani, chAritraka j~nAnaM lEdani nammakaMgA viSvasiMchE abhiprAyAlani I pustakaM savimarSakaMgA edurkunnadi. udAharaNaki, kalpitakathagA bhAviMchabaDE kumAra rAmuni katha, pATalugA bhAviMchabaDina bobbili yuddha katha, kAvyaMgA bhAviMchabaDE raMgarAya charitra, vITanniTinI chAritraka graMthAlugA chUDavalasina avasarAnni I pustakaM samardhaMgA pratipAdiMchiMdi.

ippaTiki kUDA vijayanagara sAmrAjyaM guriMchi, kRshNadEvarAyalu guriMchi jAtIyavAda bhAvAlu, AMdhra vaibhava bhAvAlu vichchalaviDigA chalAmaNi avutunnAyi. ippaTikI manaM kRshNarAyala kAlaMlO ashTadiggajAlu vuMDEvArani, vALLatO Ayana rOjaMtA samasyApUraNalu, sAhitya charchalu chEsEvArani nammutU kUrchuMTAM. I nammakAniki AMdhrapradES prabhutvaM kUDA tODpATistUMdi. kRshNarAyala AMdhrabhOjatvAnni, Ayana chuTTU vunna kathalani elA arthaM chEsukOvAlO cheptU avi aksharAlA chAritrakaM kAvu, ayinA avi koTTivEya taggavi kAvu ani pratipAdistU, iTu sAhitya charitraki aTu bhAvAla charitraki (#History of Ideas)# ivi yeMtagA upayOgistAyO vivaraMgA cheppina pustakaM velchEru nArAyaNarAvu, DEviD shUl^man rAsina #A poem at the right moment: Remembered Verses from Pre-modern South India; (Berkeley, New Delhi, 1998, 1999).# kAnI I pustakaM telugudESaMlO charitrakArula dRshTiki vachchinaTlulEdu. I bhAvAlaki, kathalaki venakAla vunna rAjakIya avasarAlanu gurtistU kanIsaM charitrakArulalOnainA vITini savimarSaMgA charchiMchE paristhiti ErpaDAli.

upayukta vishayasUchika

  • emeskO vAru #Robert Sewell 1900# saMvatsaraMlO prachuriMchina #A Forgotten Empire# anE pustakAnni I madhyanE telugulOki anuvadiMchi prachuriMchAru. 110 ELLa taruvAtainA vijayanagara charitrAdhyayanaMlO mukhyamaina I pustakaM telugulO rAvaDaM maMchi vArta.
  • rAmarAjIyamu – a. veMkayya, saM. gustAph opparT (#Gustav Oppert) ,# vAviLLa prachuraNa, 1923.
  • sthAnikaMgA karaNAla vadda pUrtigA sahakAraM aMdanappuDu, lEka oka rAtapratini pUrtigA yetti rAsukOvalasina avasaraM lEdani bhAviMchinA, mekaMjI sahAyakulu sthAnika samAchArAnni kluptaMgA oka DaijesT rUpaMlO poMduparachina samAchAraM.
  • vijayanagara charitranu pUrtigA arthaM chEsukOvAlaMTE AnATi samakAlIna, parisara rAjyAla (udA. tamiLa/pAMDya, dakkan/bahamanI) charitranu, alAgE 14va SatAbdaM muMdunATi (udA. kAkatIya, reDDi, hoyasAla rAjula) sthitigatulanu guriMchi kUDA telusukOvaDaM mukhyaM. Asakti galavAru AyA rAjya charitralanu kUDA saMpradiMchavachchu.
  • kumArarAmuni katha – saMpAdakatvaM: veMkaTaramaNayya, #GOML, Madras, 1952.
  • # chivari pustakaM kRshNasvAmi ayyaMgAr saMpAdakatvaMlO pUrtichEyabaDiMdi.
  • #Burton Stein – Vijayanagara, 1989
  • Sanjay Subrahmanyam – Reflections on state-making and history-making in south India, 1500-1800,
    JESHO, V41N3, pp. 382-416, 1998.
  • Vasundhara Filliozat – The Vijayanagara empire: As seen by Domingo Paes and Ferna~o Nuniz, Two sixteenth century
    chronicles, New Delhi, 1999.
  • Velceru Narayana Rao, David Shulman, Sanjay Subrahmanyam – A new imperial idiom in the 16th century: Krishnadevaraya and his political theory of Vijayanagara; in “South-Indian Horizons – Felicitation volume for Francois Gros”; Chevillard, Wilden (Eds), pp. 597-625; Pondicherry, 2004.
  • Hermann Kulke – “Maharajas, Mahants and Historians – Reflections on the historiography of early
    Vijayanagara and Sringeri” in “Vijayanagara city and empire”; A.L. Dallapiccola (ed), pp. 120-44; Stuttgart, 1985.
  • Phillip Wagoner – Harihara, Bukka and the Sultan: The Delhi sultanate in the political imagination of Vijayanagara” in “Beyond Turk and Hindu – Rethinking religious identities in Islamicate south Asia”, D. Gilmartin, B. Lawrence (eds), pp. 300-26;2000.
  • Phillip Wagoner – Sultan among Hindu kings: Dress, titles and the Islamicization of Hindu culture at Vijayanagara, JAS, V55N4, pp. 851-80, 1996.
  • Sanjay Subrahmanyam; The political economy of commerce : Southern India, 1500-1650; Cambridge University Press, 1990.
  • Burton Stein – The economic function of a medieval south Indian temple; JAS, V19, pp. 163-76; 1960.
  • Sanjay Subrahmanyam – An Eastern El-Dorado: The Tirumala-Tirupati Temple-Complex in Early European Views and Ambitions, 1540–1660, in Syllables of Sky: Studies in South Indian Civilization in Honour of Velcheru Narayana Rao, David Shulman (ed.), pp. 338–390, Delhi, 1995.
  • Velceru Narayana Rao, David Shulman, Sanjay Subrahmanyam: Textures of Time – Writing history in south India 1600-1800, Permanent Black publ., 2001.
    
   
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(16# abhiprAyAlu) mI abhiprAyaM teliyachEyaMDi #»

  1. Sowmya # abhiprAyaM:

    #July 5, 2010 9:24 pm

    #mottaMgA okkasAri inni vishayAlu burralOki veLLEMduku morAyistunnAyi kAnI, vyAsaM valla chAlA vishayAlu telisAyi. SrInivAs gAru mariMta taruchugA ImATalO rAyAlani ASistunnAnu.

  2. ravi abhiprAyaM:

    #July 6, 2010 5:35 am

    #kRshNadEvarAya vaibhavaM anna pustakaM okaTi rAyala vAri mIda paluvuru pramukhulu vyAsAla krODIkaraNagA veluvaDiMdi. I rachanalO rAyala vAri sAhitya sEva guriMchE kAka, appaTi sAmAjika paristhitula guriMchi, prajala jIvana vidhAnaM guriMchi, AhArapu alavATlu, rAyala vAri vaMSa charitra, rAyalavAru tirupatiki ichchina mAnyAlu vITi guriMchi saMgrahaMgA unnadi. I pustaka parichayaM ikkaDa unnadi.

  3. #mOhana # abhiprAyaM:

    #July 6, 2010 10:58 am

    #maMchi vyAsamu. Asakti unnavAriki iMdulOni sUchikalu eMtO upayOgapaDutAyi. sumAru 70, 80 va daSakAlalO “rAyana dinachari” anE oka rAyala DayarIni kannaDamulO kanugonnAraTa. aMdulO ennO kotta vishayAlu unnAyani chadivAnu. dAnini guriMchina pariSOdhana vivarAlanu evarainA telipitE bAguMTuMdi. I pustakAnni bahuSA rAyalu vrAyalEdu, kAni iMdulOni samAchArAlu chAritraka satyAlanE aMTAru.
    vidhEyuDu – mOhana

  4. #rama bharadwaj # abhiprAyaM:

    #July 6, 2010 1:30 pm

    #chAlA #disappointing# gA unna parichaya vyAsaM idi. hisTarI ki saMbaMdhiMchi ..velchEru trayaM#[# migilina vAriddarU saMjay subhrahmanyaM..dEviD shulman lani vErugA cheppanakhkharalEdanukuMTAnu. I vyAsaM chadivAkA vALLa pErlu eTU pAThakulaki kaMThatA vachchEstAyi. vyAsakarta uddEsyamE adi ayinaTTU telisElA..#]# vAri rachanala mahimani kIrtiMchaDaM lA anpiMchEdi gA uMdi tappa iMkEmI adanapu samAchAraM lEdu. asalI saMchikalO “pariSOdhanAtmaka vyAsAlannI” vIrivE kAvaDaM kEvalaM yAdRchchikaM kAdu.

    paruchUri SrInivAs okasAri ” veMkaTaramaNayya” anI okasAri “nElaTUri” anI prastAvana chEsAru. #robert sewell # ni #robert# ani pilistE elA anpiMchagaladO alA anpiMchiMdi.

    rama.

  5. #Syamala Rao # abhiprAyaM:

    #July 7, 2010 3:59 am

    #vyAsaM bAguMdi. SrIkRshNadEvarAyalu guriMchi gAni, vijayanagarasAmrAjyaM guriMchi gAni telugu vALLalO viparItamaina ArAdhanAbhAvaM uMDaTaMlO viMtalEdu kAni, Imadhya kAlaMlO I vishayAlalO yEmI pariSOdhana jaragaka pOvaTaM chAlA vishAdakaraM.

    TInEj prAyaMlO (tU.gO.jillA) kottapETa graMdhAlayaMlO padaharu saMpuTAlugA unna ‘vijayanagara sAmrAjya navalAmAlika’ chadivAnu. adi kannaDa mUlAniki telugusEta. anuvAdakulu yevarO sarigA gurtuku rAvaTaMlEdu. nAku taTTinaMtavaraku kEvalakAlpanika chAritraka dIrghanavala. satyAsatyAla pALLa saMgati pakkana peDitE yEkabigini chadiviMchE rachana.

    tADigaDapa SyAmalarAvu, haidarAbAdu.

  6. surES kolichAla abhiprAyaM:

    #July 7, 2010 9:57 am

    #ramagAru: ardha SatAbdaM paigA aMtarjAtIya sthAyilO telugu sAhitya svarUpAla guriMchi — mukhyaMgA kRshNadEvarAyala guriMchi, A madhyayugaMlOni sAhityaM guriMchi — velchEru nArAyaNarAvu, Ayana sahapariSOdhakulu, iMkA itara pariSOdhakulu chEsina pariSOdhanalanu I pratyEka saMchikalO prachuriMchaDaM (mI bhAshalO kIrtiMchaDaM) kEvalaM yAdRchChikaM kAdu, samuchitaM kUDAnU. nA dRshTilO I vyAsaM pradhAna uddESyaM vyaktulni pramukhaMgA prastAviMchaDaM kAdu, vijayanagara charitralO prakaTiMchabaDina pustakAlni, vyAsAlni oka kramaMlO parichayaM cheyyaDaM. ivi kAka unnata pramANAlatO prachuriMchabaDina pustakAlu, pariSOdhanalu uMTE vATini guriMchina vivarAlu ImATa pAThakulaku aMdajEstE upayOgakaraMgA uMTuMdi kAnI unna pustakAlani vyAsAlani parichayaM chEsinaMduku SrInivAs paruchUrini tappupaTTaDaMtO kaligE prayOjanaM EmiTO nAku bOdha paDalEdu.

    “pratikUla pavanAlu” anna pustakaMlO jayaprabha gAru ilA aMTAru: “kanIsaM koMtavarakainA tama jAtiniMchi prabhaviMchina mEdhAvulani guriMchi, kavi paMDitula guriMchi, saMskartala guriMchi telusukOvAlanna jij~nAsa pratijAtilOnU, prati taraMlOnU uMDi tIrAli. appuDE vAri bhAshA saMskRtulaku oka konasAgiMpu sAdhyamautuMdi. lEkapOtE, oka tarAnni, iMkO taraMtO kalipE sUtrabaMdhaM ekkaDO okachOTa tegipOyE pramAdaM uMdi. aTuvaMTi pramAdAnni nivAriMchaDAnikE venukaTi kAlAnni guriMchi, A kAlaMlO batiki A kAlaM mIda tama prabhAvAnni prasariMchina vArini guriMchi aTu taruvAta tarAlu telusukOvAli!”

    mIrEmaMTAru?
    surES.

  7. #rama bharadwaj # abhiprAyaM:

    #July 7, 2010 1:33 pm

    #nEnu ilA aMTAnu kolichAla surEsh gArU!!

    mIru jayaprabha gAri vAkyAlani ikkaDa kOT chEyaDaMlO nAku EmaMta laMke kanpiMchaDalEdu . alA kOT chEyaDAniki aMtakumiMchina iMkEdO kAraNam unnaTTugA uMdi tappa . jayaprabha gArannadi bahuSA gatiMchina sAhitIvEttala abhiprAyAlani guriMchi ayi uMTuMdi.

    charitralO ghanamaina pariSOdhakulugA nElaTUri vEMkaTa ramaNayya gArinO , mallaMpalli sOmaSEkhara Sarma gArinO telugu prajalu gurtu peTTukuMTAru. vAri pradhAna pariSOdhanA raMgaM charitra ganaka. alA charitraki saMbaMdhiMchi bahuSA velchEru iMkA shulman lani telugu prajalu gurtiMcharu. vAri pradhAna kRshi sAhityAnuvAdAlu mAtramE!! aMduvalana vijayanagara charitraki saMbaMdhiMchi ippaTi taraM vAriki maLLI parichayaM chEyavalasiMdi telugulO chAritraka aMSAlani veliki tIsina A paMDitulanE !! appuDu kRshNarAyalani guriMchina I pratyEka saMchikaki oka niMDudanaM vachchi uMDEdi. ippaTilA I saMchika #monotonous# gA uMDEdi kAdu. alA parichayaM chEyagala oka avakASaM uMDikUDA chEyakuMDA tama tama rachanalatOnE patrikani niMpEsukOvaDaM aMTE asalu A raMgaMlO ippaTidAkA EmI jaragakapOtE tAmE charitramIda modaTi sArigA #focus# chEsi cheptunna ardhAlu vastAyi. pAThakulaMtA mImI aMchanAla mErakE anukOvalasina avasaraM uMDadanukuMTAnu. paigA kotta tarAla muMdu alAMTi oka porapATu dRSyAnni uMchaDaM aMta sababu kUDA kAdu. oka raMgaMlO nishNAtulaina vALLu alAMTi pani chEyakUDanidi. eMta rAsinA velchEru ni gAnI shulman ni gAnI nAku telisI evaru ” charitrakArulu” gA gurtiMcharu. vAru vijayanagara charitraki saMbaMdhiMchi E abhiprAyAlu cheppinappaTikI!!

    jayaprabha gAri abhiprAyaM prakAramE ayitE tappakuMDA pramukhaMgA prastAvana chEyavalasiMdi charitra raMgaMlO gaNanIyamaina kRshi chEsina mahAmahulani guriMchi. sAhityAnuvAdakula charitra vyAsAlani guriMchi kAdu.

    rama.

  8. surES kolichAla abhiprAyaM:

    #July 7, 2010 2:02 pm

    #ramagAru:nEnu muMdugAnE cheppinaTlu, nA dRshTilO I vyAsaM pradhAna uddESyaM vyaktulni pramukhaMgA prastAviMchaDaM kAdu, vijayanagara charitralO prakaTiMchabaDina pustakAlni, vyAsAlni oka kramaMlO parichayaM cheyyaDaM. A vishayaMlO SrInivAs kRtakRtyuDayyADanE nA abhiprAyaM.

    mIru cheppinaTlu jayaprabha vAkyAlani kOT cheyyaDaM ikkaDa pUrtigA anavasaraM.

    surES.

  9. ravikiraN timmireDDi abhiprAyaM:

    #July 7, 2010 2:25 pm

    #kolichAla gAru,

    I saMchika vishayaMlO rAyala gAri vyAsAla varaku ramA bharadvAja gAri abhiprAyaM sarigAnE anipistuMdi. A vishayAnni prakkana peDitE, I saMchikalO vyAsAllO eMdukO aMdarU sAmAnya pAThakuDni marchipOyinaTTanipiMchiMdi. E bi.TekkO, ikkaDa em. essO chEsi nAlugu lainlu kODu rAsukunE mI pAThakulaki (kanIsaM mejAriTI) mIru saraLavaina, nAlugu vishayAlu prOvu chEsi vipulavaina (vIlainaMta) rAyala sAmrAjyapu vivaraNa lEdu. nijavE mIrichchina repharensulu chaduvukuMTE avannI vATillO vuMTAyEvO, kAnI eMtamaMdi mI pAThakulakA OpikuMdi? iMta vrAyagaligina mIrE rAyala rAjyaM guriMchi (okka rAyala guriMchE kAka) oka vyAsaM vrAsuMTE mAlATi sAmAnya pAThakulaki mariMta upayOgaMgA vuMDEdEvO!

    ayitE mI kashTAnni takkuvachEyaTaM lEdu. mA lATi vAri OpikanE nEnu kvaschan chEstunnA, iMta kashTapaDi kUDA pAThakulaki mIru nyAyaM cheyyalEdEvO ani nA anumAnaM. rAyala rAjyaMlO kAbAlEsukunnArA, paimIda guDDa lEkuMDA vunnArA anEdAnikannA, rAyala gAru hiMdU rAjya saMrakshakulA kAdA anE vAdana kannA, rAyala vyaktitvaM, rAyala prabhutva nirmANaM, paddati, A kAlapu sAMghIka, Ardhika, parAmArdhika alavATlu, nammakAlu, AcharaNalu avi palAni palAni repharensulu lEkuMDAnO (unnA kUDA vyAsaM chivara vyAsa saraLiki avarOdhaM kAkuMDA)oka saraLavaina vyAsaM uMDuMTE mAlATi sAmAnyulaki mA majAgA vuMDEdi. telugumATa vachchina manishevaDainA rAyalani nettinE kadA peTTukuMTAru.

    ravikiraN timmireDDi

  10. #Madhav # abhiprAyaM:

    #July 8, 2010 11:19 am

    #ravikiraN gArU,

    surES kolichAla ImATa saMpAdakullO lEru. aMduvalla rAbOyE saMchikalO E vyAsAlU, SIrshikalU uMDabOtunnAyO AyanakI teliyadu. surES I pariSOdhanA patrAnni mA abhyarthana mEraku anuvadiMchAru. aMtavarakE. I saMchikalO E rakamaina sAhityaM uMDAli anEdi mA nirNayaM. aMduvalla I saMchikapai mI abhiprAyAlaku kAraNaM, saMpAdakulamaina mEmE.

    mAdhav mAchavaraM
    saMpAdakula bRMdaM taraphuna.

  11. #Saradhi Motamarri # abhiprAyaM:

    #July 28, 2010 12:39 am

    Srinivas garu,
    An excellent effort and inquisitive work. I commend your interest in bringing out interesting topics.
    During 1970s and 1980s there were excellent novels came as serials in Vijaya Magazine on History. The author’ was Prasad, but I did not get any more details about this author after that. He wrote extremely well and I remember those days they won the heart of Telugu people. He did write some like ‘Ramarayalu’ and some on Sri Krishnadevaraya too. He too proposed (I vaguely remember) that Harihararaya and Bukkaraya were from Warangal.
    I just got a copy of Nalamotu Chakravarthi garu latest book on ‘My Telugu Roots…’

  12. Subramanyam.Ravuluri # abhiprAyaM:

    #March 4, 2011 7:00 am

    Shyamala rao garu,
    I also read the books vijaya nagara samrajya naval malika in 1960-65. i am not sure whether it was Vidya nagara navala maallika. The kannada writers are Korati sreenivas puram brothers and i don’t remember who translated them in to Telugu .The series covered the history prior to Vijaya nagara kingdomalso. There are 20 books in the series and few titles in my memory are Devagiri durgamu, Devagiri Pathanam, Kampila rayalu,Rajoydayamu and towlaveswarudu.These books were part of Erramanazil colony library. As rightly said by you keeping the historic authenticity of books aside ,they are books evinced great interest.. I wish these books are published once again for the benefit one and all.

    Subramanyam.Ravuluri,.Hyderbad

  13. Sreenivas Paruchuri # abhiprAyaM:

    #March 6, 2012 10:19 am

    The latest issue of the journal: History of Religions (V51N2, 2011), has a good essay by Prof. Valerie Stoker on the relationships between various religious groups at Vijayanagara court.

    Regards,
    Sreenivas

  14. Subramanyam.Ravuluri # abhiprAyaM:

    #January 18, 2013 9:35 am

    Srinivas garu – have you come across any reference of books written by Sri.Korati Srinivasa puram brothers (in Kannada)/Translated to Telugu. Sri SymalaRao garu and my self made reference of the above books through this columns. I shall be thankful if you can give your valuable opinion / any information in this regard.

    Subramanyam.Ravuluri
    Hyderabad

  15. Sreenivas Paruchuri # abhiprAyaM:

    #October 2, 2013 1:03 pm

    Here is another good paper contributing to a better understanding of the Vijayanagara empire, published in the latest issue of:
    Journal of the Economic and Social History of the Orient; Vol. 56; No.3 (2013); pp. 433-470
    Mark T. Lycett and Kathleen D. Morrison
    The “Fall” of Vijayanagara Reconsidered:Political Destruction and Historical Construction in South Indian History

    Though the authors are not lit. scholars, this paper should also be of interest to Telugu literary historians to understand why certain kaavya-s were written during this time period.

    Regards,
    Sreenivas.

  16. Sreenivas Paruchuri # abhiprAyaM:

    #October 2, 2013 1:10 pm

    Subramanyam-gaaru,

    My apologies for this late response. I missed your comment when it was posted. Re: your query for Korati Srinivasa puram brothers’ works, I myself read two of them “kampili raayalu” and “dEvagiri patanam” during my school days but ever since have not come across these books.

    Regards,
    Sreenivas.

#mI abhiprAyaM teliyachEyaMDi

#  

  

#ImATa pAThakulaku sUchanalu chadivAnu. vATiki kaTTubaDi uMTAnani hAmI istunnAnu.