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kanyASulkaM maLLI eMduku chadavAlaMTE …

#Girls for Sale, kanyasulkam


A Play from Colonial India,
Gurajada Apparao
Indiana University Press (July 2007)
Paperback: 280 pages
List Price: $21.95
Translated from Telugu
By Velcheru Narayana Rao

#gurajADa appArAvu gAri kanyASulkaM nATakAnni iMglIshu lOki ‘ anuvadistunnA’ nani velchEru nArAyaNa rAvu gAri nuMDi vinna vALLallO nEnu kUDA okaNNi. amma bAbOy ani guMDe bAdukunna vALLallO nEnu kUDA okaNNE! aMduku mukhya kAraNaM, kanyASulkaM nATakaMlO vADina bhAsha. appArAvu gAru kanyASulkaM lO 19 va SatAbdaM uttara bhAgaMlO vijayanagaraM SivArlalO vADE mAMDalikaM vADAru. dAniki tODu nATakaMlO prati pAtra tanu mATlADE mATallO tana kulaM, Arthika sthiti, chaduvu saMdhyalu, liMgabEdhaM spashTaMgA pratibiMbistuMdi. aTuvaMTi nATakAnni iMglIshulOki tEvaDaM sAhasamayina panE anipiMchiMdi. nijAniki I pani chAlA avasaramainadani kUDA anipiMchiMdi. I paniki tagina vADu nArAyaNarAvu gArE anE nibbaraM kUDA kaligiMdi. eMdukaMTE, idivaralO Ayana chAlA telugu pustakAlu iMglIshulOki anuvadiMchina vishayaM aMdarikI telusu.

anuvAdAlamIda, anuvAda samasyala mIda yippaTikE chAlA vyAsAlu vimarSalU mana patrikalalO vachchAyi. vATi guriMchi muchchaTiMchaTaM prastutaM anavasaraM. prAchya bhAshalanuMchi pASchAtya bhAshallOki vachchE anuvAdAlu mukhyaMgA evarini uddESiMchi chEsinavO bOdhapaDitE anavasara vAdaprativAdAlaki tAvulEdani nA nammakaM.

nAku telusu kuMdAmanna abhilAshatO, (kyUriyAsiTI anaMDi) nAku telisina telugu mAMDalikAlaki, vyAvahArika bhAshalO unna jAtIyAlakI nArAyaNarAvugAru chEsina ‘anuvAdAlu’ iMglIshu vADuka bhAshaki, eMta daggiragA unnAyO chUSAnu. ayitE, nATakaM mottaM aMtA I samasAmyata kOsaM vedaka lEdu. sthAlIpulAkanyAyaMgA mUla nATakaMlO girISaM chEsina svagatAlu, madhuravANi deppi poDupulu, agnihOtrAvadhAnlu kOpaMgA anna mATalU, lubhdhAvadhAnlu peTTina tiTTu, vALLabhAsha, vADukalO unna iMglIshulOki chakkagA samAMtaraMgA anuvadiMcha baDDAyi. allAgE, ‘khagapati amRtamu tEgA…’ anna padyaM iMglIshulOki bhEshuggA anuvadiMcha baDiMdi. allAgE, 5 va aMkaM, 6 va raMgaM Akharna SishyuDi pATa kUDA chakkagA vachchiMdi. ayitE, iTuvaMTi anuvAda parIkshalu peTTaDAniki nEnu sarainavADini kAnani nAku telusu. kAraNaM : mUlaMlO telugu nuDikArAniki, telugumATlADEchOTukI, nEnu daggiragA uMDabaTTi; — eMta vaddanukunnA bhAshAgata pakshapAtaM (#bias)# pOdu kAbaTTi. kAgA, vADuka bhAshagA iMglIshulO nAku pravESaM lEdu. paigA, anuvAdAlani vimarSiMchagala pratyEka nErparitanaM lEkapOvaDaM maroka mukhya kAraNaM.

ikkaDa puTTiperugutU telugu guriMchi vinaDamEkAni telugulO pratyEka pravESaM lEni ‘ telugu -amerikan^ ‘ yuvatIyuvakulu — (vALLa mAtRbhAsha iMglIshu kAbaTTi!) chadivi, I ‘iMglIshu’ nATakaM iMglIshu nATakaMlA unnadO lEdO cheppavalasina avasaraM uMdi. aMdukani, I pustakaM koni mIpillalachEta chadiviMchaMDi. oka vishayaM mAtraM nijaM. nAku mAtraM ekkaDA naTTu paDakaMDA iMglIshu kanyASulkaM chadavaDAniki sAphIgA naDichiMdani dhImAgA cheppagalanu.

kanyASulkaM guriMchi maLLI ippuDu rAyavalasina avasaraM EmiTi annadi asalu praSna. EDu daSAbdAlugA, mukhyaMgA gata aidu daSAbdAlalO kanyASulkaM nATakaM pai konni vaMdala vyAsAlu, vimarSalu, prativimarSalU, vivAdAlU, uttarAlU vachchAyi. I vyAsAlu nATaka kartRtvaMtO modalupeTTi, nATakaMlO pratipAtrapaina, appArAvugAri aMkita vAkyAlapaina, pIThikalapaina, pAtrala auchityaMpaina, vATi AvaSyakatapaina, nATaka lakshaNAlapaina, lakshyAlapaina, vastuvu paina, vasttvaikyata paina, nirvahaNapaina, sAMghika saMskaraNalapainA …. aTU iTU … ennO ennennO…. . kanyASulkaM nATakaM koMdariki brahmapadArthaM; mari koMdariki plEDau (#play dough!)# okkokka vimarSakuDiki okkokka rakaMgA kanipiMchiMdi, vinipiMchiMdi. mari koMdaru vimarSakulaki vALLaki nachchina pAkshika paddhatilO malachukO baDDadi! paigA I nATakaM konni vaMdalasArlu telugudESaMlO pradarSiMcha baDiMdi. ayitE, mUlaMlO nATakAnni kudiMchi kattiriMchi appuDappuDu bhAshani ‘saMskariMchi’ IpradarSanalannI chESArani gurtuMchukOvAli. mUlaMlO nATakaM EDu aMkAlu, mupphaireMDu raMgAla niDivi galadi. aMdukanE kAbOlu, pradarSanA saulabhyaM pErutO kudiMchAru, kattiriMchAru, savariMchAru, prayOktalaMdarU!

nArAyaNarAvu gAri anuvAdaM kanyASulkaM nATakAnni maLLI chadiviMchiMdi. anuvAdamE kAdu; Ayana rAsina venuka mATa (#The Play in Context)# nUtana prEraNanichchi, tirigi AlOchiMchavalasina avasaraM kalpiMchiMdi. venuka mATalO nArAyaNarAvugAru oka sarikotta pratipAdana chEsAru. oka rakaMgA idi viplavAtmakamaina pratipAdana. tana pratipAdanani sOpapattikaMgA samarthiMchAru.

nArAyaNarAvu gAri pratipAdanakiM pUrva raMgaM idi :

kanyASulkaM nATakaM pai iMtaku pUrvaM vimarSakulaMdarU appArAvu gAru I nATakaM rAyaDAniki prEraNa, kAraNaM, saMghasaMskaraNE ani pratipAdiMchAru. nATi samAjaMlO mukhyaMgA mUDu durAchArAlani ettichUpi vATi nivRtti ki I nATakaM mArgadarSi ani vimarSakulaMdarU padE padE nokki vakkANiMchAru. I mUDu durAchArAlU varusagA, — kanyASulkaM, aMTE ADapillalani ammaDaM konu kkOvaDaM; vitaMtu vivAhaM; vESyA samasya. gata 50 saMvatsarAlugA vachchina vyAsa paraMpara, I mUDiMTinI pUrtigAnO, arthOktilOnO, samarthiMchinavE. (chAlA koddi vimarSalu iMduku vyatirEkata chUpiMchAyi kAnI vATini evarU khAtaru chEsinaTTu lEdu!)

nArAyaNarAvugAru chEsina pratipAdana sArAMSaM idi : I vimarSakulalO E okkarU kanyASulkaM nATakAnni, rachanA vyUhAnni, sarigA arthaM chEsukOlEdani, briTIshu valasarAjyaM appaTi saMghaMmIda techchina vattiDi vAriki pUrtigA bOdha paDalEdanI udaharistU appArAvugArilOni navyatanI, Ayanadayina ‘AdhunikatanI ‘ sOdAharaNaMgA vivariMchAru.

I vyAsaMlO nEnu gata aidu daSAbdAlugA kanyASulkaM nATakaM pai vimarSakula avagAhana sArAMSaMgA vAri mATallOnE udaharistU, I vyAsa dhOraNiki aDDu paDakaMDA anubaMdhaMlO istAnu. nA vyAsaMlO nArAyaNarAvugAru chEsina pratipAdanapai kEMdrIkaristAnu. I nATakAnni konni vaMdalasArlu kattiriMchi ‘pradarSiMchaDaM’ valana telugu prajalalO pAtukopOyina konni apOhalu, apArthAlU uTaMkistAnu.

2.

appArAvu gAri guriMchi rAsETappuDu reMDu mukhya vishayAlu marichipOlEM. okaTi : briTIshu valasa vidhAnaM, reMDu : Adhunikata. Adhunikata mana dESaMlO eppuDu modalayyiMdi anna praSnaki sAdhAraNaMgA mana Adhunikulu cheppE samAdhAnaM — briTIshu vADi valasa rAjya sthApana taruvAtanE ani. briTIshu vADu valasaki rAvaDaM mUlaMgAnE mana saMskRti, sAhityaM nUtana tEjaM poMdAyani vAdaM, nammika. aMtaku pUrvaM, aMTE 17, 18 SatAbdAlalOni sAhityaM aMtA avinIti bhUyishTaM ani, kuLLipOyiMdanE nammakaM. adi saraina vAdaM kAdani, mukhyaMgA dakshiNa bhArata dESaMlO Adhunikata 16 va SatAbdaMlOnE unnadanI, nArAyaNarAvu, saMjay subrahmaNyaM, DEviD shUl^ man^ lu gata 15 saMvatsarAlugA tama chAritraka sAhitya pariSOdhanala dvArA manaki parichayaM cheyyaDAniki prayatnistunnAru. AnATi sAhityAnni suniSitaMgA, chAritrakaMgA pariSIliMchi, nUtana paddhatullO pariSOdhana chEstE briTIshu valasa ki pUrvamE Adhunikata spashTaM avutuMdani vAri vAdaM. briTIshu vADi rAka mUlaMgA vachchina Adhunikatani vALLu kAdanaDaMlEdu ; vADiki pUrvamE ‘ Adhunikata ‘ unnadi — adi chAritraka pariNAmaMlO kramaMgA saMpradAyakaMgA vachchiMdI ani arthaM. valasa rAjyaM taruvAta vachchina Adhunikata saMpradAya viruddhaM ani cheppavachchu. I vishayAlapai niSitamaina charcha (#Penumbral Visions : Making Polities in Early Modern South India, Sanjay Subrahmanyam, Textures of Time : Writing History in South India 1600-1800, Narayana Rao, Shulman & Subrahmanyam, Symbols of Substance : Court and State in Nayaka-Period Tamilnadu, narayana Rao, Shulman and Subrahmanyam)# anE pustakAlalOnu, (#The Sound of Kiss, The Demon’s Daughter)# anE pustakAlalO unna venuka mATalalO chadava vachchu.

briTIshu vADi valasaku pUrvaM nuMchI kramaMgA vachchina AdhunikatanuMchi appArAvugAri kanyASulkaM utpannamainadani nArAyaNa rAvu gAri pratipAdanalO mukhya vishayaM. briTIshu valasa vidhAnaM valana vachchina Adhunikata, chAritrakaMgA saMpradAyakaMgA vachchina Adhunikatani aNaga dokkiMdi. AkAlapu madhya taragati vAriki I Adhunikata saMskRtIsmRtibhraMSaM, marupU kaligiMchiMdi. E tadkAraNaMgA saMpradAya viluvalu taggu mukhaM paTTAyi. appaTi samAjaM kshINadaSalO unnadanI, naitikaMgA patanaM ayiMdanI, mata saMbaMdhamaina pichchibhramalO samAjaM koTTumiTTADutunnadannE nammika vidyAdhikulalO balAnni puMjukunnadi.

I saMdarbhaMlO appArAvugAri nATakaMlO pAtralu manamuMdukostAyi. I pAtralannI churukainavi. sRjanAtmakamainavi. hAsyaM puTTiMchEvi; kaDupubba navviMchEvi, kavviMchEvi. chAlA dRDhamainavInu. appArAvugAru tana nATakaMlO digajAripOtunna samAjAnni, naitikaMgA patanamavutunna samAjAnnI samarpiMchalEdu. naitika vairudhyaM samAjaMlO eppuDannA ekkaDannA talayettitE A samAjaM tanaku tAnugA mArpu techchukOgala sthitilO unnadi kAni, sAMghika saMskaraNakOsaM eduru chUDalEdu. I samAjaM tanapai tanaki unna nammakAnni vammu chEsETaMta vattiDi briTIshu valasa vidhAnaM techchipeTTina udhRtaM. iMduchEta paikulAlu tama prAthamika yOgyatalani marichipOvaDaM jarigiMdi.

appArAvugAriki I samAjaMpai avagAhana, samakAlIna rachayitalaina baMkiMchaMdrakannA, TAgUrukannA lOtugA unnadanna vishayaM spashTaM avutuMdi. A rakaMgA Ayana eMtOmuMduchUpu unna mahAnubhAvuDani cheppaka tappadu.

briTIshu valasa vidhAna nEpathyaMlO konni sAmAjika viSEshAlu mananaM chEsukOvaDaM avasaraM. 19 va SatAbdapu Akhari daSAbdaMlO, mukhyaMgA beMgAl^ rAshTraMlO ‘saMgha saMskaraNOdyamaM ‘ modalayyiMdi. briTIshu rAjyAdhinEtalu I udyamAniki maunAMgIkAraM telipAru kAnI, rAjakIyaMgA pAlgona lEdu. kAraNaM : sipAyi viplavaM taruvAtanE I udyamaM AraMbhaM kAvaDaM. rAjA rAma mOhana rAy skULLallO saMskRtaM cheppaDaM mAnEsi, iMglIshu bOdhana kupakramiMchamani arjI rASADu, tanaku gA tAnu saMskRta paMDituDE! kAraNaM : iMglIshu vidya mUlaMgA mUDha nammakAlu, pichchi bhramalU, mUrkhatvaM pOyi kottadaina sAmAjika svAtaMtryaM vastuMdanE nammakaM. iMduvalla jarigiMdEmiTaMTE mahAmahOpAdhyAyulu, saMskR ta paMDitulU pakkaki neTTabaDDAru. saMpradAya vidya pUrtigA nASanaM avaDaM modalayyiMdi. dAniki tODu, TAgUru bhArata sAhityAniki Adhunikata techchADanE udyamaM dRDhapaDi, A paridhilOki eMtOmaMdi sAhitIparulu kUDA chorabaDDAru. I udyamaMtO, aMtaku pUrvaM vachchina sAhityaM aMtA malina pUritaM, aSlIlaM anna bhAvaM perigipOyiMdi. saMgha saMskaraNaku tODugA sAhitya saMskaraNa talakettiMdi.

telugu dESaMlO I udyamAniki kaMdukUri vIrESaliMgaM paMtulu gAru praprathamuDu, nAyakuDu. iMglIshu vidya abhyasiMchADu. brAhmaNulalO vidhavA vivAhAniki nAMdI vAkyaM palikADu. vESyAvRtti nirmUlanaki kaMkaNaM kaTTukunnADu. appaTinuMchi, iMglIshu chaduvulu chaduvukunna vALLaMdarU, krishTiyan^ nItiki, vikTOriyan^ viluvalaki prAtinidhyaM ivvaDaM jarigiMdi.

I sAMghika nEpathyaMlO appArAvugAru vijayanagaraM mahArAjA vAri (AnaMda gajapati) koluvulOki vachchAru. akkaDa uMDagA, kanyASulkaM ( modaTidi, reMDavadI) rAyaDaM jarigiMdi. reMDava kanyASulkamE prasiddhikekkina nATakaM anna vishayaM aMdarikI telisinadE!

3.

kanyASulkaM nATakaM EkArthakaM (#monologic)# kAdu. adi bahvarthakaM (#polyphonic).# EkArthakaMlO unna rachanallO rachayita pAtrala jIvana paddhatini nirdESistADu. vAraMdari goMtukA atanidE! aTlA kAkaMDA bahvarthaka rachanallO pAtralanuMDi manaM rachayita goMtu vinaM. pAtralu tamadaina svaMta goMtutO tama prapaMchaMlO uMDi mATlADutAyi. aMTE, rachayitaki E vidhamaina svataMtratA lEdani kAdu. I pAtralannI rachayita tayAru chEsinavE! ayitE, I pAtralannI rachayita vAkkutO samAna sthAyilO mATlADutAyi. aMTE, sthUlaMgA, bahvarthaka rachanalO okE okka saMdESaM uMDadu.

mana sAhityaMlO bahvarthaka rachanalu lEka kAdu. mahA bhArataM, rAmAyaNaM, bahvarthaka rachanalE! avi bahvarthaka rachanalu kAbaTTE rakarakAla kONAlanuMchi rakarakAla vyAkhyalu vachchAyi. okkokka sAri, konni konni vyAkhyalu, mUla graMtha rachayita “uddESiMchina” arthAniki ” vyatirEkaMgA ” kanipiMchE avakASaM unnadi. mana Rshulu rAsina mahAkAvyAlalO, purANAlalO bahvarthakatvaM pAThakulu gurtiMchinA, appArAvu gAru bahvarthaka rachana chEyagala samarthulu anE dhyAsa A pAThakulaki kalagaka pOvachchu.

appArAvugAri kanyASulkaM nATakaMlO bahvarthakaMki udAharaNagA, nArAyaNa rAvu gAru EDava aMkaM Akhari raMgaM tIsukoni vyAkhyAniMchAru. nijAniki I bhAgaM evariki vAru chadivi AkaLiMpu chEsukoni AnaMdiMcha valasina bhAgaM. kluptaMgA AbhAgaM guriMchi vivaristAnu.

maduravANi magavEshaMlO evari anumatI lEkaMDAnE saujanyArAvu gAri gadilOki vastuMdi. girISaM akkaDE uMTADu. girISaM madhuravANini gurtu paTTADA? lEdA? gurtu paTTE uMDachchu! madhuravANi A gadilO pravESiMchinadi modalu, chivarivarakU katha aMtA tana chEtimIdE naDipistuMdi. saujanyA rAvuki madhuravANi evarO teliyadu. mAru vEshaMlO vachchina vESya ani modaTE telistE saujanyArAvukI AviDakI saMbhAshaNalE uMDEvi kAdu. maduravANi girISAnni poguDutuMdi. eMtasEpaTivarakU girISAnni A raMgaMlO uMchAlO madhuravANiki telusu. eppuDu girISAniki udvAsana cheppAlO kUDa Ame kerikE! saujanyArAvuki vESyalaMTE paDadu kadA! chAlA telivi gA vESyalu tama vRtti mAnukuMTE poTTa gaDichEdi eTlAga ani chamatkAraMgA praSnistuMdi. saujanyA rAvu vALLu chaduvukOvachchu; evarinannAvivAhaM chEsukOvachchu aMTADu. girISaM lAMTi ‘maMchi vADu’ vESyani vivAha mADutADA? ani aDugutuMdi. saujanyArAvu A salahAni tIvraMgA khaMDistADu! kAraNaM : aMtakumuMdE vidhavA vivAhaM mishatO girISaM saujanyA rAvuni buTTalO vEsukunnADu. (A vishayaM madhuravANiki telusA? teliyadA? ) ayitE, mIru saMskariMchabaDDa vESyani vivAhaM chEsukuMTArA? ani aDugutuMdi. dAniki saujanyA rAvu maMDi paDatADu. vivAhaM kAdu kadA, vESyani tAkanu kUDA tAkanu aMTADu. madhuravANi samayAnukUlaMgA, ati chAkachakyaMgA mATlADi, ivvavalasina gauravaM istUnE, saujanyArAvu tana goyyi tanE tavvukunETTu chEstuMdi. akkaDi saMbhAshaNalannI aMchelu aMchelugA enni rakAlugAnannA vyAkhyAniMchavachchu.

lubhdhAvadhAnulu peLLADina “peLLikUturu” vainaM, karaTakaSAstri pannina pannAgaM cheppaDaMlO madhuravANi chUpina merupulu, virupulU evarinannA mugdhulni cheyyAlasiMdE! I saMbhAshaNalU, rakarakAlugA vyAkhyAniMchavachchu. chivarilO, mAnasikaMgA balishTulamani anukunE iddaru magavALLani, girISaM, saujanyA rAvulani, vALLa ahaMkArAnnI dhvaMsaM chEstuMdi. madhuravANiki mRchchakaTikaM, telusu. vasaMtasEna telusu. bhagavadgIta kUDA telusu! (?)

saujanyA rAvu kunna amAyakatvapu saMskaraNAbhilAsha debbatiyyaDAniki madhuravANi bRhannATakaM ADutU vuMDavachchu. AdhunikuDu, pASchAtya prAbhavaMlO perigina peddamanishi, nItulu valliMchE vADiki guNapAThaM cheppaDAniki madhuravANi vachchi vuMDavachchu. lEdA, kAlaM mArutunnadi; tana daggiraki gauravanIyulaina vALLevvarU rArEmO nanna bhayaM puTTi vuMDavachchu. — Edi EmO? vITiki samAdhAnaM appArAvugArikE teliyaka pOvachchu!

I dRshTitO chadivitE oka aMchelO ( I nATakAnni vEruvEru aMchellO vyAkhyAniMchaDAniki tAvuMdi) vachchE Uha: madhuravANi goMtutO kaMdukUri vIrESaliMgaM paMtulu gArini, Ayana chEpaTTina vESyA saMskaraNOdyamAnnI vELAkOLaM chEstunnaTTu kanipistuMdi. vishayamEmiTaMTE, nATaka rachayita mukhyOddESaM saMgha saMskaraNa kAdu ; A saMskaraNalO nijamaina sAMghika viluva EmI lEdu. I saMskaraNa ghOsha kEvalaM valasa rAjya vidhAnaM valla ErpaDDa bUTakapu mAya ani bOdhapaDutuMdi.

aTlAgE subbi peLLi vishayaM tIsukOMDi. subbi bahuSA padi paneMDELLa pilla. lubdhAvadhAnulu DebbhayyO paDilO unna paMDu mudusali. iTuvaMTi vivAhAlaki vyatirEkaMgA saMghasaMskaraNOdyamakArulu dESaM nalumUlalA gaMdaragOLaM chEstU prachAraM chEstunnAru. evarO bayaTinuMchi vachchina vidyAdhikulu, prabhutva pramEyaMtO I durAchArAnni maTumAyaM chEyAlani viSva prayatnaM chEstunnAru.

nATakaMlO I peLLi guriMchi nalugurikI teliyagAnE, A ULLO anni kulAlavALLU okE tATimIda nilabaDi A peLLi jarakkuMDA cheyyaDAniki pUnukuMTAru. pUjAri, pOlIsu, sEvakulu, skUlu pillaDu, peLLikoDuku kUturu (mInAkshi) aMtA I peLLi kudirchina jittulamAri rAmappaMtulunI, peLLikoDukuni mUrkhulugA bayaTa peDatAru. appaTi samAjaM nijaMgA iTuvaMTi peLLiki vyatirEki ani kanipistUuMTE, saMskaraNa EmiTi? evarO, saujanyArAvu lAMTi amAyakulu, samAjaM kuLLipOyiMdani bhramiMchi, A bhramani nammi, saMskariMchEddAmanna kutUhalaMtappa? allAgE nATakaMlO bairAgi, migilina takkuva kulAla janAnni chUDaMDi. vALLaMdarikI nijAnijAlu telusu, mOsaM telusu. vALLa sthiti sthAnAlu telusu.

valasa kAlaMtO vachchina Adhunikata pErutO avinIti nirmUlana anE udyamAniki appArAvugAru vyatirEki ani spashTaMgA telustuMdi. ayitE, iMglIshu vidya avasaraM, anivAryaM ani appArAvugAriki telusu. iMglIshu rAkapOvaDaM valla janAniki vachchE bAdhalu telusu. valasa vidhAnaM valla vachchina, vastUvunna anarthAlU telusu.

4.

mari iMtakAlaM vimarSakulu I nATakAnni eMduku sarigA arthaM chEsukO lEkapOyAru? I nATakaM samAjaM kuLLipOyiMdani, saMskaraNE SaraNyamani udbOdha chEstunnadani elA chUSAru?

iMduku nArAyaNarAvugAru nAlugu mukhya kAraNAlu chepputunnAru. modaTi kAraNaM : I nATakaM modaTi prachuraNa – dAni pradarSana (1892) ki saMbaMdhiMchina saMdarbhaM. reMDava kAraNaM : ummaDi madrAsu rAshTraMlO valasa rAjya prAbalyaMvalla vachchina samakAlIna sAhitya rAjakIya vAtAvaraNaM. mUDava kAraNaM : telugu rachayitalapai, Adhunika vidyAvaMtulapai TAgUru gAri prabala prabhAvaM. nAlugava kAraNaM : mArksisTulu vALLa sAMghika rAjakIyAlakOsaM I nATakAnni svaMtaM chEsukOvaDaM.

modaTi kanyASulkaM nATakaM vijayanagaraM mahArAjAvAri saMghasaMskaraNAbhilAsha kai rAyabaDiMdi. A pustakaMlO rAsina upOdghAtaM, aMkitaM vAkyAlu, vidyAdhikulalO cheragani mudra vESAyi. taruvAta appArAvu gAru (1909) reMDava kanyASulkaM rAsAru. idE manaMdarikI aMdubATulOkochchina nATakaM. iMdulO, Ayanaki arthamaina samAja paraMgA chAlA mArpulu unnAyi. nijaMgA modaTi kanyASulkAnikI, reMDava kanyASulkAnikI chAlA tEDAlunnAyi. Ayana, ekkaDA I reMDava kanyASulkaM ‘ellA chadavAlO’ cheppalEdu. akkaDakkaDa uttarAlalOnu, DairIlalOnu chinna chinna sUchanalu chEsi UrukunnADu. nATakaM pEru okaTE. modaTi nATakAniki rAsina upOdghAtaM, aMkita patraM, mahArAjAgAri bomma, annI alAgE uMchAru. reMDava upOdghAtaMlO bhAshaguriMchE ekkuvagA rAsAru. bahuSA Ayana appaTiki iMkA vijayanagara AsthAnaMlO udyOgigA uMDaDamE kAraNaM kAvachchu.

valasa rAjya saMskRti valana prabhAvitamaina AdhunikOdyamaM I nATakaM marOvidhaMgA chadavaDAniki prEraNa chEsi uMdakapOvachchu. vIrESaliMgaM prabhRtulu chAlA palukubaDigalavAru. iMglIshu chaduvulu chadukunnavALLu Ayana pUnukunna saMskaraNOdyamAniki jOhArlarpiMchaDaM jOrugA uMDEdi. saMpradAya paMDitulu reMDavataragati paurulayyAru. TAgUru gAri prabhAvaM telugu kavulamIda viparItaMgA paDiMdi. pAtaMtA rOta ayi, amalina SRMgAraM pErutO, bhAvakavitvaM urrUtalUgiMchiMdi. TAgUru valasa kAlapu sAhityAniki, saMskRtikI pratinithi. viSvakavi anaDaMtO, appArAvugAri vaMTi dUradRshTi unna vij~nulaki sAMskRtika sAhitya raMgAlalO chOTulEkuMDA pOyiMdi. krishTiyan^ nItulu, vikTOriyan^ viluvalU telugu dESa vidyAvaMtulapai viparItamaina prabhAvaM chUpistunnAyi. adE samayaMlO, vIrESaliMgaMgAru madhyayuga telugu sAhityAnni aSlIlaMgA parigaNiMchi vATipai ghATaina vimarSalu rAsAru. kEMbriDj^ lO chaduvukunna rAmaliMgAreDDi gAru sAhityaraMgaMlOki dUki valasa kAlAniki pUrvaM vachchina prabaMdhasAhityaM pai dumAraM lEvadISAru

mArksisTulu kanyASulkAnni tamadigA chEsukOvaTaMtO A nATakAniki maroka vyAkhya rAkaMDA pOyiMdi. mArksisTu vimarSakulu samAjAniki vESyala valla vachchE anarthAlaki pratIkagA madhuravANini chitriMchi, A pAtra dvArA saMskaraNaki dOhadaM cheyyAlani modalupeTTAru. 20 va SatAbdaMlO, abhyudaya rachayitala saMghaM (mArksisTula sAhitya SAkha) I nATaka rachayitanu samAja parivartanaki dOhadakArigA, phyUDal^ vyavasthaki vyatirEkigA, vESyAvRtti nirmUlanaki nibaddhuDigA chitriMchaDaM mUlaMgA maroka goMtu vinapaDaTAniki tAvulEkuMDA pOyiMdi.

girISaM mOsagADugA, madhuravANi chaduvu, saMskAraM, maMchihRdayaM unna vESyagA, parivartana poMdaTAniki sumukhaMgA unna dAnigA chitriMchaDaM, agnihOtrAvadhAnulunI, lubdhAvadhAnulunI, kshINadaSalO unna brAhmaNa saMskRtiki pratIkalugA chitriMchi mUka ummaDi prachAraM cheyyaDaM jarigiMdi.

appArAvugAru vIrESaliMgaMgAri saMskaraNalatO pUrtigA EkIbhAvaM chUpiMchE vyaktigA chitriMchabaDDADu. A sAhitya vyaktitvaM I ‘saMskaraNa’ paridhilO paDi tirigi bayaTiki rAlEdu.

5.

I nATakAnni kudiMchi kattiriMchi konnivaMdalasArlu dESavyAptaMgA pradarSiMchaDaM mUlaMgA EM jarigiMdO chebutAnu. idi nA uddESaM. nArAyaNarAvu gAri anuvAdaMtO gAni, Ayana rAsina venukamATatO gAni dIniki saMbaMdhaM lEdu. asalu reMDava kanyASulkaM ekkaDannA eppuDannA pradarSiMchArO/prayOgiMchArO lEdO teliyadu. nAku telisinaMtalO I nATakAnni eppuDU kudiMchE pradarSiMchEvAru. abbUri rAmakRshNArAvugAru tanu chEsina kudiMpu guriMchina vivaraNa anubaMdhaMlO unnadi. nArla veMkaTESvara rAvugAru sAhitya akAdemI kOsaM I nATakAnni sagAniki kudiMchAru. tana kudiMpunu evaru vimarSiMchinA, abbUri vAru mechchukOvachchani upOdghAtaMlO cheppukunnAru. veMkaTESAnni agnihOtrAvadhAnlu juTTu paTTukoni koTTabOtunna ghaTTaMtOnE abbUri gAru kUDA nATakaM ApuchEsEvAru.

kanyASulkaMlO manalni AkarshiMchEvi saMbhAshaNalu. mukhyaMgA girISaM valliMchE hAsyOktulu. atagADi iMglIshu! madhuravANi cheppE aMdamaina mATalu, pUTakULLamma chIpuru debbalu. kanyASulkaMlO chAlA mATalu Adhunika saMskRtilO bhAgaM ayipOyinAyi. adi nijaMgA goppa vishayamE! ayitE girISaM mOsagADE ayinA vADaMTE janAniki adOrakamaina sAnubhUti. nijaMgA buchchamma mIdakannA vADimIdE sAnubhUti. ika lubdhAvadhAnulu, agnihOtrAvadhAnulU, pradarSanalO parama ChAMdasa mUrkhullA kanipistAru. vALLaMTE egatALi. saujanyA rAvutO agnihOtrAvadhAnulu chEsE saMbhAshaNalu kattiriMpullO pOvaDaM mAmUlu kAbaTTi, vALLu mUrkhulanE chitramE manaku kanipistuMdi. alAgE lubdhAvadhAnulu rAmappaMtulutO chEsE saMbhAshaNalu chAlA kudiMpulO pOtAyi. rAmappaMtuluni gEli chEsE bhAgaM sAdhAraNaMgA pOtuMdi, I kudiMpullO! kAraNaM : prayOktala ‘uddESaMlO’ janAniki visugu puDutuMdanna bhayaM. jana raMjakaMgA uMDaTAniki lubdhAvadhAnulu, agnihOtrAvadhAnulu sanAtanulugA, parama mUrkhulugA chUpiMchaDaM avasaraM. alAgE karaTaka SAstri, mahESaM, madhuravANi I peLLini ApaDAniki ADiMchE bhAgAlu, A mATalU prajala manassulO uMDavu. avi maruguna paDipOtAyi. kAraNaM: aMdulO hAsyaM pAlu chAlA takkuva.

1955 lO kEtavarapu rAmakOTiSAstri gAru kanyASulkaMpai rAsina vyAsaMlO ilA ilA rAsAru : “I rUpakamulO pravESapeTTabaDina pAtramulu nATikAlamuna nunna koMdaranuddESiMchi yunnavani viSAkhajillA vAru cheppuduru.” Ayana taruvAta mArksisTu siddhAMtAlatO prabhAvitamai kanyASulkaMpai chAlA vyAsAlu rAsAru. ayitE, E vyAsaMlOnU maLLI I prasthAvana tEkapOvaDamu koMdariki AScharyamE!

6.

Edi elAvunnA, pAkshika dRshTi pakkakuneTTi, nArAyaNarAvu anuvAdaM, venukamATalu chadivinataruvAta, maLLI telugu kanyASulkaM chadivi, vErE kONaMnuMchi A nATakAnni arthaM chEsukOvaDaM avasaramEnani anipistuMdi.

I vyAsaM rAyaDAniki upayOgapaDina pusta kAlu:

  1. mana gurajADa — SrISrI (SrISrI sAhitya sarvasvaM -9 : kUrpu chalasAni prasAd, 1988)
  2. maLLI kanyASulkaM guriMchi — kEtavarapu rAmakOTi SAstri (1992)
  3. kanyASulka nATaka kaLa — sardESAyi tirumala rAvu (1994)
  4. kanyASulkaM — nUrELLa samAlOchanaM — saMpAdakulu : modali nAgabhUshaNa Sarma, ETukUri prasAd (1999)
  5. mahOdayaM — ke. vi. ramaNA reDDi (1958)
  6. kanyASulkaM, marOvaipu — kOvela saMpatkumArAchArya (2000)
  7. gurajADa rachanalu – kavitala saMpuTaM, seTTi ISvara rAvu, parishkarta (1984)
  8. abbUri saMsmaraNa — nATya gOshTi prachuraNa (1988)
  9. kanyASulkaM – sAmAjika saMbaMdhAlu, kAtyAyanI vidmahE (2005)
  10. kanyASulkaM , TIkATippaNi , ke.vi. ramaNAreDDi (1991)
  11. nAye~ruka , AdibhaTla nArAyaNa dAsu svIya charitra (1976)
  12. kanyASulkaM, gurajADa ( jayaMti pablikEshan^, 1983)
  13. gurajADa appArAvu – kanyASulkamu, kudiMpu kUrpu, nArla veMkaTESvara rAvu (1976)
  14. sArasvata vivEchana — rAchamallu rAmachaMdrA reDDi (1976)

#[#kanyASulkaM nATakaM pai gata 50 saMvatsarAlugA vachchina pogaDtalu, vimarSalu, prativimarSala nuMDi pAThakulaku panikivachchE koTEshanlu I anubaMdhaMlO nEnu poMduparachAnu. -- rachayita#]

    
   
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(8# abhiprAyAlu) mI abhiprAyaM teliyachEyaMDi #»

  1. Rohiniprasad # abhiprAyaM:

    #September 4, 2007 10:30 am

    #kanyASulkaM guriMchi eMdarO ennO rakAla viSlEshaNalu chESAru, chEstunnAru. rachayitagA, nATakakartagA eMtO pratibhAvaMtuDaina appArAvugAru I nATakaM chaduvutunnappuDu manaku saMghasaMskarta rUpaMlO kAka tIvramaina vimarSakuDugAnU, vyAkhyAtagAnU kanipistADu. Ayana vimarSiMchina vishayAllO saMgha durAchArAlU unnAyi; saMghasaMskartalugA chalAmaNI avutU pabbaM gaDupukunE dagAkOrla vyavahArAlU unnAyi.

    I rOjullO anAthASramAlu nirmiMchi Dabbulu daMDukunEvALLunnaTTE A rOjullOnE vIrESaliMgaMgAru saduddESaMtO talapeTTina maMchi panulanu durviniyOgaM chEsukunEvArU uMDEvAranE saMgati I nATakaMvalla manaku telustuMdi. eTochchI iTuvaMTi AshADhabhUtula valla kaligE hAnikannA saMghaMlO pravartillutU uMDina durAchArAlu ekkuva pramAdakaraM kanakanE kanyASulkaM nATakAnni vATini ettichUpinadigA aMdarU gurtiMchAru.

    nATakamaMtA DAminET chEsina girISaM kuyuktulanu evarU mis avaru. saMghasEvanu tappudOva paTTiMcha prayatniMchinavADugA atanu kanabaDutUnE uMTADu. ayitE atani vyaktigata dOshAlU, balahInatalU saMgha durAchArAlaMta tIvramainavigA anipiMchavu. aMdukE manaM agnihOtrAvadhAnulu, lubdhAvudhAnlu, rAmappa paMtulu taditarula vaikharini eMtO garhanIyaMgA parigaNistAM. girISAnni chUsinappuDu mAtraM ‘bAgA ayiMdi SAsti’ ani navvukuMTAM. pai vargaMtO pOlistE girISaM aMtaTi durmArguDugA manaku anipiMchaDu. paigA nATakaMlO girISaM okkaDE AdhunikuDu. ayitE AdhunikatalOni itara lakshaNAlatO bATu dAni avalakshaNAlU atanilO uMTAyi. pAtukupOyina durAchArAlaku pratIkalu vAraitE vAri avivEkAnni AsarAgA chEsukuni lAbhaM poMdEvAriki pratIka girISaM.

    mottaM mIda annI vAstavikata uTTipaDE pAtralE. sajIvamainavE. aMdukE kanyASulkaM aMdarikI prItipAtramaiMdi. mArksisTulu kanASulkAnni haijAk chESArani nEnanukOnu. (vAriki nachchiMdi kadA ani dAnni marikAsta anumAnaMtO chUDAlanI anukOnu). evariki nachchina aMSAlanu vAru mechchukuMTAru. I nATakAniki vIrAbhimAnullO SrIpAda subrahmaNyaSAstri, bhamiDipATi kAmESvararAvu vaMTi uddaMDuluMDEvAru. manakannA appaTi paristhitulu vAri taraMvAriki mariMta bAgA telusu. takkinavannI pakkana peTTinA kEvalaM bhAsha, yAsala vishayaMlO kUDA chAlAmaMdiki adeMtO AhlAdakaramaina rachana.

    appaTi sAmAjika samasyalu InADu lEkapOvachchu. ippaTikI manalO eMdarilO agnihOtrAvadhAnulu, lubdhAvudhAnlu, rAmappa paMtuLLu, lEdA vAri lakshaNAlu, kanabaDutunnAyanEdE mukhyaM. aMduvallanE InATikI kanyASulkaM releveMT gA anipistuMdi.

  2. #Kameswara Rao # abhiprAyaM:

    #September 11, 2007 7:56 am

    #nyAyaMgA, vElchEru vAri pustakaM chadavakuMDA nEnEmI #comment# cheyyakUDadu. kAnI I samIkshalOni konni vishayAlu Asaktini kaligiMchaDaM valla idi rAstunnAnu.

    “I dRshTitO chadivitE oka aMchelO ( I nATakAnni vEruvEru aMchellO vyAkhyAniMchaDAniki tAvuMdi) vachchE Uha: madhuravANi goMtutO kaMdukUri vIrESaliMgaM paMtulu gArini, Ayana chEpaTTina vESyA saMskaraNOdyamAnnI vELAkOLaM chEstunnaTTu kanipistuMdi. vishayamEmiTaMTE, nATaka rachayita mukhyOddESaM saMgha saMskaraNa kAdu ;”
    idi vElchEruvAri UhO vElUrivAri UhO teliyadukAni vIrESaliMgAnni vELAkOLaM cheyyaDaMgA UhiMchaDaM koMta atiSayaMgA tOstOMdi. gurajADaki kaMdukUri mIda gauravaM uMdanna vishayaM atani DairIlU, uttarAlU chadivitE telusE vishayamE. aMduchEta atanni vELAkOLaM chEsEDani nEnanukOnu. atanu chEpaTTina saMgha saMskaraNalOni parimitulani vyaMgyaMgA sUchiMchEDani mAtramE cheppagalaM. alAgE rachayita mukhyOddESaM saMghasaMskaraNa kAdu anaDaM kUDA pUrtigA samaMjasaM kAdu. ikkaDa saMghasaMskaraNa aMTE vIrESaliMgaMgAru chEpaTTina saMghasaMskaraNa anna uddESaMlO annArA? saMghaMlOni lOTupATlanu ettichUpaDaM dvArA kUDA saMghAnni saMskariMchE prayatnaM cheyyavachchu ani oppukuMTE, gurajADa kanyASulkaMlO A prayatnaM chEsADannadi oppukOvalasina vishayaM.
    “nATakaMlO I peLLi guriMchi nalugurikI teliyagAnE, A ULLO anni kulAlavALLU okE tATimIda nilabaDi A peLLi jarakkuMDA cheyyaDAniki pUnukuMTAru. appaTi samAjaM nijaMgA iTuvaMTi peLLiki vyatirEki ani kanipistUuMTE, saMskaraNa EmiTi? ”
    okka madhuravANi pAtra tappa, migatA aMdarU tama tama svArthaM kAraNaMgAnE subbi peLLi ApaDAniki sAyapaDatAru. iMdulO AnATi samAjaM aTuvaMTi peLLiki vyatirEkaM anna vishayaM ekkaDA kanipiMchadu.
    luddhAvadhAnula pAtralOni parivartana dvArA AnATi prajalalO rAvalsina mArpunu sUchiMchADu. chivariki buchchammanu kUDA saMskaraNOdyamaMlO bhAgamaina vidhavala punarAvAsa kEMdraMlO chErpiMchaDaM dvArA tana saMgha saMskaraNAbhilAshani chATukunnADu.
    asalu gurajADE svayaMgA muMdumATalO
    “#When I wrote the play, I had no idea of publication. I wrote it to advance the cause of Social Reform and to combat a popular prejudice that the Telugu language was unsuited to the stage. ”# ani cheppukunna tarvAta, saMghasaMskaraNa atani mukhyOddESaM kAdani anaDaM chAlA sAhasamE! mari atananna “#Social Reform”# EmiTi?
    nA uddESaMlO. kanyASulkaM rachanA dhyEyaM, mummATikI, saMghaMlOni lOTupATlani ettichUpaDaM dvArA saMghasaMskaraNaki dOhadaM cheyyaDamE. aitE gurajADa Adhunika nATakAlalOni vAstavikatA lakshaNAniki prabhAvituDai, tana nATakaMlOpAtralani mUsa pAtralugA kAka, samAjaMlOni vividha rakAla manushulani vAri sahaja svAbhAvAlaki daggaragA tIrchididdADu. I kAraNaM vallanE manaki nATakaMlO aTu mata mauDhyaMtO durAchArAlaki pAlpaDE vArU kanipistAru, iTu Adhunikata/saMskaraNa pErutO mOsAluchEsE AsAmulU kanipistAru.
    kanyASulkaMlO machchalEni (A kAraNaMgA pUrtigA kAlpanikaM anukOdagga) okE oka pAtra madhuravANi.
    #Velceru garu might have given more explanation on his proposition in the book and thus answers to my above questions/argument. But as I said, my curiosity has prompted me to put my comments here.

  3. Krishna Rao Maddipati # abhiprAyaM:

    #September 21, 2007 11:02 am

    #kanyASulkaM nATakaM gurajADa vAru nijaMgA saMghasaMskaraNOddESaMtOnE vrASArO lEka vIrESaliMgaM paMtulugArni ATa paTTiMchaDAnikE vrASArO A charitranadhyayanaM chEsinavAru cheppAli gAni nAlAMTi vADi valla kAdu. nEnI nATakAnni moTTamodaTisArigA 1970lO chadivinaTTu gurtu. nATakaM chadivE muMdu A nATakaM guriMchi okaTi reMDu vyAsAlu kUDA chadivinaTTu gurtu. I nATakaM chadavaDAniki prEraNa A vyAsAllO chadivina vishayAlu – mukhyaMgA sAMghika durAchArAlni rUpumApaDAniki I nATakaM eMtagA upayOgapaDiMdO, cheppadalchukunna vishayAnni hAsyarasabharitaMgA cheppADO rachayita ani chadavaDaMvalla. sarE nATakaM chadivitE kaligE anubhUti guriMchi pratyEkaMgA cheppAlsiMdEmI lEdu. ayitE appaTlO nannu koMcheM tikamaka peTTina vishayaM, madhuravANi, saujanyArAvu paMtulu madhya jarigina saMbhAshaNa. saujanyArAvaMtaTi AdarSa nyAyavAdi, madhuravANi praSnalaku saraina samAdhAnAlu ivvalEka pOvaDaM. iMdulO EdO nAku teliyani aMtarArdhaM EdO uMdani anipistunnA, adi idamiddhaMgA tElalEdu. saujanyArAvu cheppEdAniki chEsEdAniki poMtanalEdEmOnanipiMchinA, praSniMchaDAniki dhairyaM, anubhavaM chAlalEdu. dAnikkAraNaM chAlAvaraku aMtaku muMdu chadivina vyAsAlu kUDA kAraNamanukuMTAnu (vyAsakartalu gurulEru). A tarvAta sinimA chUDaDamEgAni maLLI pustakaM chadavalEdu. innALLa tarvAta velchEru gAri anuvAdaMlO unna malipaluku chaduvutunnappuDu muppaiyEDELLanATi praSnalu maLLI gurtuku rAvaDaM, vATiki samAdhAnAlu dorakaDaM kUDA jarigiMdi. kanyASulkaM nATakAniki appaTlO sAmAjika prayOjanaM unnA, rachayitaku saMghasaMskaraNOddESaM unnA, saMghasaMskartallO unna hipOkrasIni mAtraM chakkagA addaMlO chUpistuMdi. peddamanushullA chelAmaNi avutunna vArilOni dvaMda pravartanalaki (agnihOtrAvadhAnlu, rAmappaMtulu, vagairA) addaM paTTaDaM sarEsari. saujanyArAvuki migilina peddamanushulakI ATTE tEDAlEdanipistuMdi, chivari ghaTTaM chadivETappaTiki. idi nATakaM chadivinappuDu ardhaMkAkuMDA kummari purugu tolichinaTTu vEdhiMchi, innALLaki velchEru gAri malipalukutO tElikapaDiMdi. iMtavaraku I nATakaMpai eMtamaMdi vyAkhyAnAlu chEsinA, iMta samagraMgA mottaM nATakAniki saripaDE viSlEshaNa vrAsina velchEru gAriki dhanyavAdAlu. I nATakaMpai unna rakarakAla vyAkhyAnAla dRshTyA velchEru gAru I viSlEshaNanu telugulO kUDA prachuriMchAlsina avasaraM eMtainA uMdi.

  4. kottapALI abhiprAyaM:

    #September 27, 2007 3:04 am

    #kAmESvarrAvugAri vyAkhya bAvuMdi.
    kAnI mEsTArU, gurajADa vIrESaliMgaM paMtuluki gauravamistUnE tanaki nachchani vATini bAgAnE egatALi chESAru – gurajADa rAsina sAhitya vyAsAllO okaTi pUrtigA vIrESaliMgaM rachanalni vimarSiMchEMdukE. Ayana vimarSiMchaDaM modalu peDitE, vIrESaliMgaM aMTE eMta gurubhAvaM unnA, ika A vyaMgyAniki aMtu lEdu. I vyAsaM viSAlAMdhra vAru prakaTiMchina gurajADa sarvasaMlO oka saMpuTilO uMdi. rAjAsthAnaMlO unna gurajADa yAMTInAch udyamAnni AmOdiMchaka pOvaDaMlO pedda AScharyamEmI lEdu. gurajADa taravAti taraM vADaina SrIpAda subrahmaNya SAstri, paMtulu gArini dEvuDI marO avatAraMgAnE bhAviMchEvAru, I vESyA vyatirEkata vishayaMlO tappa.

  5. #ravikiran timmireddy # abhiprAyaM:

    #September 27, 2007 8:33 pm

    #vElUri gArU, mana dESaMlO adhunikata briTIsh vAri rAkatOnE modalaiMdani kOMdaru, rAkaku munupE padahArava SatAbdaMlOnE modalaiMdani, palAni vALLevarO vAri pariSOdhanala dvArA manaki teliya cheppaDAniki prayatnistunArani mIru cheppEru. adhunikata valasa pAlanatOnO, padahArava SatAbdhaMlOnO modalu kAvaTavEviTaMDi. pOnI A palAni adhunikataki mIrEvainA nirvachanaM cheppErA aMTE adEMlEdu. mAnava jIvana vidhAnaMlO abhivRdhdhi, adhunikata voka viDadIyalEni vishayaM. abhivRddhi, adhunikata anEvi reMDu okE nANAniki vunna reMDu mukhAla lAMTivi. ivi reMDU kUDA kAlaMtO pATU mArEvE, muMduku sAgEvE, appuDappuDU kOchEM Dip ainA. jIvanaMlO (bayalOjikal laiph lO), jIvana vidhAnaMlO abhivRdhdhi oka aMtarbhAgaM. A abhuvRdhdhitO vachchE adhunikata oka #continuous process.# aitE voka samAjAniki sahajavaina I abhivRdhdhi, jIvana vidhAnaMlO adhunikata, bayaTa Saktula valla kUDA mArpuki lOnavutAy. adi samudrAlavatala nuMchi vachchina valasa paripAlana kAvochchu, samudrAlakivatalanuMchE vachchina islAM pAlana kAvochchu, porugu hiMdU rAjyAlatO kalahAlu, vijayAlU, apajayAlu, lakshA savAlaksha kAraNAllO annI kAvochchu, E vainA kAvochchu.

    samAjaM anEdi voka Open sisTam lAMTidi. samAjaM lOpali ATupOTlatO pATu, samAjaM bayaTa ATupOTlu kUDA samAjasthitini, gatini nirdESistAy. saMskRti, sAhityaM anEvi samAjaM yokka aTribyUTs ainappuDu avikUDA samAjaMtO pATU mArpu cheMdaTaM sahajaM kadA. aitE EviTI mArpu, voka sApEkshaMgA niSchalavainaTuvaMTi sAMpradAya samAjaMlO, I kanipiMchI, konnisArlu kanipiMchani (#cause is separated in time and space from the effect)# Saktulu sRshTiMchETuvaMTi aniSchala sthiti. #Some times this change in society’s status may be temporary, some times the society may change and move into a state that is relatively different.# aMTE EviTi sAMpradAya samAjaM, tana pAta sAMpradAyAnni, vidiliMchukOni, vadiliMchukOni, voka krotta sAMpradAyaM nelakOlputuMdanamATa. I krotta sAMpradAya sRshTiki, samAjaM bayaTanuMchi vachchE SaktulE kANaMkAdu, samAjaMlO vunnaTuvaMTi aMtargata Saktulu kUDA pAta sAMpradAyAnni mArchi krotta sAMpradAyAnni sRshTiMchagalavu. aMTE adhunikata anEdi, pAta sAMpradAyAnni pAkshikaMgAnO, saMpUrNaMgAnO mArchi voka adhunika sAMpradAyAnni sRshTiMchaTaM.

    “vADiki pUrvamE adhunikata unnadi” ani pratyEkaMgA cheppanavasaraMlEdu. I prakriya padahAru, padihEDu SatAbdhAlanuMchi, vokka AMdradESaMlOnE kAdu, mAnava samAjapu puTTukanuMchi I vidhaMgAnE sAgutuMdani cheppadAniki nUtana paddatullO pariSOdhanalavasaraM lEdu.

    “valasa rAjyaM taruvAta vachchina adhunikata sAMpradAya viruddaM ani cheppavachchu”, “britIshu valasa vidhAnaM valana vachchina adhunikata, chAritrakaMgA saMpradAyaMgA vachchina adhinikatani aNaga dokkiMdi” adhunikata anEdE dESIyamaina, vidESIyamainA sAMpradAyAnni trOsirAjani krotta sAMpradAyAnni sRshTiMchaDamainappuDu I mATalakarthaM EviTi? A mArina samAjaMlO vachchina krotta sAMpradAyaMlO vuMDE tappoppulaku bayaTiSaktulanu kAraNaMgA chUpiMchi, A tappulaku musugu kappAlsina avasaraM lEdu. A tappulaku, krotta sAMpradAyaMlO patanamaina viluvalaku, kAraNaM valasa rAjyavainA, A tappulani saMskariMchukunE bhAdyata mana samAjAnidE.

    “appArAvugAru tana nATakaMlO digajAripOtunna samAjAnni, naitikaMgA patanamavutunna samAjAnnI samarpiMchalEdu. naitika vairudhyaM samAjaMlO eppuDannA ekkaDannA talayettitE A samAjaM tanaku tAnugA mArpu techchukOgala sthitilO unnadi kAni, sAMghika saMskaraNakOsaM eduru chUDalEdu.” nijavEnaMDI, E samAjavainA tana naDakalO, appuDappuDU okaTi reMDaDugulu venakaku vayyaDaM sahajavE, A aDugulni sarichEsukOni muMduku pOvaDaM sahajavE. kAkapOtE A sarichEsukunE kramaMlO, saMghasaMskaraNa, saMghasaMskartalu anE aMSAlu kUDA sahajavainavE. saMghasaMskaraNa samAjaM tanani tAnu sarichEsukunE kramAnni mariMta vEgavaMtaM chEyaDaM kOsaM, samAjaMkannA okaTireMDaDugulu muMduku chUDagaligina (anni vishayAllO kAkapOvachchu, anni kAlAllO kAkapOvachchu) vyaktula prayatnaM. A saMskartalu tamakannA vokaDugu venakabaDina vALLani saMskariMchaDAniki, tamakannA vokaDugu muMdarunna vALLani velivEyaDAniki (migilina chAMdhasulalAgAnE) chUstAru. appArAvugAri saujanyArAvu paMtulu I saMskartalalO vuMDE I dvaMdAnni chUpiMchaDAnikEnani nA abhiprAyaM. aitE vokkaDugu muMduchUpunna I saMskartalani manavIrOju vALLaki reMDaDugula muMduchUpu lEdani vimarSa chEyAlsina panilEdu, asalu muMduchUpE lEni samAjaMlO kanISaM A mAtraMmuMduchUpu kaligina saMskartalu A samAja mArpuki kETalisTlAgA eMtO upayOgapaDDAru. appArAvu gAriki I vishayaM telusugAbaTTE saujanyArAvu paMtulugArini sRshTiMchArani nA abhiprAyaM. I vokka pAtra chitraNalOnE appArAvu gAru appaTi samAjAnikAnnA eMta muMdunnArO manakarthavavutuMdi. lOpAnni etti chUpiMchaTaM saMgha saMskartalani tElikaparachaDavO, agauraparachaDavO, lEkapOtE A saMghasaMskaraNani gElichEyaDavO kAdu.

    “I samAjaM tanapai tanaki unna nammakAnni vammu chEsETaMta vattiDi briTIshu valasa vidhAnaM techchipeTTina udhRtaM. iMduchEta paikulAlu tama prAthamika yOgyatalani marichipOvaDaM jarigiMdi.” aMTE pai kulAlu tama prAdhamika yOgyatalani marachipOkapOvaDavE mana hiMdU samAjAnni sariayina dArilO vuMchutuMdA? asalu E samAjaM techchina vattiDi paikulAlni sRshTiMchiMdO mari. E vudhRti, E vattiDi samAjAnni kulAlugA vibhajiMchiMdO? A yOgyatalani marachipOyi digajArina paikulAlni koMchaM paiki lAgi pUrtigA kAkapOyinA koMchaMgAnainA migilina kulAla sarasana kUrchObeTTiMdi A valasa pAlana vattiDEnEvO.
    nATakaMlO EDava aMkaM Akhari raMgAnni kluptaMgA vivariMchina tarvAta, vElUrigAru, A aMkaMlO madhuravANi pAtra mIda tama abhiprAyAnni I vidhaMgA vivariMchAru. “saujanyA rAvu kunna amAyakatvapu saMskaraNAbhilAsha debbatiyyaDAniki madhuravANi bRhannATakaM ADutU vuMDavachchu. AdhunikuDu, pASchAtya prAbhavaMlO perigina peddamanishi, nItulu valliMchE vADiki guNapAThaM cheppaDAniki madhuravANi vachchi vuMDavachchu. lEdA, kAlaM mArutunnadi; tana daggiraki gauravanIyulaina vALLevvarU rArEmO nanna bhayaM puTTi vuMDavachchu. — Edi EmO? vITiki samAdhAnaM appArAvugArikE teliyaka pOvachchu!” inni rakAlugA viSlEshiMchagaligina vElUrigAru, A aMkAnni chadavagAnE, manasuki tOchE atyaMta saraLavaina, sahajavaina, nATakaMlO cheppina kAraNAnni mAtraM marchipoyyAru. vayasu paibaDina, chEyaninErAniki Siksha paDE avakASamunna, A cheyyani nEraM A bApaDi talamIda paDaTaMlO tana pAtra guriMchi telisina voka maMchi manishigA lubdhAvadAnluki sahAyaM chEyaDaM kOsavE madhuravANi paMtulugAriMTiki veLLiMdanE vishayaM. iMta saraLavaina, sahajavaina vishayaM vElUrigAriki eMduku taTTalEdO mari. veLLina tarvAta, paMtulugAri venakanunna nalupu, paMtulugAriki kanipiMchakapOtE dAnni telivigA ettichUpiMchaTaM, paMtulugArni avamAnaM cheyyaDAniki kAdani tirigi cheppalsina avasaraM lEdu. vESyani chUDaTAniki, mATlADaDAniki kUDA vimukhuDaina paMtulu gAru, madhuravANiki bhagavat gItani bahukariMchi, tanatO shEk hEMD chEyaTaMlOnE, tana tappuni grahiMchArani pratyEkaMgA cheppanavasaraM lEdu.
    vElUrigAru iMta asahajavaina viSlEshaNa eMduku chESArO taruvAti pErAlO arthamavutuMdi. vElUrigAri mATallOnE vAri vivaraNa ilA sAgutuMdi. “I dRshTitO chadivitE oka aMchelO ( I nATakAnni vEruvEru aMchellO vyAkhyAniMchaDAniki tAvuMdi) vachchE Uha: madhuravANi goMtutO kaMdukUri vIrESaliMgaM paMtulu gArini, Ayana chEpaTTina vESyA saMskaraNOdyamAnnI vELAkOLaM chEstunnaTTu kanipistuMdi. vishayamEmiTaMTE, nATaka rachayita mukhyOddESaM saMgha saMskaraNa kAdu ; A saMskaraNalO nijamaina sAMghika viluva EmI lEdu. I saMskaraNa ghOsha kEvalaM valasa rAjya vidhAnaM valla ErpaDDa bUTakapu mAya ani bOdhapaDutuMdi.” idaMDI appAravugAru kanyAsulkaM nATakaM vrAyaDaMlO uddESaM, vIrESaliMgaM paMtulugArini vELAkOLaM chEyaDAnikE. appAravugAri uddESaM saMghasaMskaraNa kAdaTa, saMghaMlO vuMDE nIcha sAMpradAyAlni paiketti chUpiMchaDaM saMskaraNAkAMksha kAka marEviTO. A saMskaraNalO nijavaina sAMghIka viluva lEduTa. E saMskaraNalO vElUri gArU? telisI teliyani lEta vayasulOnE ADa kUtuLLani, chAvuki jAneDu dUraMlO vunna musalALLakichchi kaTTabeTTaTalO vunna nIchatvAnni chUpiMchaDaMlOnA? lEkapOtE, parishkAraM chUpiMchakuMDAnE, mUrkhaMgA marikoMdarADa kUtuLLani pogapeTTi tariveyyaDaM anE saMskaraNalO vuMDE mUDhatvAnni bahirgataM cheyyaTaMlOnA? mIku dEMTlO saMghasaMskaraNAbhilAsha kanapaLLEdu sAr.

    I asahaja viSlEshaNa tarvAti koddi pErAllO abaddAla jAtaragA pariNiti cheMdutuMdi. “nATakaMlO I peLLi guriMchi nalugurikI teliyagAnE, A ULLO anni kulAlavALLU okE tATimIda nilabaDi A peLLi jarakkuMDA cheyyaDAniki pUnukuMTAru. pUjAri, pOlIsu, sEvakulu, skUlu pillaDu, peLLikoDuku kUturu (mInAkshi) aMtA I peLLi kudirchina jittulamAri rAmappaMtulunI, peLLikoDukuni mUrkhulugA bayaTa peDatAru. appaTi samAjaM nijaMgA iTuvaMTi peLLiki vyatirEki ani kanipistUuMTE, saMskaraNa EmiTi? evarO, saujanyArAvu lAMTi amAyakulu, samAjaM kuLLipOyiMdani bhramiMchi, A bhramani nammi, saMskariMchEddAmanna kutUhalaMtappa?”

    mIrE kanyASulkAnni viSlEshistunnarO ani anumAnaMgA vuMdi vElUri gAru. gurajADa gAri kanyASulkaMlO mIru mI manasulO EE mArpulu chEsukunnArO, EE chErpulu chEsukunArO! nE chadivina kanyASulkaMlO, peLLI ApaDaM kOsaM bAvilO dUki prANaM tIsukODAniki sidda paDina subbi amma, mEna kODalu batuku baMDalai pOkuMDA vuMDAlani karaTaka SAstri, chelleli batuku tana batukulA nASanavai pOkUDadani lEchipOvaDAniki tegiMchina buchchamma, karaTaka SAstritO vunna parichayaMtO, tOTi manishiki tanavaMtu sahAyaM cheyyaDAnikOchchina madhuravANi, telosO teliyakO karaTaka SAstri cheppEDu kAbaTTi SishyuDu mahESaM tappa subbi bAgu kOsaM peLLi apAlanukunna vALLu marevarU nAku kanapaDalEdu sAr. tana saubhAgyaM eMta bAguMdO pratyakshaMgA anubhavistunna mInAkshi kUDA peLLi ApaDAniki prayatnaM chEsiMdani cheppalEM ( tana paristhitilO tana paridhiki miMchina vishayamE kAdanalEM).

    iMtakAlaM I nATakAnni vimarSakulu sarigA arthaM chEsukOlEka pOyAraTa, pasipillaki vaidhavyAnni techchipeTTE saMskRti, kuLLipOiMdani bhrama paDDAraTa, I paristhitini saMskaraNala dvAra mArchAlani I nATakaM bhOdhistunnadani ApOha paDDAraTa. I ApOhaki vElchEru nArAyaNarAvu gAru nAlugu kAraNAlichchAraTa. vElchEru gAri kAraNAlEvO nEnu chadavalEdu, aMdukani vAri kAraNAla guriMchi nEnu mATlADaTaM paddatikAdu.

    E valasa samAjapu viluvalu, marE mata viluvalatOnU sari chUsukOnavasaraM lEkuMDAnE, chinna pillalani ammukunE samAjapu viluvalu ati nIchavainavani cheppOchchu. aitE A nijAnni trokki paTTaDAniki, paddenimidi, paMtommidO SatAbdapu brAhmaNavarga samAjAnni paikettaTAnikE kanyASulkAniki, I asaMbaddavaina, asahajavaina, aSAstriyavaina viSlEshaNala avasaraMpaDiMdani nA abhiprAyaM.

    I vyAsAniki AlaMbanalugA palu repharensulu, A tarvAta anubhaMdhaMlO paluvuri abhiprAyAlu ivvaDaM jarigiMdi. aitE ikkaDokka vishayaM cheppadaluchukunnanu. I nATakavEvI ati klishTavaina #scientific concept# kAdu. muMdu venukala charitra paThanaM, krotta pariSOdhanA paddatulu, kanIsaM pAta pariSOdhanA paddatulu, gatitArkika bhautikavAdaM, mAksisTu vivaraNalu, haijAkulu, ivEvI avasaraM lEkuMDAnE gurajADa vAru EMcheppErO, eMduku cheppErO, E tappulni hailaiT chEyadaluchukunnarO, E vAstavAlni, E mUDhatvAlni, E nIchAlni, E avinItini, manushullO vuMDE E maMchi cheDulni, maMchi manushulanabaDE vALLalO E cheDDani, cheDDavALLanabaDE vALLalO E maMchini, A kAlapu saMghAniki talamAnikavanabaDE kulaMlO kanapaDE nIcha sAMpradAyAlni, ati saLaMgA, ati melukuvagA, ekkaDA E vimarSakula, viSlEshakula avasaraMlEkuMDA, ati sAmAnya pAThakuDiki saitaM arthavayyErItilO cheppEru. I nATakaMlO, aksharaMlO kanapaDani vivaraNalakOsaM, viSlEshaNalu chEyaDavaMTE, churukkumanE nijavEdO kanyASulkaMlO manaki tagiliMdanamATa.

  6. vADapalli SEshatalpaSAyi abhiprAyaM:

    #November 19, 2007 2:22 pm

    #kanyASulkamunu AMdhrabhAratilO kriMdichOTa chaduvagalaru.
    #http://www.andhrabharati.com/nATakamulu/index.html

    #namassulatO,
    SAyi.

  7. #Tadepalli Hari Krishna # abhiprAyaM:

    #February 3, 2008 12:44 pm

    #kanyASulkamu konni nirNIta dESakAlaparimitullO prabalaMgA unna saMghadurAchArAlaki spaMdistU appArAvugAru vrAsina nATakaM. vitaMtu vivAhAlU, bAlyavivAhAlU, kanyASulkAlU anEvi 19va SatAbdamadhyaMlO vijayanagaraM, tUrpugOdAvari jillAllO _konni_ brAhmaNa vargAlaki mAtramE parimitAlaina durAchArAlu. samakAlaMlO I durAchArAla vyApti, vistRti, saMdarbhata eMtamAtraM? gurajADa kAlaMlO kUDA I samasyalu AyA sthala,kula, varga parimitulu dATitE, kanyASulkAnikunna samAjaprayOjanaM aMtaMtamAtraM. idErakaMgA beMgAlulO rAjArAm mOhan rAy vaMTi vALLu bAlyavivAhAlakI, satI durAchArAlakI vyatirEkaMgA ghOshiMchAru. kAnI aveMtavarakU samakAlikasamasyalu? ayinAkUDA, kanyASulkAnni nityanUtanaMgA puna:paThiMchukODamU, maMgaLastOtrAlu pADukODamU, ETETA paMdiLLu vEsukuni vaDapappu pAnakAlu sEviMchaDAlU, koMdaru sAhityapipAsuvulaki InATikI pavitravaMSAchAraM.

    shEkspiyar nATakAlakulAguna, kALiDAsu nATakAlalA, lEdA prabaMdhakAvyAlalA – kanyASulkaM kUDA InADuIokAnoka sAhityaratnaM. kanyASulkAniki sAhityaviluvE tappa Evidhamaina sAmAjika viluvA lEdani I prastuta lEkhari gADhaviSvAsaM.

    viparItaMgA pechcharillina peTTubaDidAri tanamu, hEyarAjakIyAlu, prapaMchIkaraNa pEriTa arugutunna alpavargAla dOpiDI, vidyOpAdhulapEriTa jarugutunna bAlala chitravadha, batukaMtA rekkaluviruchuku peMchina saMtAnAlu AkasmikaMgA vidESAlaki valasapOyi mari tirigirAkapODaM, bhUmi viDichi sAmuchEsE ArthikavidhAnAlu, kUlipOyina prabhutvAMgAlu, avayavavyApArAlu chEsE kArparET hAspiTaLLU, EnATikI mArani chirudyOgula jIvitAlU, kulaprAtipadikAlaina rAjakIyAlU, …ivI InATi samAjaM paDE Iti bAdhalu. vITikI kanyASulkAnikI unna sAhitya saMbaMdhamallA samakAlasamasyalani tavvi talakettaDaM mAtramEnu. grahiMchina kanyASulkapriyulaMdarU 1950 daSakAnikiTupakkiki uttishThulai samakAla saMghadurAchArAlaki kUDA tama reTinAllO koMta chOTistE bAguMTuMdi. aTuvaMTi sAhityAnni paThanIyaMgA vimarSiMChi chUpistE mariMta prayOjanakaraM.

    - tADEpalli harikRshNa

  8. lAvaNya abhiprAyaM:

    #October 15, 2014 12:22 pm

    #ImATa vAriki namaskAraM,

    nAku sardESAyi tirumalarAvu gAri “kanyASulkanATakakaLa” mariyu bOyibhImanna gAri “guDiselu kAlipOtunnAyi” pustakAlu kAvAli. aMtarjAlaMlO ekkaDa labhyamavutAyO telupagalaru.

    dhanyavAdamulu

mI abhiprAyaM teliyachEyaMDi

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#ImATa pAThakulaku sUchanalu chadivAnu. vATiki kaTTubaDi uMTAnani hAmI istunnAnu.