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vishaya sUchika: sepTeMbar 2014

muMdumATa

ImATa sepTeMbar 2014 saMchikaku svAgataM!


DA. chEkUri rAmArAvu (1934 – 2014)

chEkUri rAmArAvu (1 akTObar 1934 – 24 julai 2014): chErAgA suparichitamaina bhAshASAstravEtta AchArya chEkUri rAmArAvu ika lEru. nOm chAm^skI bhAshAsiddhAMtAlani telugu bhAshaku anuvartiMchi chEsina pariSOdhanalaku kArnel yUnivarsiTI nuMDi bhAshASAstraMlO DAkTarET tIsukunna chErA, usmAniyA viSvavidyAlayaMlO AchAryuDigA panichESAru. bhAshASAstra pariSOdhakuDigA telugu vAkyaM, bhAshAMtaraMgaM, telugulO velugulu, bhAshAparivEshaM, vaMTi ennO pustakAlu veluvariMchAru. chErAtalu SIrshika dvArA telugulO eMdarikO kavulugA gauravaM kalpiMchAru. vachana padya lakshaNAlapai kOvela saMpatkumAratO jaripina charcha eMtO prasiddhamaiMdi. sAhitya vimarSa, parAmarSalalO tanadaina sthAnaM Erparuchukunna chErA 2002lO rAsina smRtikiNAMkaM saMkalanAniki kEMdrasAhitya ekADamI avArDu labhiMchiMdi.


bApU (1933 – 2014)

sattirAju lakshmInArAyaNa (15 DiseMbar 1933 – 31 AgasT 2014): bApU anna kalaM pErutO teluguvAri guMDellO gUDu kaTTukunna sattirAju lakshmInArAyaNa tudi SvAsa viDichAru. sAkshi, bAlarAju katha, mutyAlamuggu, saMpUrNa rAmAyaNaM, sItAkaLyANaM, aMdAla rAmuDu, tyAgayya, vaMSavRkshaM, peLLi pustakaM, SrIrAmarAjyaM vaMTi sinimAla darSakuDu, bApUramaNala paDugUpEkalO pEka; buDugu, sIgAnapesUnAMba, rAdhA gOpALaM – ilA ramaNa aksharAniki rUpamichchina gItagADu, rAmabhaktuDu, mitabhAshi, prapaMchaMlO agraSrENi lain^DrAyiMg ilasTrEshanisTula sarasana ThIvigA kUrchunna koMTebommala bApU ika manamadhya lEkapOyinA, tana chEtirAtatO mana guMDelapai chEsina bApU saMtakaM mAtraM SASvataMgA manatOnE uMTuMdi.

I saMchika ilA iddaru pramukhula maraNAlatO, oka ujvalamaina telugu taraM kramaMgA astamistunnadanna chEdunijaMtO viDudala chEyavalasi rAvaDaM eMtO bAdha kaligistunnadi.


I saMchikalO:

  • kavitalu: iMkO sAyaMtraM – kannegaMTi chaMdra; uMDu – kanakaprasAd; nippulu – mAnasa chAmarti; maMjughOsha – samavarti; eDabATu – mAmata.
  • kathalu: j~nApakAla vAsana – aripirAla satyaprasAd; manishikeMtabhUmi – Ar. Sarma daMturti; kOnasIma kathalu: reMDu prEma kATlu – sAyi brahmAnaMdaM gorti; amerikA illAli muchchaTlu: baruvu – SyAmalAdEvi daSigi.
  • vyAsAlu: telugulO graMtha parishkaraNa–konni AlOchanalu – velchEru nArAyaNarAvu, paruchUri SrInivAs; malayALa ChaMdassu–oka vihaMga vIkshaNamu – jejjAla kRshNa mOhana rAvu; bhaktakavi boppana gaMganAmAtyuni SrI mahAbhAgavata paMchama skaMdhaM – ElchUri muraLIdhararAvu; AchArya chEkUri rAmArAvu bhAshASAstra pariSOdhana, mArgadarSanaM – gArapATi umAmahESvararAvu; kALOjI kavitvaMlO manishi – kAtyAyanI vidmahE.
  • padyasAhityaM: nAku nachchina padyaM: nannaya tIrchina gaDasari sogasari – bhairavabhaTla kAmESvararAvu; pArvati tapassu: nannechODuni kumArasaMbhavamu – kASInAdhuni rAdha.
  • SabdataraMgAlu: akkaralEni saMgatula – kanakaprasAd; dESabhakti gEyAlu – samarpaNa: paruchUri SrInivAs.
pUrtigA #»

saMpAdakIyaM

nA guriMchi nEnu

sAhityaM-bhAshASAstraM

sAhityaMlO iMTresTE, kAnI okkaTE ibbaMdi. sAhityaMlO nEnu chEsE pani evarainA chEyavachchu anipistuMdi nAku. nEnu mAtramE chEyavalasinavi chAlA unnAyi. nAku samayaM kUDA takkuva unnadi. sAhityaMlO nEnu chEstunnadi pariSIlanA vimarSa mAtramE. bhAshASAstraMlO nEnu anEka AvishkaraNalu chESAnu. A raMgaMlO nEnu chEsinavATiki taginaMta gurtiMpu rAlEdu. nEnu kUDA chEyagaliginaMta chEyalEka pOyAnu. ippuDu nEnu A SEsha bAdhyatala paripUrti kOsaM panicheyyAlanukuMTunnAnu. bhAshASAstramE nA ‘phasT lav’!

kavitvaM-vimarSa

vimarSanu nEnu tElikaparachalEdu. saraLaMgAnU rAyalEdu. nijAniki nEnu reMDu sthAyilalO sAhitya vimarSanu nirvahiMchAnu. sadassulalO vidyAvishayika sabhalalO pEparlu samarpiMchinappuDu pUrti SAstra paribhAshanu upayOgiMchi viSlEshaNalu chESAnu. sAdhAraNa sAhityapAThakulakOsaM rAsinappuDu, patrikalalO kAlams rAsinappuDu aTuvaMTi paribhAsha EdI lEkuMDA nA viSlEshaNanu saraLaMgA aMdiMchE prayatnaM chESAnu.

modaTi rakaM vimarSa bhAshASAstraM telisina vAriki saMpUrNaMgA dAni iMpAkT^tO sahA arthaM avutuMdi. reMDO rakaM vimarSa sAhityapAThakulaku nA viSlEshaNalOni sArAMSAnni arthaM chEyistuMdi.

chErAtala vijayarahasyaM

nA bhAshA SAstrIya rachanala kaMTE nA sAhitya rachanalu ekkuva pEru techchAyi. sAhitya rachanalalOnU chErAtala valla ekkuva pEru vachchiMdi. pEru rAvaDaM aMTE ekkuva maMdi vATini ishTapaDDAru. aTlA ishTapaDaDAniki kAraNAlalO avi pradhAnaMgA kavitvaM mIda uMDaDaM okaTaitE, nEnu pATiMchina methaDAlajI marokaTi. nEnu konni kavitalalOni nirmANa paddhatulanu viSlEshiMchi aMdiMchEsariki adi kottagA anipiMchiMdi. nijAniki kavulu, pAThakulu kUDA kavitva nirmANa paddhatulanu telusukOvaDAniki ekkuva ishTapaDatAru.

vastuvu-rUpaM

sAhityaMlO vimarSa vastu charchatO mugisipOdani nA abhiprAyaM. abhyudayavAdulu kavitvaMlO vastuvE pradhAnamanI, vastuvE rUpAnni nirNayistuMdanI konni artharahitamaina abhiprAyAlanu prachAraMlO peTTAru. avannI paDikaTTu mATalu. vastuvE rUpAnni nirNayiMchE mATayitE vEruvEru rUpAlalO kanipiMchE oka vastuvu saMgatEmiTi? basava purANAnni pAlkuriki sOmana dvipadalO rAstE, padaparti sOmana padyAlalO rASADu. rAmAyaNaM prajala pATalalO daggarinuMchi mahAkAvyAlalO dAkA kanipistuMdi. vastuvunu rUpAnni A paddhatilO yAMtrikaMgA arthaM chEsukOgUDadu. phalAnA kAvyaMlO phalAnA vastuvu uMdi ani chebitE sAhitya vimarSa ayipOtuMdA? nijAniki akkaDE sAhitya vimarSa prAraMbhamavutuMdi.

vastuvu, rUpaM ani manaM mATlADutunnAmaMTE avi reMDU vErvEru ani kAdu. manaM adhyayana saulabhyaM kOsaM vATini reMDugA tIsukoni pariSIlistunnAM. pratyEka nirmANapaddhati lEnidi kavitvamE kAdu. vimarSakuDu A paddhatini kanipeTTagalagAli. nirmANa paddhati aMTE phalAnA vastuvunu eTuvaMTi paddhatilO cheppAmanE tappa, kEvalaM paddhati unikilO uMDadu kadA! asalI rUpavAdamanE mATanu oka tiTTugA upayOgiMchi taruvAta kAlaMlO briTish, yUrOpiyan mArksisTulu savariMchukunnAru. mana bhAratIya mArksisTulu mAtraM iMkA adE paddhatilO AlOchistunnAru. rUpamE sarvasvAmanE dRshTi nAku lEdu. ayitE, vastu sarvasva dRshTitO rUpAnni aSraddha chEsinaMduvalla A khALIni pUriMchaDAniki prayatniMchAnu. nEnu chEsiMdi kAMplimeMTarI kRshE.

padyaM

rUpaM vishayaMlO nAdi vAstavika dRshTi kAbaTTE, padyaM guriMchina ‘Adhunika mUDha viSvAsAla’tO nEnu EkIbhaviMchalEka pOtunnAnu. padyaMlO unnadaMtA phyUDal anI, kavitvaMlO ChaMdassu uMDaDaM mahApApaM anI iTuvaMTi konni nammakAlanu prachAraMlO peTTAru. prAchIna kavitvaM eMduku chadavAlaMTE eTlA rAyakUDadO telusukOvaDAniki ani evarO kAdu sAkshAttu SrISrIyE annADu. Ayana mAtraM prAchIna sAhityaM chadivi pAMDityAnni, bhAshApATavAnni peMchukunnADu.

virasaMku daggaragA, dUraMgA

1958lO nEnu bi.e. parIksha taruvAta bhadrirAju kRshNamUrti prAraMbhiMchina vyavasAya vRtti padakOSaMlO padasEkaraNaku paryATakuDugA udyOgaM chESAnu. A saMdarbhaMgA SikshaNa kOsaM viSAkha veLLAnu. appaTikI nAku viSAkha kottE. nAyuni kRshNakumAri nannu bhadrirAjuku siphArasu chESAru. appaTiki nAkiMkA pAtikELLa vayassu lEdu. ayitE, appaTikE kavigA kAstA pEru saMpAyiMchukunnAnu. mukhyaMgA telugu svataMtra patrikalO vishayasUchika pakka pEjIlO nA kavitA achchu ayyEdi (A rOjullO A pEjI chAlA pradhAnamainadi). aMtaku muMdu saMchikalO svataMtralO “dharma saMsthApanArthAya” anE kavita achchu ayyiMdi. adi SrISrI mIda rAsina kavita. appaTiki SrISrI kavitvaM mAnEsi sinimAllOki veLLADu. dAnni dRshTilO peTTukoni SrISrIni udbhOdistU — maLLI kavitvaM rAyamani abhyarthistU — A kavitA rASAnu. A kavitA dvArA nAku chAlA maMditO, mukhyaMgA SrISrI abhimAnulatO parichayaM ErpaDiMdi. alA parichayaM ayina vALLalO tummala kRshNabAyi, virasaM (chalasAni) prasAd, hari purushOttamarAvu mukhyulu.

A rOjullO mA IDu vALLaMdarikI SrISrI aMTE chAlA abhimAnaM. dAdApu SrISrI bhaktulaM. pustakarUpaMlO rAni SrISrI rachanalu patrikallO nuMchi tIsi rAsukuni chaduvukonE vALLaM. hari, nEnu, prasAdu allA uMDEvALlaM.

nAMpalli sTEshan daggara oka hOTallO julai 3 tellavAru jhAmuna (1970 julai 4na) virasaM ErpaDiMdi. appuDu A mITiMgulO rAtraMtA charchalu jarigAyi. appuDu akkaDa ke. vi. ramaNAreDDi, varavararAvu, prasAd, hari, nEnu unnAM. SrISrI kUDA unnADu. praNALika tayArayyiMdi. saMtakAlu chESAM. arasaM mITiMg kOsaM vachchina SrISrI virasaM toli adhyakshuDayyAru. arasaM vAru julai 3 rAtri SrISrI nATika okaTi vESAru. rahasyaMgA A nATika chUsi vastAnanE vAru SrISrI. mEM vEstAMlE ani cheppi ke.vi. Ar. samudAyiMchAru.

appuDA sabhalO SrISrIni tIsukurAvaDAniki viSEshamaina kRshi chEsina vADu hari. A rAtri, tellAri SrISrItOnE unnADu. ayitE, konni kAraNAla valla hari, nEnu virasaM sabhyulugA chEralEdu. A taruvAta virasaM kOsaM chaMdAlu svIkariMchAM, mITiMgulaku hAjarayyAM. virasaM sabhyulu chEsE panulannI chESAM. kAnI, sabhyulugA mAtraM chEralEdu.

smRtikiNAMkaM

vyaktigata sparSa kaligina, konni soMta j~nApakAlu, koMta charitra kalisina I vyAsAlu chAlA maMdiki nachchAyi. nAku anEka rakAla vachanaM ishTaM. smRtikiNAMkaMlO unnadi emOshanal vachanaM. telugu vachanaM mIda nAku pratyEkaMgA kRshi chEyAlani unnadi. sAhitya akADamI vAru I pustakAniki bahumati istunnAraMTE, rachayita chEsina mottaM sAhitya kRshini kUDA dRshTilO peTTukoni ichchArani arthaM chEsukOvAli.

telugu vachanaM

teluguvachanaMlO SailI bhEdAla guriMchi oka parichaya pustakAnnayinA rAyAlani unnadi. dAnikOsaM ippaTikE vistAraMgA samAchAraM, nOTs sEkariMchAnu. vachanaM guriMchi chAlA tappuDu abhiprAyAlU unnAyi. ‘aMTarAni vasaMtaM’ navalanu dAnilOni kavitAtmaka vachanaM kOsaM mechchukunna vALLanu chUSAnu. A navala goppadanaM adi chitriMchina mUDutarAla daLita jIvita kEnvAsulO unnadi tappa, kaLyANarAvu kAlaMlO palikina kavitva vachanaMlO kAdu. sUTigA pachchi vachanaM rAyaDaM mIda evarikI gauravaM lEdu. patrikalaniMDA kavitvapu SIrshikalE. maMchi vachanaM aMTU AbsalyUTgA EdI uMDadu. saMdarbhAniki taginaTTugA uMDE vachanamE maMchi vachanaM. saMdarbhaM, Saili eMta bAgA parasparaM odigipOtAyO appuDu vachanaM aMtA bAgA uMTuMdi. mana bhAshalO sAMskRtika ChAyalu daTTaMgA alumukuni uMTAyi. aTuvaMTi bhAshanu bauddhika avasarAlaku anuguNaMgA tIrchididdaDAniki chAlA prayatnaM avasaraM. iMglIshu bhAshalO iTuvaMTi samasyalanniTinI charitrE parishkariMchiMdi.

bhavishyat kAryakramaM

bAlaprauDha vyAkaraNa sUtra paddhatimIda adhyayanaM chEyAlani nAkunnadi. chEstE, nEnE cheyyAli. vyAkaraNAlanu saMpradAya paddhatilO chaduvukuni uMDi, bhAshASAstraMlO atyAdhunika mArgAlanu adhyayanaM chEyaDaM anna sadupAyaM nAkE unnadi. ippaTi liMgvisTulu bAlavyAkaraNaM chadavaru. bAlavyAkaraNaM chadivE vAru liMgvisTiks chadavaru. alAgE, ChaMdassu guriMchi kUDA. najabhajajajara aMTE ChaMdassu ayipOdu. dAnilOni laya EmiTO cheppagalagAli. ippaTi tarAniki ChaMdassu, vyAkaraNaM chadavakapOvaDaM abhivRddhi. mari nEnu kAkapOtE, I vishayAla guriMchi marevarU chebutAru cheppaMDi. maLLI sAhityaMlO paDitE ivannI mUlana paDatAyi. ippuDu nEnu sAhityaM nuMDi bayaTiki pOlEdu. kAkapOtE, munupaTivalE rAyaDaM lEdu. nA kRshi vErE raMgaMlO vErE paddhatilO sAgutunnadi.

#[2002# kEMdrasAhitya akADamI puraskAraM taruvAta anEka saMdarbhAlalO, vyAsAlalO velibuchchina abhiprAyAla saMkalanaM idi. I vyAsAlanu aMdajEsina saMdhya chEkUri gAriki mA kRtaj~natalu. - saM.#]

#pUrtigA #»

bApU

telugulO vEmana padyAlu vinani vALLuMDaru. bApU bommalu chUDani vALLU lEru. vEmana padyAlu nijaMgA evaru rASArO teliyadu. kAni, bApU bommalu vEsiMdi sattirAju lakshmInArAyaNa anE Ayana ani cheppitE evarU nammaru. eMdukaMTE bApU anE pErE Ayana nijaM pErayipOyiMdi.

vEmana padyAlu evaru ekkaDa E saMdarbhaMlO vADukunnA evarU kAdanaru. vEmana, nA padyAlu nannaDakkaMDA vESArEM ani kOppaDaDu. mana kAlaMlO, kApI raiTu chaTTAlu, anukaraNa nishEdhAlU unnappuDu kUDA bApU tana bommalani gAli, nIru, veluturU lAgA telugu dESaM aMtaTA paMchi peTTESADu. akkaDE kAdu, teluguvALLu ekkaDa uMTE akkaDa dAkA tana bommalani paTTukOpOnichchADu.

bomma aDagaDaM taDavu — ASu kavitvaM cheppE kavikannA vEgaMgA bommalu vEsE bApU — tana bommalani telugu mATalu batikunna pratichOTikI, mATalakannA vEgaMgA prasAraM kAnichchADu.

telugu vALLu vEmana lAMTi kavulaki sanmAnAlu cheyyalEdu. vALLani tama mAmUlu mATallO kalipEsukoni soMtaM chEsukunnAru, aMtE! bApU kUDA alAMTi vADaipOyADu. chitrakAruDugA atanni panikaTTukoni evarU pogiDinaTTu lEdu. kAni, atani bommalu lEkaMDA evarU E panI cheyyaru. patrika peTTinA, phlaiyar paMpinA, pustakaM achchEsukunnA, bApU gIta lEnidE adi manaki pUrti kAdu.

“bApU goppavADu. manaM paTTaMkaTTi nuvvu goppavADivi ani cheppavalasina avasaraM lEnaMta goppavADu,” ani nEnu 1983 telugu velugu (shikAgO) rAta patrikaki saMpAdakuDigA rASAnu. mA patrikaki mI bommalu kAvAli, ani aDagaMgAnE, pAtika paichiluku bommalu – aTTamIda vEsukODAniki gAnu pedda saiju bommalu – gyAp phillars lAgA vADukOTAniki marOpAtika chinna saiju bommalu, paMpiMchADu bApU.

taruvAta, A bommalannI seyiMT lUyis tAnA vALLakichchAnu, pradarSana kOsaM! aMtE! A bommalE konni saMvatsarAlapATu amerikA telugu patrikalanniMTinI alaMkariMchAyi.

1985lO lAs EMjalis tAnA sabhalu ayina taruvAta, oka vAraM rOjuluMDETTu chikAgO vastunnAnani cheppADu. Ayanni appuDu aDigAnu, akkaDa bommala koluvu peTTArA? ani. saMtRptikaramaina javAbu ivvalEdu. veMTanE, viSAla shikAgO telugu saMstha AdhvaryaMlO oka bommala koluvu peTTAM. daggira daggira mUDuvaMdalamaMdi vachchAru, bommalu chUDaTAniki!

taruvAta, Ayanni chAlAsArlu kaliSAnu; bhArataMlOnu, amerikAlOnU!

okasAri Ayana, pemmarAju vENugOpAla rAvu, nEnU hyusTanlO sadassuki vachchAM. kArulO Ayanni, rAvugArinI sadassuki tIsikeLLAli. “bApU! mIru venaka sITulO kUchOMDi. rAvu gAru muMdu kUchuMTAru. Ayana nAku Dairekshanlu cheppAli,” annAnu. “ nEnU DairekTarunE! Apani nEnu cheyyalEnanukunnAvA?” annADu. mAku navvAgalEdu.

ippuDu bApU lEDu. amerikA telugu vALLa iLLallO vEmana padyAla pustakaM uMDaka pOvachchu. bApu vEsina bomma uMDi tIrutuMdi.

pUrtigA #»

kathalu

j~nApakAla vAsana

nA daggara chAlA j~nApakAlu vunnAyi. guTTalu guTTalugA okadAni mIda okaTi paDi! konni jEbulO konni parsulO… kAsta pAtabaDDavaitE aramaralO, iMkA purAtanamainavi ekkaDO nUtilOnO, pAta uttarAla kaTTalOnE, chAlAkAlaMgA chUDani phOTO AlbaMlOnO… ekkaDO vuMTAyi. hAlulO, beDrUmulO, vaMTiMTlO ekkaDa paDitE akkaDa!

konni j~nApakAlu rakarakAla vastuvulaku atukkOni vuMTAyi. gariTeku konni, rEjar^ki konni, vADakuMDA vadilEsina kAMDOm^ki konni. konnEmO gAllOnE vElADutuMTAyi. iMka bAtrUmulO ayitE ennuMTAyO cheppalEnu. avannI kaDigEsukunnavani nEnanukuMTAnu. avEmO tUmullOMchi bayaTiki pOkuMDA akkaDE paDuMTAyi. taDisipOyi nAnutU… chirAkEstuMdi vITanniMTini chUstE!

eppuDannA okasAri EdannA oka j~nApakAnni tIsukOni chUddAmanukuMTAnA, dAniki atukkOni iMkOTi vastuMdi. dAnni aMdukuMTE iMkOTi atukkuMTuMdi. alA alA akkaDa vunnavannI okadAniki okaTi atukkOni koMDachilavalA nannu chuTTukuMTAyi. vITini kalipi vuMchina dArAnni teMchi paDEddAmani anipistuMTuMdi okOsAri. kAnI A dAraM ekkaDuMdO telisi chAvadu!

ilA kAdani okasAri vATanniMTini sardi paddatigA amarchukuMdAmanukunnAnu. maMchi j~nApakAlaku chakkagA aTTalEsi aMdaMgA tayAru chEyAli. panikirAni pichchi j~nApakAlani vIlaitE tagalabeTTEyAli. kanIsaM kanapaDakuMDA ekkaDannA dAchEyAli. idI praNALika. anukunnaTTE O TEbul sorugulO vunna j~nApakAlannI sardAnu. maMchivi chakkagA shOkEsulO amarchipeTTAnu. bAlEnivi ekkaDannA paDEddAmani chUstunnA. chettabuTTalO vEddAmaMTE appaTikE akkaDa chAlA j~nApakAlu pErukupOyi vunnAyi. parupu etti dAnikiMda peDadAmaMTE akkaDa kuLLipOyina j~nApakAlu pErukupOyunnAyi. vITini EM chEddAMrA bhagavaMtuDA ani AlOchistU nilabaDDAnu.

adigO, appuDE vachchADu vADu!

vADu vachchADaMTE nAku vaNuku puDutuMdi. eppuDU aMtE!

okasAri ilAgE vachchADu. A rOju nEnu lAyarayyAnu. nallakOTu adI vEsukOni sekshan phOrTvaMTI, trInATTU, TUnATphOrU gaTrA neMbarlannI dorliMchukuMTU vATi chuTTU tirugutunnAnu. vADu appuDu vastADani nAku telusu. vachchi rAgAnE vANNi muddAyi bOnulOki ekkiMchEsi yuvarAnar! ani gaTTigA vAdiMchEyAlani nA plAn. vADu vachchADu. nallakOTu, tella chokkA vEsukOni vunnADu.

“idEMTrA? nuvvU lAyarEnA?” annA.

“okasAri chUsukO,” ani kOTu chATu nuMchi pedda addaM tISADu. vADi daggara eppuDU oka addaM vuMTuMdani nAku telusu kAbaTTi nEnu AScharyapOlEdu. kAnI addaMlO kanapaDDa nannu chUsi AScharyapOyA. nEnu muddAyi geTap^lO vunnAnu. chEtulaki bEDIlU avI. eMta prayatniMchinA nAku okka sekshan kUDA gurtu rAlEdu. mukhAniki masi pUsinaTlu nallagA vuMdi.

vADu gaTTigA, “yuvarAnar!” annADu.

“rEy vaddurA… nannu vadilEy,” annAnu. vADu oppukOlEdu. vAdiMchAlannADu.

“yuvarAnar, nannu kApADaMDI,” annAnu jaDji vaipu tirigi. chUstE vADE jaDji.

iMkEM chEsEdi? SikshavEsi pOyADu. A kOrTu kAgitaM kUDA ekkaDO j~nApakAla madhyalO kukkESAnu.

vedhava, ippuDu maLLI vachchADu.

“EM chEstunnAv,” annADu.

“EM lEdE!” annA chEtulu venakki peTTukOni. vADu nA venakE vunnADanna saMgati gamaniMchukOlEdu. O kaTTa j~nApakAlanu tIsukunnADu. avannI pArEddAmanukunnavE. O mUDu nA mukhaM mIda koTTADu. avi nA nuduTilO nuMchi dUri, medaDulO chEri purugulugA mAripOyAyi. lOpalekkaDO tolustunna bAdha. akkaDitO AgalEdu vADu! migilinavannI illaMtA challEsi pOyADu.

vADu veLLipOyina taruvAta kUDA illaMtA okaTE j~nApakAla vAsana. A vAsanatO paDalEka ekkaDO mUla paDipOyina nAlugu maMchi maMchi j~nApakAlanu ErukOni akkaDnuMchi bayaTapaDDAnu. daggarlO EdO pArk kanapaDitE akkaDa chEri, techchukunna maMchi j~nApakAlanu lAn mIda mettagA vuMDETTu paruchukOni dAni mIda paDukunnAnu. nEnu gamaniMchanE lEdu. nAlugu maMchi j~nApakAlatO pATu, nalabhai chetta j~nApakAlu kUDA atukkOni vachchinai. avannI kalisi oka duppaTilA mAri nA mIda paruchukunnAyi. maLLI A daridrapugoTTu vAsana. vADu vachchinaTlunnADu.

“manaM prEmikulaM,” annADu.

“nEnu priyuNNA?” aDigA.

“avunu. nEnu prEyasi,” cheppADu.

“ai lavyU,” annAnu.

“aMTE?”

“adE prEmikulaM annAvu kadA? aMdukE prEmistunnAnani cheppAnu.”

“EdI prEmiMchu.”

“enIthiMg pharyU DArliMg.”

“mAl^lO shApiMg.”

“Os aMtEnA?”

“baMgAraM, oka phlAT, oka bijines.”

“tIsukO bujjI nIkannAnA? mari nAkkAvalsiMdi istAvA?” annA lasTIgA.

“mari nAkO?” venuka nuMchi vinapaDiMdi. tirigi chUstE vADE. “ippuDu peLLAnni,” annADu.

“ChI edavannara edavA. EbrAsi nA koDakA. sukhaMgA vuMDanIvArA nannu!” baTTalannI vippESA. okkO baTTa vipputuMTE okkO kotta bUtumATa tannukochchiMdi. nA peLLAMgADini chAvagoTTA.

vADu navvEsi “pOyostA,” annADu.

“maLLIrAkurarEy, chettanAyalA!” annA gaTTigA. pArkulO vunnavALLaMtA nannE chUstunnAru. maLLI baTTalEsukOni bayaldErA.

vANNi tappiMchukOvAlaMTE Uru dATipODamE mArgamani O bassekkA. vErE vUrlO bassu digagAnE ATOvADu tagulukunnADu. vADE. I sAri ATOvADayyADu. kanapaDagAnE namastE cheppi, prayANaM elA jarigiMdi sAr, ani aDagAlA? adEM lEdu.

“pakka vIdhikEgA? mUDoMdalu ivvaMDi,” annADu.

“nIku buddhuMdA? pakka vIdhiki mUDoMdalu aDugutunnAv? mITareMtavutuMdO telusA?” gaTTigA arichA. vADu ATO digADu. khAkI chokkA SarIrAlu mAriMdi.

“pOnI lADjilO digutArA? padi rUpAyilivvaMDi chAlu. E prAblaM rAni lADji vuMdi,” annAnu nEnu.

“EmE vastAvA?” annADu.

maLLI mAriMdi. ippuDu nEnu laM… tappu tappu… vESya… UhU kAdu kAdu, kAl garl.

lADjiki veLLAM. vADu baTTalu vippi nA mIdaki dUkAlA? EM lEdu. nEnE vippukunnA. nEnu viTuDu, vADu seks varkar. kAdu kAdu, laM…!

pUrtigA #»

amerikA illAli muchchaTlu: baruvu!

EmiTI!? A baTTalatO pATu mI viMTar kOT kUDA sAlvEshan ArmIki ichcheyyamaMTArA?

nikshEpaM lAMTi kOTu. kiMdaTi EDAdEgA ammAyi krismas giphT^gA ichchiMdi. appuDE ichchEyaDamA! EdO olaka pOsukuni pADuchEsukuni vuMTAru avunA? EmiTI… adEM kAdA! kOTu bAvuMdi kAnI… vEsukuMTE baruvugA vuMDi mOyalEka pOtunnArA?

A! ippuDainA oppukuMTArA mIku musali vayasu modalaiMdani?

kOTu baruvugA vuMDaTAnikI mI vayasuku saMbaMdhaM EmiTI aMTArA?

saMbaMdhaM vuMdi kanukanE cheptunnAnu. mIru gamanistunnArO lEdO I madhya I mATani padEpadE aMTunnAru! ivvALa rOju vEsukunE kOTu baruvu annAru. kiMdaTi vAraM mIkeMtO ishTamaina kAphI maggu baruvugA vuMdannAru. kiMdaTi nela Dinnar pArTIki veLLinappuDu, idEmiTI! iMkA Emi vaDDiMchukOkuMDAnE plETu iMta baruvugA vuMdI? annAru. Arnella kritaM TrippulO A hOTal talupulu baruvugA vunnAyannAru gurtuMdA? ilA cheppukupOtE chAlA vunnAy. vunnaTTuMDi tEliggA vuMDE vATini ishTapaDutunnAraMTE nAku nammabuddhi kAvaDaMlEdu. idi khachchitaMgA vayasu techchina mArpE kAni mI abhiruchilO vachchina mArpukAdani nAku telusu!

A rOjullO amerikA vachchina mIru ikkaDi vastuvullOni nANyata, mannika chUsi mahadAnaMdapaDi pOyEvAru. kAru daggira nuMchi kAgitaM dAkA ikkaDa annI eMta baruvugA vuMTAyO iMDiyAlO aMdarikI goppagA cheppEvAru! vaMTiMTlOki kAvAlsina vastuvula daggaranuMchi vyAkyUm klInarla dAkA annI baruvvE konEvAru. ika iMTlO pharnichar saMgati cheppanE akkaralEdu. eMdukaMDI iMtiMta baruvu vastuvulu aMTE, nIkEM telIdu ilA vuMTEnE nAlugu kAlAlu mannutAyi! aMTU nA nOru mUsEvAru. nEnu E vastuvainA bAvuMdI aMTE, baruvu chUstuMTEnE telustOMdi adi elAMTidO! aMTU koTTipArEstU vachchAru.

venakaTiki mA amma mEnamAma kUDA anniMTikI ‘baruvu, baruvu’ aMTuMDEvADuTa! mIru vastuvullO baruvu chUsinaTTugA Ayana Dabbu, hOdAla baruvu chUsEvADuTa. ADapillalni ichchETappuDu eduTi vALLa AstipAstulanu tUkaM vEsi baruvugA vuMdanukuMTEnE peLLiLLu chEsEvADuTa! ika tana iMTiki vachchE kODaLLani, bAgA baruvugA kaTnAlu ichchukOgaligE vALLanu chUsi marI eMchukunE vADuTa!

pUrvaM peLLiki vachchina baMdhuvulu kUDA peLLikUturiki attAru peTTina paTTuchIrala baruvu chUsi vALLa aMtastu EmiTO iTTE aMchanA vEsEvAruTa! peLLi koDukki chEsukunna ammAyi mIda eMta prEma vuMdI annadi, atanu SObhanaM nADu bhArya koMguku kaTTE baMgAraM baruvu chUstE telisipOyEdiTa! mA nAyanamma tana chAmaMtibiLLa koDuku chEtiki ichchi, kODali koMguku kaTTarA, aMTE bAMbElO chaduvukunna mA Akharu bAbAyi, nathiMg DUyiMgaMTU pinni chEtiki nAjukaina gaDiyAraM kaDitE, ADavALLaMdarU davaDalu nokkukunnAruTa!

manasulO vunna prEmaku vastuvu baruvuku muDi peDatArEmiTI manavALLu ani navvukunEdAnni! kAnI ikkaDikochchAka telisiMdi amerikAlO kUDA abbAyi prEma levelu, phainAnshiyal levelu cheppEdi DaimaMD vuMgaraM baruvEnani!

asalu I baruvukI mana batukulakI viDadIyarAni saMbaMdhaM vuMdi kAdU. vayasulO vunnappuDu eMta baruvainA bhujAlamIdaku ettukuMTAM. nijAniki avi baruvani kUDA manaku anipiMchavu. padakoMDELLaku peLLi ayi panneMDO ETa kAparAniki veLLina mA amma, attagAru lEni A iMTlO pedda AriMdA ayipOyiMdiTa. bhUmiki jAneDu ettu lEkapOyinA rOjU mOkulAMTi khaddaru chIralu kaTTukonEdiTa. mEmevvaraM puTTakamunupE pITala mIda kUrchuni iddaru maradula upanayanAlu, iddaru ADapaDuchula peLLiLLu chEsiMdiTa! mA amma Debbaiyava puTTinarOjani aMdaraM kalisi pratyEkaMgA kaMchilO nEyiMchina paTTuchIra peDitE, amma navvutU, “I chIra venakAla vunna mI prEmanu mOyyagalanu kAnI, I vayasulO I chIranu kaTTi mOsE Opika nAku lEdarrA,” aMdi! nijamE baruvu moyyAlaMTE balaM vuMDAli kadA!

innALLugA vEsukOgaligina kOTu mIku vunnaTTuMDi baruvai pOyinaTTu ELLa tarabaDi chEstunna vudyOgAlu kUDA oka vayasulO haTAttugA baruvanipistAyi. A bAdhyatala nuMchi eppuDu bayaTapaDatAmA eppuDu riTair avutAmA ani eduruchUstAM. evariki vALLaM manakE anni bAdhyatalu vunnAyanI A baruvEdO manaM okkaLLamE mOstunnAM anukuMTU eduTivArini chUsi IrshyapaDutU vuMTAM.

pasipillalatO satamatamayyE daMpatulu vALLa paivALLanu chUsi, “mIkEM, hAyigA skUlukeLLE pillalu, mAkaitE Daipar chEMj^lu, naiT TaiM phIDiMg^lu… kaMTi niMDA nidra pOyi ennirOjulaiMdO… mA pillalu eppuDu peddavALLu avutArO…” aMTU vApOtAru.

mana pillalu kAlEjI chaduvulaku vachchAraMTE, evarainA kanipiMchaTaM AlasyaM, “abba! mIreMta adRshTavaMtulO. I rOjullO pillala chaduvulaku eMtavutOMdO telusA!” aMTU vALlatO vAdanaku digutAM. monna mI tammuDU vALLanu manatO vekEshanuku rammaMTE EmannADO telusA? “nIkEM vadinA! pillala peLLiLLu ayipOyAyi. phrI barDs. mIku eppuDaMTE appuDE hanImUn. mAkeTlA kudurutuMdI? pillalu seTil ayyEdAkA E vekEshanlaku rAnaMTOMdi sujAta!” aMTU tana bAdha veLLabOsukunnADu.

monnAmadhya mA peddakkayyanu vALLa viyyAla vAru, mEmu O reMDunelalu tIrdhayAtralaku veLtunnAM… mIrU vastArA? ani aDigAruTa. nEnu, hAyigA veLLirAvE aMTE adi veMTanE, “saDElE, AviDaMTE mogapillala talli. koDukulaku peLLiLLu chEsEsi darjAgA tirigEstOMdi. nAkekkaDa kudurutuMdI mugguru ADapillalatO? vILLa DelivarIla tOnE nAku saripOtOMdi. okaLLadai, hammayya anukunE lOpu iMkOtti raDIgA vuMTuMdi. pOnI ikkaDa vunnArA aMTE adI lEdu. muggurU veLLi mUDu khaMDAllO kUrchunnAru. chAkirI mATa alA vuMchi muMdu A plEnlu ekkalEka, digalEka chachchipOtunnAnE ramyA!” ani aMTuMTE nAku okaTE navvochchiMdi!

riTair ayyElOpu bAdhyatalannI pUrti cheyyAlani aMdaraM ASapaDutU vuMTAM. riTair avagAnE illu, vAkili Daun^saij chEsEsi, laiph^ni siMpliphai cheyyAlani plAnlu chEsEstuMTAM. aMdukOsaM eMtO kEr^phulgA innELLu chErEsina chettA chedAraM tIsipArEsE panilO paDatAM. kAnI dAnikaMTE muMdu ELLugA aMtulEni kOrikalatO, vyAmOhAlatO niMDipOyina mana manassuni Daun^saij chEsukOvAli. iMtakAlaMgA peMchi pOshistU vachchina ahAnni, rAgadvEshAlni pIki pArEsE prayatnaM modalu peTTAli. anavasaramaina vishayAlaku AmaDa dUraMlO vuMDaTaM, vunna dAnitO tRptigA saMtOshaMgA vuMDaTaM alavATu chEsukOvAli. appuDE mana kiMdi taraM vAru manalni gauraviMchi mana peddarikAniki pedda pITa vEstAru.

kUDapeTTaTamE kAni paMchukOvaDaM aMTE EmiTO teliyani mA reMDO akkayya mAvagAru maMchaMlO tIsukuMTU Akhari kshaNaMlO kUDA kRshNA!rAmA!ku badulugA Dabbu!dastAvEju! aMTU prANaM viDichi aMdari chEtA ChI! anipiMchukunnADu. ika mA annayya attagAraitE, tana hayAmulO kODaLlanu aMdarinI O vUpu vUpi kAlu cheyyi paDipOyina tarvAta, “nApani ayipOyiMdE ammA! nA mATa vinEvALLE lEru…” aMTU mosali kannILlu kArustU pailOkAniki veLLEMta varakU kODaLLa mIda phiryAdulu chEstUnE vuMdi.

riTairmeMT^ki kAvalasina Dabbu, daskaM, penshanlu, insUrens lAMTi vishayAllO mArpulu jAgrattalu tIsukunnaTTE mana ArOgyaM, AlOchanalu, mana naDavaDi vishayAllO kUDA mArpulu chErpulu chEsukOvAli. jIvitaM modaTlO eMta kashTapaDinA chivari daSalO mAtraM manaM kashTapaDakuMDA iMkokaLLanu kashTapeTTakuMDA jAgratta paDAli.

unnanni rOjulu naluguritO navvutU batakAli. kAnI… manaM navvula pAlu kAkUDadu.

oDiduDukulanu taTTukuMTU niMDukuMDalA vuMDAlE kAnI… DIlApaDipOtU OTipOyina kuMDalA avakUDadu.

manasunI SarIrAnnI tEliggA vuMchukOvaTaM modalu peTTAli. kAnI… mana mATa, pravartana tElipOkUDadu.

sIniyar siTijanE, kAnI TInEjar vyavahAraM annaTTu kAkuMDA… vayasuku taginaTTugA huMdAgA vuMDaTaM nErchukOvAli.

ivannI pATiMchinappuDE sIniyar siTijan laiph smUt… gA sAgipOtuMdi! aMdukani ika manaM kUDA nemmadigA baruvulni taggiMchukuMTU riTairmeMT jIvitAniki raDI ayipOdAM!

mana jIvitaM manaku baruvu kAkuMDA manaM iMkokariki baruvu kAkuMDA chUsukOvaTaM lOnE vuMdi mana praj~naMtA! EmaMTAru?

EmiTI!? vishayAnni iMta baruvugA cheppina tarvAta ika anaTAniki EmuMdI aMTArA!

pUrtigA #»

manishikeMta bhUmi?

“paTnaMlO jIvitaM elA uMdi?” madhyAhnaM tIrubaDigA kUrchuni, chAlAkAlaM tarvAta tanani chUDaDAniki vachchina akkani, chellelu aDigiMdi.

“bAnEvuMdi. akkaDi sukhAlu akkaDivi. ikkaDa palleTUrlO unnaMta dummU dhULI lEvu. pillalaki ADukOvaDAnikI EdainA kottadi nErchukOvaDAnikI rakarakAla mArgAlunnAyi. maMchi tiMDI, guDDA kaTTukOgalugutunnAM.”

chelleliki EmainA anipiMchiMdO lEdO kAnI I mATallO akkaDE unna chellelu koDukki mAtraM ettipoDupu vinipiMchiMdi. veMThanE annADu, “kAdu marI? pAlallO nILlakI, roTTepiMDilO kaltIki alavATu paDitE annI bAgAnE uMTAyi.”

akkaki tagalavalsina chOTE tagiliMdi I mATa. “avunlErA, kanIsaM paMdulatO, goDlatO, doDDilOMchi iMTlOki nimushAnikOsAri vachchEpOyE kODipeTTaltO vEgakkarlEdu” ettipoDichiMdAviDa.

“EM? avi lOpalaki vastE mAku nashTamEmiTI? mAtO pATE avI kUDA batukutunnAyi. mIku paTnaMlO Akhariki kashTaM sukhaM cheppukunE tODu uMTuMdA? mEmunnaMta sukhaMgA uMDagalugutunnArA?” I sAri koMcheM saumyaMgA aDigEDu kurrADu.

“I pallelO EM sukhaM? mI nAnnani aDugu cheptADu. mIku chAlinaMta bhUmE lEdu. pakka iMTlO vALLa goDlu mI polaM mIda paDitE paMTa nASanaM avutOMdi. vALLani aDigitE adO pedda debbalATa. nijAniki EM paMDistunnArO, EM migultOMdO? eppuDU polaM puTrA chAlaTlEdanE gOla.”

I sAri chellelu koDuku EmI mATlADakuMDA nOru mUsukunnADu vADiki teliyani vishayAlu vachchEsariki. kAnI A pakkanE viMTunna chelleli moguDu pAhOM chevilO paDDAyi I mATalannI. vALLa kaburlU annI ayyEka rAtri paDukunETappuDu pAhOMki gurtochchAyi maradalu anna mATalu. “eMta nijaM! nAku I ara korA bhUmitO chachchE chAvu vachchiMdi kadA. AviDa cheppiMdI nijamE. unna polaMlO paMTa pakkavALLa goDlu vastE nASanaM avutOMdi. vALLatO chepdAmaMTE mohamATaM. pOnI ani cheppinA vALLEmI kaTTaDi chEstunnaTTu lEdu. soMta bhUmi uMDaTaM vErU, kauliki tIsukuni chAvu konitechchukOvaDaM vErUnu. tAmu pOgEsina DabbultO EmAtraM bhUmi vachchEnu I UrlO?” ilAMTi AlOchanalatO nidralOki jArukunnADu.

maradalu veLLipOyina konni vArAlaki tama UrlO unna bhUmi ammakAnikochchinaTTu telsiMdi pAhOMki. kAnI adi vaMdekarAla paimATE. okkaTigAnE tappa mukkalugA ammaruTa. vaMdekarAlu konE tAhatu kAdu pAhOMdi. UrlO raitulaMdarikI ammE yajamAnini kALlA vELLA paDi batimAlEsariki iravai ekarAla choppuna ammaDAniki oppukunnADu Ayana. tana daggirunnadI, bhArya meDalO nagA naTrA annI UDchEsi, ikkaDA, akkaDA koMta mottaM appO soppO techchi mottAniki iravai ekarAlu konagaligEDu pAhOM.

reMDELlu gaDichAyi.

paMTa bAguMDaTaM valla appulu tIripOyEyi sarE. kAnI I kottagA konna iravai ekarAlu tana iMTiki daggira kAdu. muMdunna bhUmI ippuDunna bhUmI vEru vEru chOTla. tiragaDAniki oLLU hUnaM avutOMdi. pakka chElallO uMDE goDlu tana chElOki rAvaDaM, tAnu vALLani aDagaDaM, vALLu EmI chEyakuMDA UrukOvaDaM anEdi alA sAgutUnE uMdi. I debbalATallO nyAyasthAnAla chuTTU tiragaDaM O pedda pani ippuDu. ekkuva bhUmi uMTE sukhapaDadAmanukunnADu kAnI chachchE chAvochchiMdi pAhOMki.

O rOju madhyAhnaM anukOkuMDA O bATasAri vachchEDu pAhOM iMTiki. vErE Uru veLtU ikkaDa chikku paDipOtE rAtriki kAsta chOTistArEmO ani pAhOMni aDigEDu. pAhOM Ayanni sAdaraMgA iMTlOki AhvAniMchEDu. bhOjanAlayyAka kaburlalO cheppEDu pAhOM tanakunna talaneppulannI. annI cheppi annADu chivariki, “ekkuva polaM uMTE sukhaM anukunnAnu kAnI digE dAkA lOtu teliyadannaTTu uMdi nA paristhiti.”

vachchinAyana annI vini cheppEDu, “mIku vOlgA nadi telusu kadA? A nadiki paina bhUmulu chAlA chavaggA unnAyaMTunnAru. mA ULLOnE unna okAyana – EmI unnavADu kAdu asalu – taTTA buTTA sardukuni akkaDiki veLLipOyEDu. mUDELLalO iravai aidu ekarAla bhUmI, pADI, paSuvulU annI saMpAdiMchEDu. kottavALlu veLtE akkaDunna janaM aMtA saMtOshaMgA rammani pilichi bhUmi chavaggA ammutAruTa. mA UriniMchi veLLinAyana alA saMpAdiMchiMdE A pAtika ekarAlUnu. vOlgA nadi paina aMTE iMka cheppEdEmuMdi? avannI sukshEtrAlu. ikkaDa mIkiMta kashTaM aMTunnAru kanaka vIluMTE akkaDa chUDaMDi. okE chOTa EkAMDi polaM mukkalu lEkuMDA dorukutuMdi.”

marnADu A bATasAri veLLipOyEDu. chali rOjulu venakapaDi vAtAvaraNaM kAsta bAgunnAka pAhOM iMTi bAdhyatalannI peLLAM pillalaki appacheppi vOlgA painunna bhUmulu chUDDAniki bayaldErEDu. veLLAka telsiMdi – tana iMTikochchina bATasAri cheppinadi aksharAlA nijaM! kottagA vachchinavALLaki pAtika ekarAlu istunnAru. DabbuluMTE maiLLa koddI bhUmi uMdi konukkOvaDAniki; adI kAru chaukagA! pAhOM maTTi chEtilOki tIsukuni parIkshagA chUsEDu. adbhutaM! venakki vastU dArlOnE EM chEyAlO pAhOM niSchayaM chEsukunnADu.

“ippuDunna UrlO tanaki jagaDAlu tappavu. I UrlO uMTE tana batuku eppaTikI gorre tOkE. A mUla nuMchi I mUlakI, I mUlanuMchi A mUlakI tirigEsariki tana oLLu hUnaM avutOMdi. ayinA vOlgA paina bhUmulakI ikkaDa bhUmulakI nakkakI nAkalOkAnikI unnaMta tEDA!”

iMTikochchina nelalOpuna tana AstulannI ammEsEDu pAhOM. polAlaki maMchi dharE vachchiMdi. A painelalO bichANA ettEsi vOlgA painunna bhUmula kOsaM pAhOM kuTuMbaMtO sahA bayaldEri veLLipOyEDu.

veLLAka polaM konabOtuMTE appuDu talupu taTTiMdi adRshTaM. akkaDunna vALLu manishikoka pAtika ekarAlu istAruTa, kuTuMbAniki pAtika kAdu. pAhOM egiri gaMtEsEDu. alA pAhOMki vachchiMdi nUTa pAtika ekarAlu! tanaki munupunna iravai ekarAlu ippuDu chinna nATumaDi kiMda lekka! ayitE O chikkochchiMdi ikkaDa kUDA. nUTa pAtika ekarAlu okE chOTa ivvaDaM kudarlEdu. maLLI ikkaDO mukkA, akkaDO mukkA ichchEru. annI vadulukuni vachchinavADiki nUTa pAtika ekarAlu uttinE vastUMTE chEdA? avi mukkalaitEnEM? pAhOM maLLI vyavasAyaM modalu peTTEDu. vOlgA nadi nILLO marEmO kAnI pAhOM paTTiMdallA baMgAramaiMdi polAllO.

gOdhumalu adbhutaMgA paMDutunnAyi ikkaDa. kAnI anni polAllOnU okE paMTa vEyaDaM kashTamaiMdi. okE EkAMDi bhUmi mukkalu lEkuMDA uMTE polaM chUsukODaM, sAgu chEyaDaM sulabhaMgA uMDEdi kAnI tanakunna vErvEru mukkala valla gOdhuma paMTa sAgu chEyaDaM kashTamautOMdi. iMtalO pAhOM gOdhumalu vEsina paMTa pakkanE unna AsAmI polaM kaulukistunnADani telsiMdi. adi tIsukuni EkAMDigA gOdhumalu paMDiMchaDaM modalupeTTADu pAhOM. ikkaDunna chikkEmiTaMTE phalasAyaM bAgunnA kauluki Dabbulu pOtunnAyi. aMchEta rAbaDi peddagA lEdu. okEchOTa bhUmi EkAMDIgA uMTE eMta bAguNNO ani ennOsArlu anipiMchiMdi pAhOMki.

idE sthitilO koTTumiTTADutU marO mUDu saMvatsarAlu gaDipEDu pAhOM. okarOju O saMgati telisiMdi. ULLO okAyana padamUDu vaMdala ekarAlu chavaggA ammutunnADu. adaMtA ikkaDO chOTA akkaDO chOTA kAdu, aMtA okE EkAMDI chekka. pAhOM roTTe virigi nEtilO paDDaTTaiMdi. veMThanE veLLi bEraM chEsEDu. padihEnu vaMdala rUbuLlaki bEraM siddhaM chEsukuni kAyitAla mIda saMtakAlu peTTaDAniki tayArautUMTE bhUmi konaDAniki pAhOMlO kanabaDE utsAhaM chUsi akkaDE unna okAyana cheppEDu:

“mIku polaM konAlanE ubalATaM ekkuvagA unnaTTuMdi. dAnikOsaM inni Dabbulu tagalEyaDaM eMdukU? nEni ippuDE dUradESaM nuMchi vastunnAnu polaM koni. akkaDa iMkA chavaggA dorukutuMdi bhUmi.”

“eMta chavakalO dorakochchu?”

“nEnu padamUDu vEla ekarAlu veyyi rUbuLLaki konnAnu.”

“EmiTI?” pAhOM nOru veLLabeTTEDu.

“kAvalistE chUsukOMDi,” aMTU O kAyitaM chUpiMchADu Ayana.

I kAyitaM chUsina pAhOMki kALLU chEtulU ADalEdu. tAnu ikkaDa padihEnu vaMdalu peTTi konE bhUmi dubArA! pa-da-mU-Du-vE-la e-ka-rA-lu! ikkaDunna nUTapAtika ekarAlatO tAnu eppaTiki veyyi ekarAlu saMpAdiMchagaligEnu? A bhUmulelAMTivO, avi elAga konAlO iMkA vishayAlu cheppamani vEdhiMchADu pAhOM A kottAyanani.

“I bhUmulammE vALLu bashkIrlu. vALlaki peddagA chaduvU saMdhyA lEdu. alA ani Dabbunna vALLU kAdu. nEla maMchidE. vyavasAyaM chEsukuMTE chEsukunnavADiki chEsukunnaMta. mIku chavaggA bhUmi kAvAlaMTE nEnu EM chEsEnO adE chEyochchu.”

“mIrEM chEsEru? cheppaMDi,” toMdarapeTTEDu pAhOM Ayanni.

“nEnu vALlaMdarikI bahumatulU, TI, vaMdarUbuLlaki samAnamaina tinubaMDArAlU avannI ichchEnu. vALLu ivannI jIvitaMlO chUDalEduTa. mI ishTaM vachchinaMta bhUmi konukkOMDi annAru. nA daggirunna veyyi rUbuLLaki padamUDuvEla ekarAlu vachchiMdi. ApyAyaMgA palakariMchaMDi. koMcheM bAgA mATlADi, maMchi bahumatulu ivvaMDi. A tarvAta mIrE akkaDa rAju!”

bashkIrla daggiraki elA veLLAlO dArI, akkaDiki veLLAka evarni kalavAlO A vivarAlannI saMpAdiMchi pAhOM dAdApu parigeDutunnaTTU iMTiki vachchEDu.

marnADE O pAlErni veMTabeTTukuni, peLLAM pillaltO cheppi bashkIrlani kalusukOvaDAniki bahumatulU, tivAchIlU, tEyAkU, DabbulU paTTukuni prayANaM sAgiMchEDu pAhOM.

EDu rOjula prayANaM tarvAta EdEmaitEnEM, pAhOM, atani pAlErU bashkIrlu uMDE guDArAlaki chErEru. pAhOM akkaDa gamaniMchinadEmiTaMTE bashkIrlaki chEsE panEmI lEdu. vALLakunna gurrAlaki ADavALLu pAlu tIstunnAru. A pAlU vennA tini magavALLaMdarU O chOTa chEri kaburlu cheppukOvaDaM, lEkapOtE chuTTU unna aDivilOMchi EvO techchukuni tinaDaM. vALLaki vyavasAyaM rAdU, chEyarU. anniMTikI miMchI E panI chEsE avasaraM unnaTTu kanipiMchalEdu kUDA. ayitE vALlaMdarU maMchivALlavaDaM valla pAhOMni chUDagAnE rammani sAdaraMgA AhvAniMchEru. ayitE vALLaki pAhOM mATlADE rashyan bhAsha rAdu. unnavALLalO oka dubAsIni paTTuku mATlADDaM modalu peTTAru — pAhOM eMdukochchADO, tamaki bahumatulu eMdukistunnADO telsukOvaDAniki.

pAhOM tAnochchina pani guriMchi cheppEDu, “mEmunna pradESaMlO bhUmi takkuvA, janaM ekkuvA. mI bhUmi mA dAni kaMTE sAravaMtaMgA kanipistOMdi. nEnu ikkaDa bhUmi konaDAniki vachchAnu. mIru eMta aDugutArO chUsi dAnni baTTi manaM bEraM kudurchukOvachchu.”

pUrtigA #»

kOnasIma kathalu: reMDu prEma kATlu

chAlA ELLa taruvAta mA kolIg vALLa chelli peLLiki madrAsu veLLinappuDu padihEDELLa taruvAta anukOkuMDA suvarNani chUSAnu.

tanu nannu chUsi gurtupaTTiMdi kAnI, nAkayitE A rUpaM suvarNEnA annadi UhakE aMdalEdu. nA kaLLanu nEnE nammalEkapOyAnu. okappuDu es.kE.bi.Ar kAlEjI kurrakArunI, chuTTupakkala yAvattu maga samAjAnnI okka kudupu kudipina suvarNEnA ilA ayyiMdannadi AScharyaM vEsiMdi. mohaMlO navakaM tagga lEdu kAnI, bAgA lAvekkiMdi. nannu chUDagAnE, “Ey! rAvuDU! gurtunnAnA? suvarNani! elA vunnAvu?” praSnala SaraMparaki nOTa mATa rAlEdu.

“nuvvassalu mAralEdu, kAsta juTTu palchabaDiMdaMtE!” aMTU nannasalu mATlADanIyakuMDA tanaguriMchi cheppukuMTU pOyiMdi. mugguru pillalanI, peddammAyi iMjanIriMg chaduvutOMdanI, migatA iddarU kavalalanI iMTar chaduvutunnAranI cheppiMdi. suvarNa bharta kOTESvararAvu mAtraM peLLiki rAlEdu. atanu nAku bAgAnE gurtunnADu. nA guriMchI vivarAlu aDigiMdi. peLLayyiMdanI, iddarabbAyilanI cheppAnu. peLLiki pilavalEdEviTanI nishTUraMgA aMdi. nEnu siMpulgA guLLO peLLi chEsukunnAnani, iMTlO vALLani tappa iMkevarnI pilavalEdani cheppAnu.

mA amma guriMchI, nAnna guriMchI aDigiMdi. amma pOyi ayidELLayiMdani cheppAnu. tanakAvishayaM telIdani bAdha paDiMdi. vALLammaki kUDA ArOgyaM aMtaMta mAtraMgAnE uMdaTa. suvarNaki mA ammaMTE chAlA ishTaM. suvarNa tallI, mA ammA chinnappuDu rAmachaMdrapuraMlO kalisi chaduvukunnAru. peLLayyAka amma amalApuraM vachchEsiMdi. nAnna vALLadi iMdupalli. mEM puTTAka chaduvula kOsaM amalApuraM makAM mArchESADu.

iravayyELLa taruvAta amalApuraM jillAkOrTuki kotta jaDji badilI mIda vachchADu. nAnna bAr asOshiyEshan^ki shaTil ADaDAniki veLLEvADu. kotta jaDjigArikI bADmiMTan ATa ishTaM ayyEsariki nAnnatO parichayaM bAgAnE ayyiMdi. appuDu mATallO tEliMdEviTaMTE jaDji gAri bhArya, mA amma chinnappaTi snEhiturAlani. alA A jaDji gAru mAyiMTiki bhOjanAnikochchinappuDu moTTamodaTa sAri chUSAnu suvarNani. nEnu appuDu iMTar chaduvutunnAnu. suvarNa bi.yessI reMDO saMvatsaraM ani telisiMdi. suvarNa nA kaMTE mUDELLu pedda.

“peLLiki pilavakapOyinA, iMkA gurtunnAnu. saMtOshaM!” aMTU egatALigA aMdi. gaTTigA navvESAnu.

“jIvitaMlO manishi EdayinA marchipOvachchu. chinnatanAnni, kAlEji rOjulani mAtraM chivaridAkA gurtuMchukuMTUnE uMTADu! nIkkUDA pAtavannI gurtuMDE uMTAyani anukuMTAnu. lEdani nuvvaMTE mAtraM nEnu nammanu,” ani suvarNa kaLLalOki chUstU annAnu. nA mATallO arthaM grahiMchi okka sAri taladiMchukuMdi.

“EMTi? iMta sannabaDipOyAvu? DaiTiMgA?” mATala madhyalO vELAkOLaMgA annAnu.

“nI kOnasIma vyaMgyaM mAtra pOlEdu. ayinA nA SarIraM, nA yishTaM!” aMTU gaTTigA piDikilitO bhujammIda koTTiMdi.
“talli bratuku nistE, Uru mATa nErputuMdaMTAru. ayinA avannI elA pOtAyanukunnAvu? vyaMgyaM mA janma hakku!” aMTU gaTTigA cheyyi paikettAnu. pillala kAnpula valanA, mukhyaMgA kavalala puTTAka, tanaki thairAyiD samasya vachchiMdanI cheppiMdi.

“dEvuDu maMchi vADu. nuvvu lAvekki ennO kApurAlu nilabaDDAyi. lEdaMTE yAvattu madrAsu nagaraM pichchAsupatrula pAlayyEdi!”

tanU nAtO vaMta kaluputU gaTTigA navviMdi. koMtasEpu pAta saMgatulu nemaru vEsukunnAM. nA vivarAlannI tIsukuMdi. vALLiMTiki rammaMdi kAnI, A sAyaMtramE nA haidrAbAdu TikkaTu buk chEsukOvaDaM valana marO sAri vastAnani cheppAnu. peLLilO bhOjanAniki nA pakkanE kUrchuMdi. okkatE rAvaDaM valana nAtOnE mATlADutU gaDipiMdi.

bhOjanAlayyAka veLatAnaMTE kAru varakU sAganaMpAnu. kArekki DOru viMDO tIstU, mellagA aDigiMdi: “vivEk elA unnADu?”

idi nEnu UhiMchalEdu. iMtakumuMdu mATallO ekkaDA vivEk pEru prastAvana rAkuMDA mATlADina suvarNa chivarlO ApukOlEka pOyiMdani anukunnAnu. EM samAdhAnaM cheppAlO telIlEdu. nAkunna ati daggari snEhitullO vivEggADu okaDu. mA annayya klAsmET ayinA nAtOnE vADiki snEhaM ekkuva.

“vADu nIkiMkA gurtunnADA?” aprayatnaMgA praSna vachchEsiMdi. avunannaTlu talUpiMdi. chinnagA navvAnu.

“vADelA uMTEnEM? nIku gurtunnADu, adE chAlu!” anEsi vIDkOlu cheppi venakki vachchESAnu.

suvarNani chUSAka gatamaMtA kaLLamuMdu mediliMdi. nEnU vivEggANNi kalisi padihEnELLu dATiMdi. iMTarayAka iMjanIriMg^ki kAnpUr veLLAka nAku aMdaritO saMbaMdhAlu tegipOyAyi. vivEggADu bi.#e#ssI tappADani vinnAnu. annayya emmessIkani AMdhrA yUnivarSiTIki veLipOyADu. nEnu Akharu sAri vivEggANNi kalisiMdi iMTar parIkshalayyAkE! taruvAta maLLI kalavalEdu. vADu prEma UbilO kUrukupOyi kumilipOyADu. ippuDekkaDunnADO, EviTO E vivarAlU telIdu.

annayyatOnU vADiki snEhaM taggiMdanI vinnAnu. snEhAlu chitraMgA uMTAyi. okkO daSalO oka snEhaM. Edi chivari varakU naDustuMdO cheppalEM. saMpadalU, baMdhAlU eppaTikI nilakaDagA uMDavu.


haThAttugA unnaTuMDi es.kE.bi.Ar kAlEjIlO bhUkaMpaM kannA vaMda reTla strIkaMpaM vachchiMdi. aTeMDaru nuMDi, AchAryula varakU aMdarU dAni bAdhitulE! sTUDeMTs ayitE cheppanavasaraM lEdu. appuDE nikkaru nuMDi pEMTuki pramOshan vachchina kurALLa daggarnuMDI, peLLIDochchina pillalunna peddavALLa sahitaM EdO vidhaMgA manasu gAyapaDinavArE! udayAnnE EDu gaMTala kokasAri, maralA madhyAnnaM panneMDunnaraki marOsArI I strIkaMpAniki chedarina vArE! aMtavarakU buddhigA pustakAllOMchi talettani buddhulu kUDA kAlEjI gETu daggara prabuddhullA avatAra mettAru.

iMtaTi kaMpanaM sRshTiMchiMdi kAlEjIlO kottagA chErina suvarNa anE kottammAyi. pasuppachcha SarIra chAya, chakkaTi kanumukku tIrU, nalla trAchulA naDuM dATina jaDA: naDichochchE pAlarAti SilpaMlA uMdi. dAnikitODu eMtO aMdamaina chIra kaTTu. evarainA okasAri chUstE maralA venakki marOsAri chUDakuMDA uMDalEru. amalApuraM kOrTuki kottagA badilI ayina jaDjigArammAyani modaTi rOjE kAlEjI aMtA TAMTAM ayipOyiMdi.

I suvarNa rAka guriMchi moTTamodaTa nAku telsiMdi mA annayya dvArAnE. mA annayyA, vADi snEhituDu vivEggADu cheppukuMTUMDagA vinnAnu. kOnasImalO chuTTupakkala ULLanniMTikI es.kE.bi.Ar kAlEjI okkaTE dikku. DigrI klAsulu udayAnni, iMTarmIDiyET klAsulu madhyAnnaM uMDEvi. nEniMkA appuDE iMTarlO chErinaMduvalla nAku suvarNa darSana bhAgyaM kalagalEdu. annayyA, vivEggADu iddarU bi.yassI reMDO EDu chaduvutunnAru. I suvarNa kUDA vALLa sekshanE ayyEsariki annayyA, vivEggADiki poddastamAnU kAlEjIlO suvarNa vishayAlE! iMglIshu TIcharu Ameku elA lainu vEsEvADu, migatA allarimUka klAsu bayaTa elA paDigApulu kAsEvAru kathalu kathalugA cheppukunEvAru. haThAttugA nAnna O rOjuna mA iMTiki jaDji gArini bhOjanAniki pilavaDaMtO moTTamodaTi sAri suvarNani chUsE bhAgyaM kaligiMdi. aMtavarakU aMdaM aMTE sirisirimuvva jayaprada anukunE nAku suvarNani chUsAka arthaM mAripOyiMdi.

modaTi sAri kalisinappuDu kEvalaM parichayAlE tappa EmI mATlADalEdu. annayyA, tanU okE sekshan ani parichayAllO annayya cheppinA, suvarNa ulukU palukU lEdu, O techchi peTTukunna navvu tappa. mATallO mA nAnna nEnu bommalu bAgA vEstAnani cheppaDaMtO suvarNa nE vEsina bommalu chUpiMchamaMdi. nA DrAyiMg buksannI tIsukochchi chUpiMchAnu. tanaki bommalu vEyaDaM aMTE chachchETaMta chikAkanI, tanaki rAdanI cheppiMdi. tanaki bOTanI, jUlAjIllO kAvalsinappuDu bommalu vEsistAvA? ani nannu aDigiMdi. nA sommEM pOyiMdi. sarE nannAnu. alA suvarNa nAku parichayamayyiMdi. tarachu mA iMTiki bommalu vEyiMchukODaM kOsaM vachchEdi. A vidhaMgA mA kuTuMbaMlO aMdarikI parichayaM ekkuvayyiMdi. annayya dvArA vivEggADu parichayamayyADu.

nannelA bommalu vEyaDAniki TrAp chEsiMdO, vivEggANNi kemisTrI cheppiMchukODAniki kudurchukuMdi. vivEggADu vALLadi aMbAjIpETa. rOju padi kilOmITarlu saikilu tokkukuMTU kAlEjIki vachchEvADu. vALLadi madhya taragati kaMTE takkuva kuTuMbaM. vIDE pedda koDuku. vIDiki iddaru akkalunnAru. iddarikI peLLiLLayi attAriMTikeLipOyAru. vivEggADu chAlA bAgA chaduvutADu; telivaina vADu kUDA. iMTarlO kAlEjI phasT vachchADu. meDikal sITu vachchinA chadiviMchE sthOmata lEka vALLa nAnna vANNi paMpalEdu. alA eMtO telivaina vADu kAstA bi.yassIkE parimitaM ayipOyADu. vivEggADu suvarNaki nOTsu rAsichchEvADu. vADi rAta mutyAla kOvalA uMTuMdi. iMkEmuMdi? suvarNa pogaDDamU, manavADu tabbibbayyi chUchirAta raMgaMlOki dUkaDaM kshaNaMlO jarigipOyAyi.

vivEggADikI nEnE bommalu vEsichchEvANNi. nAkU, vADikI sinimAla vishayaMlO dOstI. mA annayyaki sinimAlaMtagA nachchEvi kAvu. nEnu madhyAnnaM klAsuleggoTTi marI vivEggADitO kalisi sinimAlaki chekkEsEvANNi. sariggA appuDu marO charitra rilIjayyiMdi. nEnu kAkinADa veLLinappuDu chUsochchAka, vivEggADikI, suvarNakI katha cheppAnu. amalApuraMlO A sinimA iMkA rilIju kAlEdu. O nAlugu vArAla taruvAta DIlaks dhiyETarlOki vachchiMdi. nEnU, vivEggADU, suvarNA, vALLa chellelU aMdaraM veLLAM. sariggA A sinimAnE vivEggADi jIvitAnni mArchEsiMdi.

mA kAlEjIki kottagA oka kurra iMglIshu lekcharar vachchADu. pAThaM cheppaDAniki muMdE suvarNani chUsi manasu pArEsukunnADu. uDukuraktaM kadA? sarAsari veLLi suvarNani peLLi chEsukuMTAnani jaDjigArini aDigADaTa. jaDjigAru ippuDE kAdu, taruvAta chUddAM annADani vivEggADu cheppADu. suvarNa kUDA mATallO nAtO aMdi. vILLa mATallO tEliMdEviTaMTE suvarNa vivEggANNi prEmistOMdani. vivEggADiki telivitETalE kAdu, rUpaM kUDA bAgAnE uMTuMdi. kAkapOtE okaTE aDDu. adi kulaM. vivEggADu vALLU brAmmalu. suvarNa vALLU kApulu. vILLa prEma guriMchi nannevarikI cheppoddanI iddarU nA daggara oTTu tIsukunnAru.

iMglIshu lekcharar suvarNani peLLi chEsukODAniki veLLADanna vArta kAlEjI aMtA pokki pOyiMdi. evaru evariki uppaMdiMchArO telIdu, mottaM kAlEjI aMtA mArmOgiMdi. gODala mIdaki ekkalEdaMtE! prinsipAl rAmESaM gArni chUsi daDisi evarU A pani cheyyalEdu. I vishayaM jaDjigAri varakU veLLE sariki Ayana suvarNa rAkapOkala kaTTaDi chEsESADu. mA iMTikkUDA rAvaDaM pUrtigA taggi pOyiMdi. vivEggADu klAsulO kalisinappuDu mATlADDaM tappistE iMkekkaDA kudirEdi kAdu. suvarNanI I pukArlu koMta bAdhiMchAyi. aMduvalla vivEggADitOnU kAlEjIlO jAgrattagA vyavahariMchEMdi. eppuDainA bommalu kAvalsi vastE vALLa Draivaru vachchi ichchEvADu. nA bommalatO pATE vivEggADi nOTsulU, lav leTarlU chErEvi.

O sAri suvarNa puTTinarOjayitE nannu suvarNa phoTO bommEyamani aDigADu. nEnu evarikaMTA paDakuMDA, Akhariki mA annayyaki kUDA telIkuMDA bomma gIsichchAnu. A bommakiMda “ninnu prEmistunnAnu – oka pichchONNi!” ani rASADu. marO charitra sinimA paityaM ani arthamayyiMdi. vivEggADu grITiMgs paMputU, aMdulO “ai lav yU!” ani rASADu. adi elA veLLiMdO telIdu, jaDjigAri chEtiki chikkiMdi. mottAniki kAlEjIlO unna kApulabbAyilaMdarU kalisi vivEggADi pEru ravaNaM vIdhilO nunna okataniki cheppAraTa. dAMtO vALLu ” mA kApulammAyiki lav leTar rAstAvurA?” ani kAlEjIkostunna vivEggANNi baMDArlaMka polimErallO chachchElA bAdi vadilAru.

I vishayaM nAnnaki telisi jaDjigArini veLLi, “pApaM vADEdO teliya alA lav leTar rAstE vANNi chachchElA koDatArA? mIreMdukaMDI vALLani puramAyiMchAru?” ani aDigitE jaDji gAriki kOpaM vachchiMdi. Ayana evarnI puramAyiMchalEdanI cheppADu. AspatrilO unna vivEggANNi chUDDAniki AyanokkaDE vachchADu. suvarNa rAlEdu. vivEggADu kOlukOvaDAniki nAlugu vArAlu painE paTTiMdi. vALLa nAnnA, mA nAnnA vADiki bAgA chivATlu peTTAru.

O rOjuna suvarNa vALLammA, nAnnA mA iMTiki suvarNa peLLi SubhalEkhatO vachchAru. suvarNaki madrAsulO peLLanI, mammalni rammanamanI cheppAru. idi telisi nEnu rAtriki rAtrE aMbAjIpETa saikil mIda veLLi vivEggADi chevina vESAnu. vADayitE kuppa kUlipOyADu. elAgayinA suvarNani kalavAlanI, adI evari kaMTA baDakuMDA jaragAlanI plAn vESADu. parIkshalu daggara paDaTaMtO kAlEjIki Salavalu ichchESAru. dAMtO suvarNani bayaTa chULLEdu.

pUrtigA #»

samIkshalu

pustaka parichayaM: #The Simpsons and Their Mathematical Secrets (2013)

da siMpsans (#The Simpsons) # sajIva vyaMgya chitra saraNi. telugulO cheppAlaMTE #animated cartoon series.# mEthyU grEniMg (#Matt Groening)# sRshTiMchina I saraNilO upAkhyAnAlannI phAks Telivijan saMstha vAru prasAraM chESAru. moTTamodaTi katha DiseMbar 17, 1989lO prasAritamayyiMdi. ‘da siMpsans^’ki Dajanu paigA emmI avArDulu vachchAyi. gata pAtika ELLallO 552 siMpsanOpAkhyAnAlu prasAraM ayyAyi. I upAkhyAnAlani AdhAraMgA chEsukoni viSvavidyAlayAlalO gaNitaSAstra pAThAlu, saMkhyA SAstra pAThAlu, gEm thIrIlalO pAThAlu chepputunnAraMTE atiSayOkti kAdu. amerikan tapAla SAkha vAru I saraNi gauravArthaM oka tapAlA biLLa kUDA mudriMchAru.


da siMpsans aMD deyir
mEthameTikal sIkreTs
blUms^barI, nyU yArk, 2013.

saiman siMg rAsina pustakaM da siMpsans aMD deyir mEthameTikal sIkreTs (#The Simpsons and Their Mathematical Secrets) # parichayaM cheyyaTaM nA pradhAna uddESaM. niruDu modalu peTTi ippaTi varakU I pustakaM adhyayanaM chEsi uMDakapOtE, nEnu I vyAsaM rAyagaligE vANNi kAdu.

da siMpsans kArTUnulu nEnu, nA mitrulu kalisi 1990-2004 madhya aDapA taDapA chUsEvALLaM. appaTlO, vATilO unna gaNitaSAstra sUtrAlani, vATi lOtulanI chAlAmaMdi lAgAnE nEnU ekkuvagA paTTiMchukOlEdu. nEnu bhukti kOsaM bhautikaSAstraM chaduvukunnAnu. gaNitaSAstraMlO pravESaM lEkapOtE bhautikaSAstraM lOtulu arthaM kAvu. ayitE, pratyEkaMgA gaNitaSAstrAnni vEdaMlA adhyayanaM chEsEvALLu Rshulu ani nA abhiprAyaM. aTuvaMTi vALLaki bhukti pradhAnaM kAdu. SrInivAsa rAmAnujan aTuvaMTi Rshi. aMkellO dEvuNNi chUsina Rshi.

da siMpsans saraNi SASvata rachayitallO mukhyulu:

- jEms barns (#J. STEWART BURNS, BS Math, Harvard Univ., MS Math, UC Berkeley),
-# DEviD kOhen (#DAVID S. COHEN, BS Physics, Harvard Univ. MS Comp. Sci. UC Berkeley),
-# Al jIn (#AL JEAN, BS Math, Harvard Univ.)
-# ken kIlar (#KEN KEELER, BS and PhD Applied Math. Harvard Univ.)
-# jeph vesT^brUk (#JEFF WESTBROOK, BS Physics, Harvard Univ., PhD Comp. Sci. Princeton Univ.)

#vILLu kAka iMkA chAlAmaMdi gaNitaSAstra pravINulu I SrENini tIrchi diddaDaMlO nipuNulugA kRshi chESAru. 1999lO mukhya rachayitalalO koMtamaMdi phyUcharAmA (#Futurama)# anE sains phikshan saraNi tayAruchESAru. A kathallO gaNitaSAstraM pAlu marikoMcheM ekkuva. saiman siMg pustakaMlO Akhari nAlugu adhyAyAlU phyUcharAmA guriMchE! aMdulO okka adhyAyAnni guriMchi mAtramE nEnu chUchAyagA muchchaTistAnu.



siMpsans^ kuTuMbaM – hOmar, mArj
bArT, mAgI, lIsA.

‘da siMpsans^’lO pradhAna pAtralu – hOmar, mArj, vILLa pillalu bArT, lIsA, mAgI, vAri peMpuDu kukka SAMTAs liTil helpar. viSvAsaM gala peMpuDu kukkagA chAlA kathanAlalO vastuMdi. mokkajonna chEla vyUhaMlO dAritappi, SOsha vachchi paDipOyina hOmar^ni rakshistuMdi. marikonni kathanAlalO itara kuTuMbasabhyulani kUDA sahAyaM, rakshaNa istuMdi. lIsA enimidELLa mEthAvi. bArT^ki padELLu. vIDU telivigalavADE. kAni, kAsta talatikka unna kurrADu. mAgI pasikaMdu. kathAsthalaM spriMg^phIlD anE Uru. vILLu kAkuMDA, rakarakAla vyaktulu kathallOki vastAru. ayitE kathalannI siMpsans kuTuMbaM chuTTUrA jarugutAyi. adi nAMdi.

gaNitaM, samasyAsAdhana I saraNiki mukhyaM kAbaTTi, oka chinna samasyani elA vADukunnArO chUddAM.

2009lO vachchina gAn mAgI gAn (#Gone Maggie Gone)# kathanaM okarakaMgA #DAn braun (Dan Brown# navala) da DaviMchi kOD^ki (#The Da Vinci Code)# pEraDI. pUrti sUryagrahaNaMtO katha prAraMbhamayi, #St. Teresa of Avila# dhariMchina AbharaNaM AvishkaraNatO aMtaM avutuMdi.

samasya sAdhana paraMgA I kathanaMlO hOmar, mAgI (pasi pApa), peMpuDukukka, vishaMtO niMDina pedda sIsA, nadiki Avali oDDuna chikkukuMTAru. oka chinna paDavalO ivatali oDDuku rAvAli. ayitE paDavalO hOmar^tO pATu marokkarE veLLagalaru. mAgIni, vishaM sIsAnI vadilitE, A pApa vishaM miMgE pramAdaM uMdi. kukkanI, mAgInI vadilitE, kukka pApani karavachchu. elA oDDuki aMdarU kshEmaMgA chEratAru, annadi samasya.

iTuvaMTi katha koddi mArputO anni saMskRtullOnU unnadi. nakka, mEka, gaDDimOpu, paDava, raitu, katha manaki telusu. hOmar bAgA AlOchiMchi samasyA sAdhana modalupeDatADu. ayitE, pUrti cheyyakamuMdE, mAgIni, kraistava sanyAsinulu ettukOpOtAru: kAraNaM. mAgIni kotta masIhA (#New Messaiah)# ani nammabaTTi!

siMpsans^ matasaMbaMdha vishayAlapai sumukhata chUpiMcharu. hOmar prati AdivAraM charch^ki veLLamani prOtsahiMchE janAnni sahiMchaDu. vAraM vAraM siMpsans kArTUnu upAkhyAnAlani chUsE vALLaki I vishayaM spashTaMgA telusu. “#What’s the big deal about going to some building every Sunday? I mean, isn’t God everywhere?… And what if we’ve picked the wrong religion? Every week we’re just making God madder and madder?”# ani khachchitaMgA cheputADu (#Homer the Heretic, 1992).# aMdukE kAbOlu, chAlAmaMdi charch pUjArulu (krishTiyan mata prachArakulU) tama charch prabOdhAlalO siMpsan kuTuMbaMlO naitika saMdigdhatalani prastAvistUMTAru.

siMpsans upAkhyAnAlannI amerikan sAMghika viluvalani, saMsAra viluvalanI eddEvA cheyyaDAnikE chEstunnArani adhyakshuDu jArj bush (#George H. W. Bush) # okasAri ArOpiMchADu. reMDavasAri tanu ennikalalO gelavaDAniki tana praNALikalO oka bhAgaMgA, 1992 ripablikan kanvenshanlO ilA annADu: “#We are going to keep on trying to strengthen the American family to make American families a lot more like the Waltons and a lot less like the Simpsons.”

#siMpsans rachayitalu veMTanE bush^ki samAdhAnaMgA, 1991lO prasAritamaina kathani (#Stark Raving Mad)# prAraMbhaMlO mArpu chEsi bush mATlADina mUDurOjula taruvAta tirigi prasAraM chESAru. prAraMbhaMlO mArpu idi:

siMpsan kuTuMba sabhyulaMdarU presiDeMTu iMtaku muMdu vAlTanla guriMchi, siMpsanla guriMchi chEsina upanyAsaM viMTAru. hOmar^ki AScharyaM vEstuMdi. rimmettipOyi nOTamATa rAdu. hOmar koDuku bArT, presiDeMTuki samAdhAnaMgA, ‘#Hey, we’re just like the Waltons. We’re praying for an end to the Depression, too.’# aMTADu: (vAlTans Telivijan kathalannI 1930lalO vachchina Dipreshan rOjullO amerikanulu paDina ibbaMdulani prastAvistU chitrIkariMchAru.)

ayitE I matAchArulu, rAjakIya nAyakulu pUrtigA pappulO kAlESAru. siMpsans kathallO irukkoni aMtargataMgA unna asalu pAThaM vALLaki arthaM kAlEdu. I upAkhyAnAlu rAsina vALLaMdarikI aMkelu, saMkhyalu aMTE parama vyAmOhaM. eDategani prEma. vILLaMdarU gaNitaSAstraM kshuNNaMgA chaduvukunnavALLu. EdOrakaMgA, I sajIva vyaMgya chitrasaraNilO gaNitaSAstrAnni TiphinlA, phalAhAraMlA prajalaki paMchipeTTAlanE ubalATaM. pai, ai, gEm thIrI, bIjagaNitaM, kAlkyulas, jAmeTrI, mUlaka (rEshanal) saMkhyalu, karaNi (yirrEshanal) saMkhyalU, vagairAlani kathallO joppiMchaDaM ati chamatkAraMgA chESAru.


π viluva guriMchi oka piTTa katha:

2001lO bai bai nerDI (#Bye Bye Nerdie)# anE upAkhyAnaM prasAritamayyiMdi. AkatAyivALLa dADi pai lIsA chEsina pariSOdhana patraM sains sabhalO chadavaDAniki siddhamayi unna taruNaM. phriMk anE AchAryuDu lIsAni parichayaM cheyyAli. sabhalO unna saiMTisTulalO gaMdaragOLaM prAraMbhaM ayyiMdi. phriMk asalE paradhyAnnaM manishi. Ayana veMTanE, sabhAsadulani uddESiMchi, “π viluva echchu takkuva lEkuMDA khachchitaMgA mUDu,” ani aMTADu. veMTanE sabhalO aMdarU niSSabdaMgA kUchuMTAru. phriMk π viluva mUDu ani anaDAniki mUlaM, iMDiyAnA rAshTraM janaral aseMblIlO pratipAdiMchabaDDa pai –bil 246 (1897). eDvin guDvin anE vaidyuDu, vartulAnni chaturasraMgA mArchaDAniki tanu kanipeTTina sUtraM idigO ani rAshTa aseMblIlO billu AmOdiMchamani kOrADu. A sUtraM EmiTayyA aMTE — … #that the ratio of the diameter and circumference is as five-fourths to four.

π = (circumference)/(diameter) = 4/(5/4) = 3.2

#I viluvani iMDiyAnA pAThaSAlalannI uchitaMgA vADukOvachchaTa! kAni tanu, rAshTramU dInipai vachchE lAbhAlu paMchukOvAlani pratipAdiMchADu. adRshTavaSAttU, I billu SASvataMgA vAyidA paDiMdi. si. e. vAlDO anE gaNitaSAstra AchAryuDu appaTlO aseMblIki pAThaM cheppi I billuki tilOdakAlivvaDaMlO kRshi chESADu. bahuSA ippaTikI, iMDiyAnA vAyidA billula lisTulO uMDE uMTuMdi, maroka rAjakIya nAyakuDi kOsaM. rAjakIya nAyakulu gaNitAnnI nirdESiMchaDaMpai visuru, I katha.


hOmar autsAhika vij~nAni. appuDappuDu kotta kotta yaMtrasAdhanAlu tayAru chEstU uMTADu. gODa paina unna nallaballa mIda rakarakAla samIkaraNAlu da viౙrD Aph evar^grIn TerEs (#The Wizard of Evergreen Terrace, 1998)# anna upakathalO kanipistAyi.


hOmar siMpsan samIkaraNAlu

moTTamodaTi samIkaraNaM higs bOsAn (#Higgs Boson)# anE prAthamika kaNaM dravya rASi viluva kaTTaTAniki, kolaMbiyA viSvavidyAlayaMlO khagOLa SAstra AchAryuDu DEviD skhiminOvich (#David Schiminovich) # pratipAdiMchina samIkaraNaM. higs bOsAn anE prAthamika kaNaM uMDAli ani 1964lO siddhAMtaparaMgA pratipAdiMchabaDiMdi. I samIkaraNaMlO, plAMk sthirAMkaM, kAMti vEgaM, nyUTan pratipAdiMchina AkarshaNa sthirAMkaM unnAyi. I sthirAMkAla viluvalu samIkaraNaMlO pratikshEpistE, higs bOsAn dravya rASi viluva 775 giga elakTrAn vOlTs ani vastuMdi. 2012lO yUrap^lO I higs bOsAn kanukkunnAru. dAni dravyarASi viluva 125 giga elakTrAn vOlTs. paravAlEdu! hOmar samIkaraNaM 14 ELLaki muMdugA pratipAdiMchabaDDadi. appaTiki higs bOsAn unnadO lEdO khachchitaMgA teliyadu. aMtE kAdu. hOmar autsAhika vij~nAni kadA!

pUrtigA #»

padya sAhityaM

nAku nachchina padyaM: nannayya tIrchina gaDasari sogasari

tE. nannu munna ye~ruMgu; dinnAti nAku
#      #;dAsi, vRshaparvu@M Danu mahAdAnavEMdru
#      #;kanya, nAyodda neppuDu@M gadalakuMDu,
#      #;nanagha! ma~ri dIni SarmishTha yaMDru janulu

kathatO saMbaMdhaM lEkuMDA chadivi AnaMdiMchagaligE padyAnni kiMdaTi nela chUSAM kadA. dAniki pUrti vyatiriktamaina padyamidi. dIni venaka bOleDaMta katha uMdi. adi telistE kAni yiMdulOni sogasu telisirAdu. ivi dEvayAni yayAtitO aMTunna mATalu. dEvayAni evaru? yayAti evaru? SarmishTha evaru?

saMskRta mUlAniki kAstaMta bhinnaMgA, pratyEkaMgA, nannayyagAru tIrchididdina pAtra dEvayAni. SukrAchAryuni gArAbukUturAme. SarmishTha rAkshasarAju vRshaparvuni kUturu. SarmishThAdEvayAnu liddarU chinnappaTinuMDI kalisi perigina nechchelulu. ayitE okarOju chinna jaTTI vachchi iddarikiddarU evaru goppaMTE evaru goppani vAdulADukoMTAru. SarmishTha porapATuna dEvayAni dustulu dharistuMdi. adI A jaTTIki kAraNaM! A taguvu perigi perigi, SarmishTha kOpaMtO dEvayAnini oka pADubaDina chinnabAvilO tOsEsi veLLipOtuMdi. nahushakumAruDaina yayAti anE rAju vETakai A prAMtAniki vastADu. nILLakOsaM vetukutU A bAvi daggaraku vachchi, aMdulO paDi unna dEvayAniki “jaladhivilOlavIchivilasatkalakAMchisamaMchitAvanItala vahana kshamaMbayina” tana dakshiNahastAnni aMdiMchi Ameni bayaTaki tIstADu. alA Ameni rakshiMchi, tana dArina tAnu veLLipOtADu.

dEvayAni jarigina avamAnAnni tana taMDri SukrAchAryuniki cheppi, vRshaparvuni rAjyAnni viDichi veLLipOdAmaMTuMdi. SukrAchAryuDu kUturi mATa kAdanalEDu. iMtalO yI saMgati telisina vRshaparvuDu SukrAchAryuni daggaraku vachchi, veLLavaddanI, dEvayAni kOriMdi jaripistAnanI vEDukoMTADu. SarmishTha, tana vEyimaMdi chelikattelatO sahA, tanaku dAsi kAvAlani dEvayAni kOrutuMdi. alA vidhilEka SarmishTha dEvayAni dAsigA mAri Ameku sEvalu chEstU uMTuMdi. okanADu vidhivaSAttU yayAti maLLI dEvayAni unna vanAniki vastADu. “atiSaya rUpalAvaNya vibhrama guNasuMdariyaina” SarmishThani chUsi, Ame evarO telusukOvAlanna kutUhalaMtO, “mIrevvarivAralu mI kulagOtranAmaMbu le~ruMgavalatuM jeppuM”Dani aDugutADu. appuDu dEvayAni cheppina samAdhAnaM, I padyaM.

I saMdarbhaMlO saMskRta bhArataMlO dEvayAni samAdhAnAnni gamanistE, nannayyagAri kUrpulOni viSEshaM chakkagA bOdhapaDutuMdi. saMskRtabhArataMlO, yayAti SarmishTha rUpalAvaNyAlanu chUsi Ame gUrchi pratyEkaMgA telusukOvAlani aDiginaTTugA lEdu. iddarinI chUsi vAri guriMchi telusukOvAlani aDiginaTTu uMdi. ayitE, pUrvaM dEvayAnini nUti nuMDi bayaTaku tIsinappuDE Ame guriMchi yayAtiki telustuMdi. kAbaTTi maLLI Ame gUrchi aDagavalasina pani lEdu. ayinA aDigADaMTE, adi SarmishTha guriMchi telusukOvaDAnikE ayyuMDAli. I vishayaM saMskRtabhArataMlO dEvayAniki taTTinaTTugA anipiMchadu. Ame yayAtiki yilA badulistuMdi:

AkhyAsyAmyahamAdatsva vachanam mE narAdhipa
SukrO nAmA suraguru@h sutAm jAnIhi tasya mAm
iyam cha mE sakhI dAsI yatrAham tatra gAminI
duhitA dAnavEMdrasya SarmishThA vRshaparvaNa@h

tAnu SukrAchAryuni kUturunani cheppi, tarvAta SarmishTha guriMchi cheputuMdi. saMskRtabhArataMlO dEvayAni ahaMkArigA, peMkighaTaMgA mAtramE kanipistuMdi. telugu bhArataMlO Ame asAdhyurAlu, goppa gaDasari kUDA! yayAti praSnalOni AMtaryaM yiTTE kanipeDutuMdi. aMdukE modalupeDutUnE, “nannu munna ye~ruMgudu” – nEnu nIku muMdE telusu, ani aMTuMdi. aMTE, nEnevarO nIku telusu kAbaTTi, nuvvu telusukonEMduku kutUhalapaDutunnadi SarmishTha guriMchani nAku telisipOyiMdi sumA ani! A tarvAta SarmishTha guriMchi cheppinadaMtA iMchumiMchu saMskRtabhArataMlO unna mATalE. kAni cheppina vidhAnamU, vADina padAlU, dEvayAni mATallOni kAkuvunu spashThaMgA dhvaniMpajEstAyi. goMtulO vinabaDE kAkuvu chadivE padyaMlO dhvaniMchAlaMTE, kaviki SabdaSakti pUrtigA telisi uMDAli. vAganuSAsanuDaina nannayyagAriki SabdaM painunna adhikAraM apAraM!

SarmishTha guriMchi cheppaDaM modalupeDutUnE, “innAti nAku dAsi” ani tegEsi cheppiMdi. paigA, saMskRtaMlO unna ‘sakhi’ SabdaM telugulOki rAlEdu. dEvayAniki SarmishThapai unna tiraskArabhAvamaMtA padyaMlO dhvaniMchAli kadA mari. A mATatO veMTanE yayAti nIrugAripOvAli, tAnu yishTapaDinadi oka dAsinA ani. A tarvAta “vRshaparvuDanu mahAdAnavEMdru kanya” ani cheppiMdi. saMskRtaMlO lEni ‘mahA’ telugulO vachchi chEriMdi. A padAnni palikETappuDu dEvayAni goMtulO vinipiMchE vyaMgyamaMtA aMdulOni A dIrghaM vyaMjiMpajEstOMdi. aMtaTi mahA rAkshasachakravarti biDDanu dAsigA chEsukonnAnu anE garvaM oka vaipu, alAMTi nannu gUrchi AlOchiMchavEmanna pOTu maroka vaipu A mATalO ghATugA sphuristunnAyi. A tarvAta, saMskRtaMlO yatrAhaM tatra gAminI anna vAkyaM “nA yodda neppuDu kadalakuMDu”gA mAriMdi. aMTE, Imeni suluvugA egarEsuku pOdAmani anukuMTunnAvEmO, A pappulEM uDakavu! ani hechcharistOMdanna mATa! Ame nIku dakkAlaMTE, muMdu nuvvu nA vaSaM kAka tappadanna dhvani kUDA aMdulO uMdi. “anagha!” anaDaMlO abbO! eMta puNyaM chEsukonnAvO, ilAMTi dAsipai mOju paDDAvu! anna hELana.

AkharigA pEru cheppiMdi. A cheppaDaMlO eMta vADigA cheppiMdi! “ma~ri, dIni SarmishTha yaMDru janulu” aMdi. ma~ri anna padaM pAdapUraNa kOsaM vEsina vyarthapadaM kAdu. sarE yiMka, cheppaka tappadu kadA — anE ayishTamaMtA aMdulO uMdi. “aMDru janulu” anaDaMlO, biMdupUrvaka DakArarEphalu, SarmishThapai dEvayAnikunna asUyAdvEshAlanu chAlA chakkagA manaki vinipistAyi. ilA yI chinna padyaMlO, SabdArthAla dvArA, dEvayAni AbhijAtyAnnI gaDusudanAnnI adbhutaMgA chitriMchAru nannayyagAru. I padyAnni guriMchi AchArya SalAka raghunAthaSarmagAranna mATalu pratyaksharasatyAlu: “I chinna padyaMlO katha mottaMlO parachukoni unna dEvayAnI pravRttiki saMbaMdhiMchina AMtaryAnni eMtagA kudiMchi nikshEpiMchADO bhAviMchinapuDu nannaya lOtulu manaku sphuristAyi.

nannayyagAru tIrchina dEvayAni kathalO nAku maroka viSEshaM kUDA gOchariMchiMdi. dEvayAni muMdu kachuni manasArA prEmistuMdi. mRtasaMjIvani vidya nErchukOvaDaM kOsaM SukrAchAryuni vadda SishyunigA chErina bRhaspati koDuku kachuDu. guruputri sahOdaritO samAnamani dEvayAni kOrkenu tiraskaristADu kachuDu. dAnitO kRddhurAlai, kachuDu nErchina vidya ataniki panichEyadani SApamistuMdi. adharmaMgA tananu kOrukOvaDamE kAkuMDA, kAdannaMduku tanaki anyAyaMgA SApamichchinaMduku, dEvayAniki brAhmaNEtarunitO vivAhaM jarugutuMdani pratiSApamistADu kachuDu. A tarvAta yayAtini chUsi atanipai dEvayAni manasu paDinaTTugA saMskRtabhArataM chadivitE manaku anipistuMdi.

dvAbhyAm kanyA sahasrAbhyAm dAsyA SarmishThayA saha
tvadadhInAsmi bhadram tE sakhA bhartA cha mE bhava

aMTU yayAtini arthistuMdi. alA kOrukOvaDAniki kAraNaM yayAtipai prIti tappa marokaTi kanipiMchadu. kachuni prEmiMchina dEvayAni, maLLI yayAtipai mOjupaDaTaM nannayyagAriki nachchinaTTu lEdu. yayAtiki dEvayAnipai Asakti lEdanna aMSaM spashTaM. mari alAMTivADini dEvayAni kOri peLLichEsukOmani aDagaDAniki kAraNaM EmiTi? tAnu elAgU brAhmaNEtaruNNi peLLADAlsi uMdi kAbaTTi, yayAtivaMTi mahArAjaitE bAguMTuMdani Ame bhAviMchiMdA? alA anukonnA, kOri yayAtini peLLADamani aDagaDaM dEvayAni vyaktitvAniki aMtagA posagani vishayaM. mUlabhArata kathalO maroka asaMgataM kUDA uMdi. dEvayAnini nUti nuMDi velupalaku tIsinappuDE yayAtiki Ame evarO parichayaM avutuMdi. appaTikE yayAti guriMchi dEvayAniki telisinaTTugA Ame mATallO vyaktamavutuMdi. kAni maLLI vanaMlO kalusukonnappuDu yayAti SarmishThadEvayAnula guriMchi telusukOvAlani vAri kulagOtrAlanu aDugutADu. dEvayAni tana vivarAlu cheppi, yayAti vivarAlanu kUDA aDugutuMdi. idi kUDA posagani vishayaM. I asaMgatAlanu parishkaristU, kathani prasannaMgA naDipiMchAru nannayyagAru.

“atiSayarUpalAvaNyaguNasuMdari yayina SarmishTha ne~ruMga vE@MDi” yayAti vAri vivarAlanu aDigADani cheppaDaM dvArA, yayAti dEvayAnipai kAka SarmishTha painanE manasu paDDADanna vishayaM suspashTaM chESAru. alAgE dEvayAni samAdhAnaMlO, Ame A vishayaM grahiMchiMdanna aMSAnni chakkagA dhvaniMpajESAru. Ame AbhijAtyamU, SarmishTha paTla Amekunna IrshyA tiraskAramU kUDA spashTaMgA telustunnAyAme mATallO. tanani kAdani tanaku dAsi ayina SarmishThanu yayAti vaMTi mahArAju chEpaTTaDaM dEvayAni sahiMchalEni vishayaM. dAniki viruguDu okkaTE, yayAtini tAnE peLLADaTaM. yayAti praSna aDigina kshaNaMlOnE yidaMtA dEvayAni manasulO AlOchiMchukonnadi. samayaM vRdhA chEyadaluchukOlEdAme. aMdukE, tana vivarAlu cheppaDaM kAni, yayAti guriMchi aDagaDaM kAni EmI cheyyadu. SarmishTha guriMchi cheppina veMTanE, yayAti tananu vivAhamADAlani kOriMdAme. adi kUDA abhyarthana kAdu, AdESaM! A jANa palukulu elA unnAyO chUDaMDi:

nigraha mEdi nannu@M daraNiprabha! kUpamu velvariMchu nA@M
DugramayUkhasAkshyamuga nunnatadakshiNapANi@M jEsi bhU
pAgraNi! nAdu dakshiNakarAgramu vaTTiti, kAna munna pA
NigrahaNaMbu sEsi, tadi nIyeDa vismRti@M boMda@M bADiyE!

idI nannayyagAri dEvayAni! modalupeDutUnE nishThUrAlu! tappaMtA yayAtipai tOsEsiMdi. tananu rakshiMchaDaMlO atanu nigrahAnni kOlpOyADaTa! aMTE EmiTi? nEnEdO aDigitE mAtraM, nuvvu kanyavu, nEnu ninnu tAkaDaM nyAyaM kAdu – ani cheppi tana dArini tAnu veLLipOvAlA? ikkaDa, nigrahamu aMTE niMda, avamAnaM anna arthaMlO, nigrahamu Edi – aMTE, nA avamAnAnni tolagiMchi – anE arthAnni ti.ti.dE. vAri pratilO yichchAru. “nigrahamEda” anE pAThAMtaraM kUDA uMdani, adi mariMta uchitamani kUDA annAru (nA avamAnaM tolagipOyETaTTugA nannu nUtinuMDi bayaTaku tIsAvani.) kAni “nigraha mEdi” aMTE – nI nigrahAnni kOlpOyi, rakshiMchE nepaMtO parAyi strI chEyipaTTukunnAvu, anE arthamE nAku sarainadani anipistOMdi. SalAkavAru tama bhArata dhvani darSanamu anE graMthaMlO kUDA yidE arthAnni yichchAru. A rOju nannu bAvinuMDi bayaTaku tIsE saMdarbhaMlO sUryuni sAkshigA nI unnatamaina dakshiNahastaMtO nA dakshiNahastAnni paTTukunnAvu. kAbaTTi muMdE nannu pANigrahaNaM chESAvu. adi nuvvu marachipOvaDaM nyAyamA? ani yayAtini niladIsiMdi! kachuNNi vivAhamADamani kOrinappuDu “vivAhamu nIku nAku mun bhAvajaSakti nainayadi” ani cheppiMdi. yayAtitOnEmO “ugramayUkhasAkshyamuga munna pANigrahaNamayiMdani” aMTunnadi. adI dEvayAni gaDasaritanaM. sUryuDu sarvasAkshi. agnisvarUpaM. kAbaTTi agnisAkshigA tama pANigrahaNaM jarigipOyiMdani tirugulEni tarkAnni prayOgiMchiMdi. I pANigrahaNAniki yiMtaTi vaiSishTyaM uMDabaTTE, A sannivESaM pAThakula manasulalO mudrapaDipOyElA, jaladhivilOlavIchi… anE adbhutapadyaMlO dAnni varNiMchAru nannayagAru. pANigrahaNaMbu anE padaMlO ‘gra’kAraM prAsasthAnaMlO uMDaDaM, dEvayAni A vishayAnni nokki cheppaDAnni spashTaMgA vyaMjiMpajEstuMdi. idi nannayagAri SabdAdhikArAniki maroka machchutunaka. chivarigA, “adi nIyeDa vismRti poMda pADiyE” anaDaMlO, adi marichi nuvvu SarmishThapai mOjupaDaDaM nIku tagadanna nishkarsha chakkagA dhvanistOMdi.

I sannivESamaMtA nannayagAri prasannakathAkalita arthayuktiki oka maMchi udAharaNa. mahAbhArataM AdiparvaMlOnU araNyaparvaMlOnU anEka upakathalu vastAyi. A upAkhyAnAlanniTinI nannayagAru eMtO prasanna gaMbhIraMgA tIrchididdAru. lOnArasi chUsEvAriki Ayana katha naDipE tIrulO, pAtrala svabhAvasvarUpAlanu arthavaMtamaina mATaladvArA rUpukaTTE rItilO, ennennO viSEshAlu darSanamistAyi. tavvina koddI UrE amRtajala nannayagAri kavitvaM. aMdulOni marinni lOtulanu marOsAri parichayaM chEsukoMdAM.

pUrtigA #»

pArvati tapassu: nannechODuni kumArasaMbhavamu

iMchumiMchugA gurajADa vAru, guttunA mutyAla saramulaMTU nUtnakavitA dvArAniki tOraNAlu kaDutunna kAlaMlO SrI mAnavalli rAmakRshNa kavigAri valla velugulOki vachchina purAtana kRti nannechODuni kumArasaMbhavaM. I kavi nannayaku pUrvapu vADani, kAdu taruvAti vADani, sAhityaprapaMchaMlO vAdOpavAdAlu jarigAyi. poMgulu challArEka, nannayaku taruvAti vADannavAdaM prastutAniki nilichiMdi. bhavishyattulO mari konni pariSOdhanalu jarigi, rujuvulu, AdhArAlu doriki, kotta siddAMtaM vachchE varaku idE prastutAniki prAmANikaM anukOvAli. nijAniki, kavi EkAlaM vADu? annadi atani kAvyAnni mariMta bAgA ardhaM chEsukOvaDAniki koMtavaraku upayOgapaDutuMdi gAni, kavitAmAdhuryAnni AsvAdiMchaDAniki kavikAlaM aMta mukhyaM kAdu anE cheppAli.

nannechODuniki varNanalaMTE vallamAlina abhimAnaM. telugulO ashTAdaSa varNanalu imiDiggA poMduparuchukunna Ekaika kAvyaM ani kumArasaMbhavaM pEru techchukuMdi. dInini miMchina viSEshaM EmiTaMTE sAdhAraNaMgA, varNana anna mATaki ‘vivariMchi cheppE vishayaM’ anE arthaM lOka prasiddhaM ayinA, chAlA saMdarbhAlalO nannechODuni varNanalu mAtraM kluptata, ramaNIya bhAvanASrayata anE marO reMDu pratyEka lakshaNAlaki lakshyAlugA nilichi pOyAyi. ‘varNanalellachO varNanakekkaMga’ vrAstAnani cheppukunna I kavi kAvyaMlO unna varNanala guriMchi manaM mATlADukOvAlaMTE… ekkaDa modalu peTTAli? parvata varNanA? puravarNanA? RtuvarNanA? prakRti varNanA? yuddhavarNanA? virahavarNanA? sirigala vAriMTi viMdubhOjanaMlA unna vITini anniTinI okkasAri AsvAdiMchi, arigiMchukunE Sakti manaki lEdu kanuka, prastutAniki pArvati tapOvarNanani mAtraM AkaLiMpu chEsukuni, AsvAdiMchEMduku prayatnaM chEddAM.


prabaMdhayugAniki konni vaMdala ELLu muMdugA puTTina salakshaNamaina prabaMdhaM kumArasaMbhavaM. kavitAmArgaMlO kottapuMtalanu tokkaDamE Adhunikataku nirvachanaM ayitE appaTi sAhitI prapaMchAniki kottavaina prabaMdha lakshaNAlanE mutyAlatO kumArasaMbhavakAvyamAlanu AnADE guchchADu nannechODuDu.

iMdulO kathAvastuvu himavaMtuni kUturugA janmiMchina pArvati paramESvaruni sEviMchaDaM, manmathadahanaM, pArvati tapassu, SivapArvatula kalyANaM, kumArasvAmi jananaM, tArakAsura saMhAraM. dIniki pUrvaraMgaMgA satIparamaSivula praNayaM, gaNapati jananaM AdigA gala kathalu. taratarAla kavulanu prabhAvitaM chEsina mahAkavi kALidAsu rachiMchina saMskRta kumArasaMbhava kAvyaMlOni pArvatijananaM modalugA gala kadhAvRttAMtaM tana kAvyaMlO vastuvainA, dInni tanadaina rachanagA rachiMchaDamE kAdu, konni konni chOTla kALidAsu chEtanE ‘SebhAs’ anipiMchukunETaTlu vrASADani mahAmahuleMdarO abhiprAyapaDDAru.

pArvati tapOvarNana ghaTTaM kumArasaMbhavaMlOni Arava ASvAsaMlO uMdi. jaMgama mallikArjununi vadda pASupatadIksha poMdina daggaranuMDi iMchumiMchu 75 gadyapadyAlalO RtuvarNanatO kalipi pArvati tapOvarNana konasAgiMdi. saMskRta kumArasaMbhavaMlO aidava sargalO I tapOvarNana dAdApu iravai SlOkAlalO jarigiMdi. prakRtE amma vAru. ammavArE prakRti – ilA A jagajjanani kaMTE abhEdyamaina prakRtini varNiMchaDaMlO Ame tapOvarNanani poMduparachaDaM eMtO samaMjasaM. mahAkavi kALidAsu parichina I dArini eMtO ThIvigA naDichADu rAchakavi nannechODuDu.

tapa@hkAMksha

manmatha dahanAnaMtaMraM virahAgnilO vEsArina gauri, tapOmahimatO paramESvaruni patigA poMdutAnu anE niSchayAniki vachchiMdi. idi vinna tallidaMDrulu, hitavukOrina vRddAMganalu pariparividhAla nachchacheppinA vinaka, “nAku I bhavamuna ISvaruMDa pati. prANamu, dEhamu, chittavRttulun SivapadapaMkajArpaNamu sEsiti” ani badulu ichchiMdi. gataMlO nAraduDu, ‘I dEvi lOkajanani, mahAdEvunaku agramahishiyai, pErmi surEMdrAdulaku architayagunu,’ ani cheppina mATalanu smariMchina himavaMtuDu kusumakOmali yaina tana kumArte tapOdIksha vahiMchaDAniki anumatiMchADu.

tapOvana pravESaM

I tapassuku nAMdi A dEvi aDavilO aDugupeTTaDaM. aruNAMghritaladIptin avanItalaMbella padmarAgasthala bhAtin onara… anna padyaMlO ilA varNistADu nannechODuDu:

aDavilO aDugu peTTina agajAta errani pAdAla kAMti valla bhUmi aMtA padmarAgAlatO niMDinaTTu uMdaTa. dikkulanE kaluvalu Ame mukhachaMdrikalatO akAlaMlO (paTTapagalu) vennela velugulanu poMdAyATa. Ame pedavula kAMtitO aDavilO unna tIgelannI chiguriMchinaTTu uMdaTa. Ame SarIraM mIda unna parimaLAlanu grahiMchaDaM vallE gAli gaMdhavAhanuDanE pEru techchukunnADaTa. akkaDa tirugutunna nemaLLu, merupu tIgellAMTi Ame kannula kAMtulanu chUsi, varshaM rAbOtOMdani utsAha paDutunnAyiTa.

ilA tana ‘prakRti’ aMTE tana sahaja svabhAvaM lAMTi prakRti (vanapradESaM)lOki pArvatini pravESapeTTaDaM annadi eMta udAttamaina bhAvaM?

ilA araNyAna pravESiMchina uma Sabarulu, e~rukalu, bhillulu AdigA gala ATavIkulni chUsiMdi. aTupai vedurubiyyAnni daMchutU, chuTTU chErina lELLanu paravaSiMpa jEstU, manushyarUpAna unna Sivuni vaMTi jaMgama mallikArjununi stutistU, pekku rAgAllO eMtO atiSayaMgA pATalu pADutunna Sabara vanitalanu chUsiMdi. aTupai muni pallenu chErukuMdi. akkaDa vEdaj~nAna saMpannuDu, Atmaj~nAni, mOkshAsaktuDu ayina mallikArjununi darSiMchiMdi.

nannechODuDu saptasaMtAnAlalO utkRshTamaina I kAvyakanyakaku tana guruvu jaMgama mallikArjununi kRtibhartagA nirNayiMchukunnADu.

niMgi muTTiyunna jaMgama mallaya
varamunaMdu@M ganina vastukavita@M
dagili vAriyaMda negaDiMtu raviki dI
pamuna narcha lichchu pagidi vOle.

mahOnnatuDaina mallikArjununi daya valla prAptiMchina tana vastukavitanu, dIpaMtO sUryuDiki archanalu chEsina vidhaMgA tirigi AyanakE samarpiMchukuMTAnu
, aMTU tana gurubhaktini prakaTiMchADu. guruvu, prabhuvu, ishTadaivamu ayina jaMgama mallikArjununi stutiMchi unnatasthAnaMlO uMchi, aMtaTitO AgakuMDA, I kathAsaMdarbhaMlO tana guruvunu sAkshAttU mahESvariyaina A pArvatIdEvikE dIkshA guruvunu chESADu.

jaMgama mallikArjununi samIpiMchina A ISvari atani vadda SaivAgamaniyati prakAraM SivadIkshanu poMdi, paramaSivuni SIghraMgA prasannaM chEsukunE maMtra dhyAna vratAchArAlanu upadESAlugA poMdi, Ayana anumatitO tapaScharyaku saMsiddhurAlayiMdi.

tapOvEsha dhAraNa

muMdugA, vibhUti pUta, nArachIralu, rudrAkshalu, jaTalu modalaina vATitO tapOdIkshaku tagina vEshadhAraNa chEyavalasi vuMdi. I saMdarbhaMlO pArvati varNana:

pavaDaMpulata mIda@M brAlEyapaTalaMbu
#        #;parve nA meyi niMDa bhasmamala@Mdi,
lAlitaMbagu kalpalata pallaviMche nA@M
#        #;gamanIya dhAtuvastramulu gaTTi,
mAdhavIlata kalimAlikal musare nA
#        #;ramaNa rudrAkshahAramulu veTTi,
vara hEmalatikapai@M burinammi yU@Mge nA
#        #;sannutaMbagu ne~rijaDalu pUni,

haru@MDu mAhESvarIrUpamaina cheluva
mabhinayiMcheno yani munu larthi@M jUDa
gurutapaSSakti mUrti sEkonina karaNi@M
dagili yuma tapOvEshaMbu@M dAlchi polche. — (kumArasaMbhavaM. shashThASvAsamu. pa. 82)

pagaDapu tIge mIda maMchu kappukuMdA annaTlu SarIramaMtA tellani vibhUtini pUsukuni, chiguriMchina aMdamaina kalpavRkshapulata anipiMchETaTlu chakkani kAviraMgu nArachIralanu kaTTukuni, mAdhavIlata mIda nallani tummedalu musurukunnAyA annaTlu rudrAkshamAlalu dhariMchi, SarIramanE baMgAru tIgepai nemali puri vippi ADutOMdA annaTTu chakkani jaDalu dhariMchi, mahattaramaina tapaSSaktE I AkAraMtO vachchiMdEmO anipiMchE vidhaMgA A girija tapOchitamaina vEshadhAraNa chEsiMdi. A rUpAnni, sAkshAttU paramESvaruDE manOharamaina strIrUpAnni dhariMchi vachchADEmOnani munulaMdarU kOrikatO muchchaTa paDi marI chUstunnAru.

ikkaDa pArvati saukumAryAnni sUchistU pagaDapu tIge, kalpavRkshapu tIge , mAdhavIlata, hEmalata vaMTi upamalatO varNiMchaDaM, muMdumuMdu I latAMgi, I kusumakOmali cheyyabOyE ghOramaina tapassunu kannavArilO, vinnavArilO — A pArvatA? I tapassu chEstOMdi! anE abburapATuku — pUrvaraMgAnni amarustunnaTTu uMdi. aMtEkAdu, paramESvaruDE strI rUpaM dhariMchADA? anaDaMlO Ame manasaMtA niMDi aMtargatamaina unna Sivuni rUpaM pratyakshaMgA chUsE vAriki kanabaDutU, SivasAkshAtkAraM tathyaM ani chepputunnaTTuMdi.

tapOdIksha pUnina vAru vItarAgulu kAvAli. aMTE anniTi mIda mamakArAnni lEdA anurAgAnni vadalipeTTAli. rAga SabdAniki unna raMgu, anurAgamu, anE reMDarthAlatO dIni samardhana elA uMdO chUDaMDi.

mEni kuMkumarAgaMbu, melata tO@Mpu
mOvi tAMbUlarAgaMbu mogina pAsi,
chArutara mayye@M jUDa nA Sailatanaya
vItarAgaMbu prakaTiMchu vidhamu vOle. — (kumArasaMbhavaM. shashThASvAsamu. pa. 84)

parvata rAjaputri tApasiyai SarIra lEpanAlu, tAMbUla sEvanaM viDichipeTTaTaM valla SarIraMpai uMDE kuMkumarAgamu, pedavina unna e~r~rani tAMbUlapu raMgu, reMDu Ameni vIDi pOyAyi. alaMkaraNalaku dUraM ayinA, tapOdIksha pUnina gauri, dAniki anuguNaMgA, anurAgamu lEdA mamakArAnni vadili vEsina dAni vale mariMta SObhAyamAnaMgA kanabaDutunnadi.

pArvati tapassu

gaurivanaMlO gaurIdEvi snAnArchana hOmAdinityakarmalatOnu, SAkAhAra, phalAhAra, parNAhAra, jalAhArAdi mahAtapOvratAlatOnu, boTanavElipai nilabaDi, bAhuvulanu paiketti, nAlugagnula madhyana niluchuMDi, mArtAMDuni kEsi chUstU, prANAyAmAdi niyamAlanu pATistU, iMkA ennennO nishThalanu AcharistU, niraMtaraM paramESvaruni dhyAnaM chEstU ghOratapOdIkshalO uMdi. ilA tapOdIkshalO unna A nArImaNi SarIraM nuMchi Ame sahajasauMdaryaM tolagipOtOMdi. idi elA uMdaMTE — muMgurula aMdAnni tummedalalOnu, maMdagamanAnni haMsalalOnu, mukhakAMtini tAmaralalOnu, SarIrakOmalatvAnni tIgelalOnu, chaMchalamaina chUpulanu lELLalOnu, dAchi peTTiMdA annaTTugA ivannI tapassu chEstunna kAraNaMgA AmelO kanabaDaTaMlEdu.

kaThOratapOdIkshalO SAMbhavi SarIraM nAnATiki kRSiMchaDAnni nannechODuDu I kriMdi padyaMlO atyadbhutaMgA varNiMchADu.

ugratapamuna@M dODtOna vigrahaMbu
chAla SOshiMche@M brAlEyaSaila tanaya
yardhanArigA@M dana dEha mabhavu mEna
nalpa malpamu naMTiMchunaTla vOle. — (kumArasaMbhavaM. shashThASvAsamu. pa. 92)

Ame SarIraM SushkiMchipOvaDaM elA uMdi? himavatputri A paramESvaruDi SarIraMlO sagabhAgaM kAvaDAniki gAnu tana dEhAnni koddikoddigA A Sivuni SarIrAniki aMTistOMdA, annaTTugA ugra tapassu valla kramakramaMgA tana SarIrAnni SushkiMpa jEstunnadi. ilA mahOnnatamai, atyadbhutamai, manasuni spaMdiMpa jEsE bhAvAnni vyaktaM cheyyaDAniki kaMdAnnO, gItAnnO eMchukOvaDaM nannechODuni pratyEkata.

pUrtigA #»

kavitalu

maMjughOsha

OyI kavI!

gurajADa jADa naDava@Mga
dorakoMTivi gAde! yipuDu dUrammai yA
ka~rakaina katti monatO
virachiMtuvu kavitalaraya viDDUraMbau!

chuTTun ‘jIkaTi’, dAniyaMdu ‘bhaya’ maMchun vrAtu vaddAnilO
neTTO ‘raktamu@M’ jUpi yI prajala nOyI bIlcha nIvUpirin
kaTTA! kaitalu prEta bhUtagaNa rAgAlApanATOpamul
iTTeTTI vonariMtuvO kavivarA! yeTTIvu nidriMtuvO!

I vaiplavya pathOnmukhatvamunu bOdhiMpan prajAbhAvamul
brOvai klishTiki dAritIyunaniyEn – bOdEla nI buddhi, dhA
trIvaiklabyamu guMDe jIlpadoko, SAMtin gOri, kIlAlamul
nIvai dOhadamIya bAruTaku, nEneMtEni yallADedan!

aMkitamittu nA kavita nArtajanAvali kaMchu@M jeppi nI
vaMkili lEka rakta jharulaina mahA kRtulOli sEya@MgA
naMkeku rAvu saukhyamulanaMta jagatpralayAMtakaMbu nau
TiMka nijammu; SAMtivelayiMpaga niddi pathaMbu kAdurA!

kaTTa gOchiyulEni kaDupEda naDuvIdhi
#         # nA@MkaTi kEDvagA navala dirigi
chUDa@M gannululEni vA@MDu vAraga vachchi
#         # ninudAki tUla@MgA nippu lumisi
vaTTipOyina guMDe pasikUna sA@MkalE
#         # kokkartu pAlvEDa nOkiliMchi
chillara lEdaMchu@M jeppu rikshAvAni
#         # chirupaisalaku@M gUDa chIdariMchi

kavita vrAtuvu vAripai karuNa yanedu
kavivarENyu@MDa nEnaMchu garvapaDedu
kavita yArjiMchi yichchina kAsulaMdu
visarivaichite vAriki vIsamaina!

AvESAna rachiMchu raktakavital ayyA SubhammIvu, dvE
shAvirbhAvapu kAraNA lasalu bhAshAdEvi nIkennaDEn
bhAvavyOmapathAna@M gAna@MbaDadO, bhAviMpavO saumyagA
nAvINAvarapANi mauLitala chaMdrArdhaprabhA snigdhayE!

puTTanu buTTiyun, muluku muTTi gatiMchina jaMTakEDchu nA
piTTa yeluMgu vinna muni biTTaDalan gaDakayye kAvya ma
ppaTTuna nenni guMDelaku@M brAkeno, yA karuNAsravaMti, chU
paTTade nilvu nIravuTa bhAvuka chittamu tatkathA Srutin!

tama svArthAgniki niMdhanammuluga vidyArthul, kavul kollalai
samayan jUturu rAjakIya kuhanAsaMskAru lAvaMtayEn
gamaniMpan dagadO jagammugati, yiMkan nI kalAnan kavI
gamakiMpaMgadavOyi yI bhuvini prAgbhAraMbugA SAMtikin
ramaNIyAmRta navyavArshuka pRshallAkshaNyavarNAdRtin!

OyI chaduvarI!

ninu kadaliMpalEnidi, manIshanu gurterigiMparAni vrA
tanu darikolpumagni SatadhA, yedi nIdagu guMDe lOtulan
kaNakaNa maMDu bhAvamula gAyamulan mRduvAkyadhAra mA
nchina dadi kaita, dAni@M goni jErchumu mauLi sadA sahasradhA!

rammu, kavitvasaMpada chirammu; prabhutvamulEla yEla, svAM
tammu niraMtarammu sukhitammu tadIya mahArtha prApti; vi
Svammu manOharAkRti, prasanna majasramu bhAvukALikE
rammu; kavitva saMpada chirammu grahiMtamu viSvadarSanan!

pUrtigA #»

uMDu

oLLU payi telIkuMDA
#             #;nella pillaDi lAga

gAlADani sAyaMkAlaM
#          #;gaMgasAgaraM lAga

erraTi kannu ArpakuMDA
#                #;divvasODi lAga

kadalakuMDA medalakuMDA
#               #;bODi koMDa lAga

ulakkuMDA palakkuMDA
#           #;sachchina kukka lAga

(#Inspiration: Five Ways of Resting by Milarepa)

#pUrtigA #»

iMkO sAyaMtraM

nuvvU nEnU iddaramE
nuvvU nEnU pakkapakkanE

koMcheM dUraMgA saMgItaM
udvEgaM niMDina saMbarapu
goMtulni kalupukuni
kanapaDakuMDA nATyaM

EdO jaragabOtuMdannaTTu
kutUhalaMgA parugulu tIstU
vadalakuMDA mana chuTTU nITigAlI

nI mohammIda merustU
chakkiligiMtalu peDutU
veluturu alalU

nI chEtini tAki uMDEvANNi
nA chEtilOki tIsukOgaligI uMDEvANNi
nI kaMTimIdugApaDutunna veMTrukala pAyani
venakki sardi uMDEvANNi
akkaDikakkaDE Agi Api uMDEvANNi

adi manaku gurtuMDipOyE sAyaMtramayyEdi
‘okAnoka sAyaMtraM’ ani modalupeTTi
muchchaTlu cheppukOvaDAniki manakuMDEdi

ippuDadoTTi iMkO sAyaMtraM
vichchukOkanE rAlipOyina j~nApakaM

pUrtigA #»

nippulu

mukkAlipITa mIda muDuchukkUrchuni
ArubayaTa penaM siddhaM chEstuMdAme
chukkalu merisE vELaki
nippulu rAjukuMTAyi

sannani segalO kAlE kOrkelni dAstU
ettupaLLu dAchalEni navvultO
EvO ASalni parustADatanu.
roTTelottE chEtula erramaTTigAjulu
galagalalatO layagA UkoDutUMTAyi.

ragulutUMTAyi nippulu.

kaMDalu tirigina magaDi dEhaMlO
pagaTi kashTAnni parikiMchi chUstU
munivELLatO atani pedavulaku
prEmanaMtA mukkalugA aMdistuMdAme

eMgilipaDaTaM modalavutuMdi
Akali perigi peddadavutuMdi
nippulu pogalu kakkutUMTAyi
gAlulu vEDekkipOtAyi

nulakamaMchaM mIda masakavennela
vellikila paDukuni vEDuka chUstuMdi
chiTTichEmaMtulu maDullO lEchi nilabaDi
kaMTi chikiliMpullO kathalu dAchukuMTAyi

naDirEyi E jhAmukO
chaligAlulu vIstAyi.
kuMpaTlO nippulu vATaMtaTavE
AripOtAyi.

pUrtigA #»

eDabATu

poddupoDupu chukka
masaka veluturulO karigipOyina chOTa
toMDametti
modaTi kiraNAnni rArammani pilustOMdi
oka Aviri Enugu.

ninna rAtri
vennellO dorikina SaMkhaMlO
konnaMTE konni nA chinni kalalanu dAchi
challagA nA kALLanu muddADina
chiTTi ala oDilO vadilAnu
avi ninnu chErukOvAlani.

nuvu nannu amAMtaMgA gAllOki egarEsi
paTTukuni guMDeku hattukuMTE
nI meDalO mukhaM dAchukuni
keraTAlapai nuraganu aMTI aMTanaTTugA tAki
egiripOtunna sIgal rekkala chappuLLu vinAlani
vuMdi nAnnA!


tana kaMTi chivari taDilO dorikina veMTrukanu
nA guppiTapai uMchi, EdainA maMchi kOrikanu
manasulO anukuni
veMTrukanu gAlilOki UdamaMTuMdi
amma.

kaLLu gaTTigA mUsEsukuni
nalla chEpapilla katha pustakaMlO
dAchukunna eMDina pasupupachcha pUla
mAlalni meDalO vEsukuni
rAju, rANi, O muddula yuvarANi
ATa mI iddaritO ADAlani…


nAvI konni kannITi chukkalni
tanalO imuDchukuni
bayaldErina chiTTi ala
ninnu chEriMdA?
vinEvuMTAvu SaMkhaMlO
nA guMDe pATa.

nA aNuvaNuvulO niMDina
nI j~nApakAla alajaDini mOsukuni
tElutU veLLina kanuveMTruka
ninnu chEriMdA?
gurtochchE vuMTuMdi nIku
manaM kalisi Udina DAnDeliyan
dUdipUla telladanaM.

nAnnA!
ika rArAdU?
chEtilO chEyi vEsukuni
#           #(nI vELlalO nA vELLu muDichi, idigO, ilA!)
mabbultO bommalu chEstU
#           #(adigadigO Enugu eppuDO sItAkOkachilukaipOyiMdi!)
naDichoddAM
A chivaridAkA!

pUrtigA #»

vyAsAlu

telugulO graMtha parishkaraNa guriMchi konni AlOchanalu

iravayyava SatAbdapu tolirOjullO saMskRta sAhityaMlOnu, telugu sAhityaMlOnu, alaMkAraSAstraMlOnu, gADhaMgA panichEsina bhAratIya paMDituDu evarainA okarunnAranukOMDi. Ayana EdO koMta iMglIshu kUDA chaduvukuni vunnADanukOMDi. Ayana chuTTU iMglIshu chaduvukunna kotta yuvakulu iMglIshu sAhityAnni tega poguDutunnAranukOMDi. I iMglIshuvALla sAhityaM yelA vuMTuMdO chUddAmani A paMDituDu veLli appaTi kAlEjIlalO iMglIshu bOdhiMchE oka telladorani aDigADanukOMDi.’idigO mA sAhityaMlO shEks^piyar goppavADu, A mATakostE mI kALidAsu kannA goppavADu,’ ani shEks^piyar rAsina hAmleT pustakAnni A telladora AyanakichchADanukOMDi.

I telugu/saMskRta paMDituDu sthUlaMgA shEks^piyar rAsina hAmleT chadivi katha arthaM chEsukOgalaDu. appaTikE kALidAsu nATakAla mIda iMglIshulO pratipadArthAlu cheppi, aMdulOni vyAkaraNaM iMglIshulO bOdhaparachi A nATakaM mottAnni tamaku vachchina iMglIshulO mukkasyamukka anuvAdaM chEsi prachuriMchina vALlu vuMDEvAru. aMdulO koMdaru kALidAsu nATakAnni vyAkhyAnistU shEks^piyar^tO pOlistE kALidAsu goppa nATakakartEmI kAdani cheppEvALlu. sariggA A samayaMlO iMdAka mEmu cheppina paMDituDu shEks^piyar nATakAnni chadivADanukOMDi.

mIku A nATakaM elA vuMdi ani aDigitE: idEmi nATakaM? vastuvu asabhyamaina vastuvu. oka rAju bhArya A rAju tammuDi vyAmOhaMlO paDi atanitO rahasya saMsAraM chEstU vuMTuMdi. A taruvAta A tammuDu AviDa sahAyaMtO rAjuni chaMpEstADu. A rAju chachchipOyina taruvAta I tammuDu rAjyAdhikAraM tIsukuni, chachchipOyina rAju bhAryani peLli chEsukuMTADu. A chachchipOyina rAju koDuku I saMgati telusukuni ayinA EmI chEyalEka asamardhuDigA tannu tAnu chaMpukuMTADu. idA katha! dIniki kAvyagauravaM elA vastuMdi? iMdulO rasaM lEdu. alaMkAraM lEdu. upadESaM lEdu. EmI lEdu. idEdO anAgarika jAti aj~nAnaMlO paiki tIsukochchina pustakaMlA vuMdi — ani aMTADu. dAnitO pATu A iMglIshu spelliMgulu astavyastaMgA vuMDaTaM, uchchAraNaki rAtaki madhya E rakamaina pOlika lEkuMDA oka chOTa oka aksharAniki oka dhvani vuMTE adE aksharAniki maroka chOTa maroka dhvani vuMDaTaM I paMDituniki marI anAgarikaMgA kanipiMchi avannI oka sAMpradAyakamaina dArilO peTTukOlEka pOvaTaM I jAti aj~nAnAniki maroka lakshaNaM ani nirNayiMchukuMTADu.

I katha mEmu pUrtigA kalpiMchinadi kAdu. ilAMTi saMghaTanalu nijaMgAnE jarigAyi. kAkapOtE ilAMTi abhiprAyAlu cheppina goMtukalu paiki rAlEdu. udAharaNaki viSvanAtha satyanArAyaNagAri vishNuSarma iMglIshu chaduvulO appaTi paMDitulaki iMglIshu guriMchi vuMDE abhiprAyAlu konni vunnAyi chUDaMDi.

pASchAtya vidhAnAllO rachanalu chEsina bhAratIyula guriMchi kUDA bhAratIya sAhitya saMpradAyAla mIda viSvAsaM vunna mana pAta paMDitulaki kUDA ilAMTi abhiprAyAlE vuMDEvi. TAgOr gItAMjalini AdipUDi sOmanAtharAvugAri (1913) anuvAdaMlO chadivi divAkarla tirupatiSAstrigAru, “mahAkavigA cheppukOdagga sArasyaM yiMdulO EmI kanipiMchadE,” #[1]#ani annAraTa.

I vishayaM ikkaDa eMduku cheptunnAmaMTE reMDu saMskRtulaku cheMdina iddari vyaktula madhya okari paTla okariki chakkaTi avagAhana sAdhAraNaMgA kalagadu. yAtrikulugA dUradESAlu tirigi vALLa anubhavAlu rAsina vALLa mATalani charitrakArulu taruchU tama nirNayAlaki AdhAraMgA tIsukuMTAru. kAnI, aMdulO uMDE ibbaMdulu prasiddhaMgA telisinavE. idi kAka, reMDu pedda saMskRtulu snEhaMgA okadAninokaTi kaugiliMchukunElAgA eppuDU kalavavu. okadAnini yuddhaMlO jayiMchaTaM mUlaMgAnO lEdA valasa rAjyaMgA svAdhIna parachukOvaDaM mUlaMgAnO kalustAyi. aMduchEta gelichina saMskRtiki adhikAra prAbalyamU, ahaMkAramU, ODipOyina saMskRti paTla nirAdaraNa bhAvamU, tRNIkAra dRshTI vuMTAyi. gelichina saMskRtiki pUrtigA tanaki pAdAkrAMtamaina saMskRti mIda koMta AdaraNa bhAvamU okkokkappuDu koMta mechchukOlU kUDA vuMDochchu. kAni idi kEvalaM anugraha buddhitO chEsE pani. bhAratadESaM pASchAtya rAjyAlani jayiMchi vuMTE vALla sAhityAnni mana paMDitulu alaMkAraSAstra dRshTitO chUsi aMduku A sAhityaM nappakapOtE dAnni tiraskariMchi, taruvAta dAnni koMta anugraha buddhitO ‘saMskariMchi’ vALlaki tOchina rItilO nilabeTTEvALlu. kAni charitra dAniki avakASaM yivvalEdu. kAni iMglIshuvALlaki bhAratIya sAhityAnni uddhariMchaDAniki charitra avakASaM yichchiMdi.

manaki valasavAda saMskRti, Adhunika saMskRti kalisi jamiligA vachchAyi. I reMDiMTilO Edi EdO manaM viDadIsukOlEkapOyAM. svAtaMtrya pOrATa samayaMlO manaM kAvAlani kOrukunnadi rAjakIya svAtaMtryamE. manaM iMglIshuvALla vallanE Adhunikula mayyAmani, iMglIshu lEkapOtE manaM pAtakAlapu mUDha nammakAlalO kUrukupOyi vuMDE vALlamani, mana sAMskRtika nAyakulu nammAru. I nammakAniki poDigiMpE manalO iMkA migilipOyina braun ArAdhana. manadaina oka saMskRti unnadani, dAnni anusariMchAli kAni pASchAtya bhAvadAsyaMlO paDipOkUDadani mATalaitE manaki tarachu vinipiMchEvE kAni, A mana saMskRti EmiTO spashTaMgA arthaM chEsukOvaDAniki manaM prayatniMchalEdu. paigA, valasa pAlakulu anugraha dRshTitO manaki nErpina kotta saMskaraNalalO Evi manaki paniki vachchEvO, Evi chApa kiMda nIrulA mana AlOchanalni mArchEstUMTE, amAyakaMgA Adhunikata pErutO avannI manaki avasaramani manaM nammi, vATinI, A saMskaraNalu techchina vALlanI ArAdhanAbuddhitO pUjistunnAmO manaki ippaTikI bOdhapaDaDaM lEdu. paigA I ‘mana saMskRti’ anE bhAvAnni rAjakIyaM chEsi bhAratadESaM lOni prajalaMdarikI hiMdU dharmaM pErutO oka pedda baMDarAyi nettikekkiMchaDAniki panichEsE rAjakIya pakshAlu kUDA manakunnAyi. A rakamaina rAjakIya bhAvAlu valasavAdaM kanna pramAdakaramainavi. inni AlOchana samasyala madhya I vyAsaM rAyaDaMlO unna ibbaMdulU, vATitOpATu mAkunna samAchAra parimitulU gurtuMchukuni I vyAsaM rAstunnAM.

mana graMtha parishkaraNa vidhAnAlu elA vuMDAlO koMta sthUlaMgAnainA chepdAmani I vyAsaM modalu peTTAM. kAni A pani aMta tElikagA ayyEdi kAdanI, aMtaku muMdu cheyyavalasinadi chAlA vuMdani anipiMchiMdi. mana sAhityaMlO manaM anusariMchavalasina graMtha parishkaraNa vidhAnAlu vErE unnAyA, lEkapOtE pASchAtya vidhAnAlE aMdarU anusariMchadagina Adhunika vidhAnAlA? anna praSna vEsukOvaDAniki muMdu mana graMtha lEkhana paThana pAThana saMpradAyAlu elA uMDEvO AlOchiMchAli.

pAtani punaruddhariMchAlani, gata reMDuvaMdala saMvatsarAlalO Adhunika nAgarikata poMdina prayOjanAlani tiraskariMchAlani, mA abhiprAyaM kAdu. pAta sAhityAnni pAta pAThakulu, SrOtalu upayOgiMchukunna saMdarbhAlani tirigi bOdhaparachukuni A sAhityaM E rakaMgA vuMDEdO gamaniMchi dAni mUlakaMgA appaTi vidhAnAlani telusukOvaDamE mA uddESaM. aTlA bOdhaparachukunna paddhatulu maLlA unnavi unnaTlugA amalulO peTTAlani mA uddESaM kAdu. iMkO mATallO cheppAlaMTE mAdi uddhAraka (#revivalist)# dRshTi kAdu, avagAhaka dRshTi mAtramE. mana sAhityaM pravartillina paddhatulu manaki avagAhana ayina taravAta avi mana pustaka parishkaraNa vidhAnAlu nirmiMchukODAniki avi panikostAyani mA AlOchana.

iMtaku muMdu braun guriMchi mEmu rAsina vyAsaMlO pustaka parishkaraNa vishayaMlO Ayana anusariMpa jEsina paddhatulu, tana daggara pani chEsE paMDitulni, lEkhakulni Ayana vADukunna tIru, telugu sAhityAniki apakAraM chEsiMdani, telugu paMDitula sAMskRtika sthairyAnni debba tIsiMdani cheppAM. paMdhommidava SatAbdapu modaTi kAlaM nuMchi iravayyava SatAbdapu toli kAlaM varaku telugu graMthAla vishayaMlO braun, saMskRtaM lOni dharmaSAstra graMthAla vishayaMlO kOlbrUk, purANAla vishayaMlO hech. hech. vilsan, iravayyava SatAbdaM tolirOjullO mahAbhArata graMtha parishkaraNalO suktAMkar, iMkA taruvAta kAlaMlO mana telugu paMDitulU dAdApugA okE rakamaina mArgAnni anusariMchAru. sthUlaMgA vIraMdari mArgaM pASchAtya graMtha parishkaraNa vidhAnAlaki anukaraNamE. I vidhAnaM vastuta@h tappu ani mA pratipAdana.

pASchAtya graMtha parishkaraNa vidhAnAlu

mUla graMthaM anEdi okaTi uMdani, dAnikoka karta unnADani, A karta A graMthAnni rAsina chOTu, tEdI paTTukuni A mUla graMthAnni punarnirmiMchavachchani oka AlOchana pASchAtya graMthaparishkaraNa paddhatulakanniTikI mUlabhUtamaina vishayaM. I vidhAnAlu mUDu rakAlu.

anEkamaina pratula AdhAraMgA tayAru chEyabaDina miSrama pratini eklekTik (#eclectic)# prati ani, I paddhatini eklekTisiౙm anI pilustAru. I miSrama prati, dAniki mUlAdhAramaina E okka pratinI pOlivuMDadu. I vidhAnaMlO E okka pratikI migatA pratulakannA ekkuva prAdhAnyata vuMDadu. parishkartalu tamaku nachchina pratini pradhAnaMgA tIsukuni migilina pratullO tamaku nachchina pAThAlani tAmu eMchukunna pratilO chErustADu. I rakaMgA oka miSramaprati tayAravutuMdi. parishkarta vyaktigata abhiprAyAlaku UtamichchEdigA miSrama prati uMDaDaM I paddhatilO mukhyamaina lOpaM. I eklekTik vidhAnamE manaM telugu pustakAla parishkaraNa vishayaMlO tarachU viniyOgiMchinadi.


sTemATik paddhatilO mahAbhArataM

ika, reMDavadi vaMSavRksha paddhati. dInini sTemATiks (#stemmatics) # lEdA (#stemmology)# anI aMTAru. prati pratI kEvalaM vEroka prati nuMDE puDutuMdi. okavELa E prati ayinA reMDu, aMtakannA ekkuva pratula kalayikagA anipistE, Apratini kalushitapratigA bhAvistAru. E reMDu pratulalOnainA okErakamaina tappulu ekkuvagA kanipistE A reMDu pratulU okE mUlapratinuMchi vachchinavigA grahistAru. adEvidhaMgA, reMDu pratulu vibhinnaMgA unnappuDu parishkarta tana abhiprAyaM prakAraM E prati sarainadO nirdhAristADu. I pakkanunna bomma#[2]# chUDaMDi. aMdulO mahAbhAratAnni dorikina pratula AdhAraMgA vErvEru SAkhalugA vibhajiMchAru. I paddhatilO aTTaDugununna pratula AdhAraMgA paiki paiki veLLi bahuSA mUla bhAratAnni paTTukOgalamani I parishkartala ASayaM. pUrtigA, vyAsuDu rAsina mahAbhAratamE vAriki dorakakapOyinA, dAniki samIpAniki veLLagalamani I parishkartala viSvAsaM. I paddhati telugu pustakAla vishayaMlO eppuDU anusariMchavalasina avasaraM lEkapOyiMdi.

mUDava paddhati jIvaSAstraM nuMchi nErchukunnadi. I klADisTiks (#cladistics)# paddhatilO anni pratulanU kaMpyUTarla sahAyaMtO, vATi vATilO gala sAmyAla AdhAraMgA guMpulugA viDadIstAru. A guMpulanu okadAnikokaTi saMbaMdhigA chUstAru kAnI E pratulu mUla pratiki daggarigA unnAyO nirNayiMcharu. I paddhati telugulO evarU anusariMchalEdu.

ikkaDa mukhyaMgA gamaniMchavalasina vishayaM EmiTaMTE bhAratIya graMthAla vishayaMlO parishkaraNa vidhAnAlu tama dRkpathaMtO amalu parichina pASchAtyulE A vidhAnAlu savariMchavalasina avasaraM vuMdani gurtistunnAru#[3].

#pASchAtya vidvAMsulu bhAratIya graMtha pAThaparishkaraNa vishayaMlOnu graMtha vyAkhyAna vishayaMlOnu oka parimitiki lObaDi panichESAru. vALlu kEvalaM likhita pratulanE pariSIliMchAru. pAThakulu I likhita pratulalO vunna graMthAlani elA chaduvutunnAru, pADutunnAru anna praSna vALlu vEsukOlEdu. mukhyaMgA saMskRta graMthAla mIda, telugu graMthAla mIda, pariSOdhana chEsinavALlu asalu vEsukOlEdu. vILlaMdari dRshTilO likhita graMthamE parama prAmANikamaina graMthaM.

telugu anubhavaMlO I vidhAnaM tappu. telugulO tATAkula mIda kAnI kAgitaM mIda kAnI rAsina graMthAnni veMTanE kaTTa vippi Akulu terichi dabadabA evvarU chadivEvALlu kAdu. pustakaM elA chadavAlO muMdu guruvu daggara nErchukuni A taravAtE pustakAnni tIsi chadivEvALlu. aMTE ippuDu achchulO vuMDE kathanO, navalanO, vachanapadyAnnO chadivinaTlugA pustakaM kanipiMchagAnE tIsi chadavaDAniki pUrvagraMthAlEvI avakASaM ichchEvi kAvu. graMtha paThanaM oka vidya. A vidya bAdhyatagA nErchukOvAli. kotta pustakaM chadavaDAniki maLlA kottagA nErchukOvAli.

pustakaM chadavaDaM rAnivALlu dhairyaM chEsi pustakAnni vippi chaduvutUMTE vALlaki padaM ekkaDa viragAlO, pAdaM ekkaDa ApAlO, ekkaDa saMdhi viDadIyAlO, ekkaDa kalapAlO teliyaka pOvaDaM chEta rakarakAla tikamakalu paDEvALlu. alAMTi vALlani vELAkOLaM chEsE kathalu telugulO vuMDEvi. rAmunitOkapivaruMDiTlaniye anE vAkyAnni vALlu kaMgAru paDi rAmunitOka ani chadivi, taravAta Emi chEyAlO teliyaka tikamaka paDEvALlu ani I kathalu cheptAyi. dIni paramArthaM EmiTaMTE pustakaM elA chadavAlO muMdu teliyakuMDA toMdarapaDi pustakAnni chadavaTaM modalu peTTavaddu ani. tATAkula pustakaMlO ekkaDA virAma chihnAlu kAnI padAla virupulu kAnI padyapAdAla virupulu kAnI gurtiMpabaDi vuMDavu. tATAku eMta poDavuMTE aMta poDavU paMktulu rAsukuMTU veLli tATAku ekkaDa ayipOtE akkaDa reMDava tATAkulOki veLlaTaM lEkhakula alavATu. dInitO pATu lEkhana saMpradAyAlu konni vunnAyi. avi pustakaM pustakAniki mArutU vuMDEvi kUDA. ivi kAka lEkhaka rItulu konni uMDEvi. aMTE oka pratyEka lEkhakuDu tAnai svayaMgA yErparuchukunna konni saMkEtAlu. ivi teliyaDAniki pAThakulaku SikshaNa kAvAli.

paigA telugu padyaMlO saMskRtaMlO mallE chakkagA E pAdAniki A pAdaM chivarilO virigipOvaDaM, pratipAdaM viSrama sthAnaM daggara AgaDaM vuMDadu. saMskRta SlOkaM okaTi chadavaTaM alavATaitE reMDOdi kUDA alAnE chadavachchu. pAdAMtAla daggara virupu, viSramasthAnaM daggara virupu saMskRta SlOkAlaki tappani sari. (I niyamaM chAlA taravAta kAlaMlO akkaDakkaDa koddigA atikramiMchabaDinA mottaM mIda saMskRta sAhityaMlO idi pATiMchabaDiMdi.) I sthAnAlanu lEkhakulu pAdAMtAla daggara oka niluvu gIta tOnu SlOkAMtAla daggara reMDu niluvu gItala tOnu sUchiMchEvAru. aMduchEta saMskRta SlOkaM chadavaTaM koMta tElika ayyEdi. udAharaNaki:

maMda@h kaviyaSa@hprArthI gamishyAmyapahAsyatAm|
prAMSulabhyE phalE lObhA dudbAhuriva vAmana@h|| (kALidAsu raghuvaMSaM, 1-3)

(telivitakkuva vANNi, kavi anE pEru kAvAlanE kOrika kalavANNi, nannu chUsi lOkaMlO aMdarU navvutAru. poDugaina vALLaku mAtramE aMdE paLLu aMdukOvAlani chEtulu paikettE poTTivADini chUsi navvinaTTu).

I SlOkaM chakkagA oMTi niluvu gIta peTTina chOTa koddigA AgutU chivariki SlOkAMtAna reMDu niluvu gItalu peTTina chOTa purtigA AgipOtuMdi. asalu SlOkAlani ekkaDA ApakuMDA chiTTachivara varakU okE gukkalO chadavAlani kUDA koMdaru guruvulu anEvAru. kAni, mukhyamaina vishayaM EmiTaMTE, niluvugItalu unnachOTla padaM virigi tIrAli. dInnE viSrama sthAnaM aMTAru. saMskRtaMlo yati sthAnaM lEdu, viSrama sthAnamE uMdi. telugulO vunnadi, yati sthAnaM, adi viSrama sthAnaM kAdu.

telugulO nannayya rAsina modaTi padyaM nuMchi AdhunikuDu viSvanAtha satyanArAyaNa rAsina padyAla varakU yati sthAnaM daggara pAdAMtAna virupu uMDi tIradu. saMskRtapu maryAda valla kAbOlu telugu padyAllO yati sthAnaM daggara oka mAmiDi piMde gurtu veyyaDaM lEdA iMkoka gurtu peTTaDaM vAviLla vAri daggaranuMchi prAmANika graMtha prachuraNakartalu aMdarU alavATugA peTTukunnAru. kAnI, A gurtuki padyaM chadavaTaM mIda E rakamaina prabhAvamU uMDadu. paigA pAdAMtAna, yati sthAnaM daggara virakkoTTi padyAnni chadivitE skUlu pillADu chadivina padyaMlA vuMdi ani peddavALlu vELAkOLaM chEstAru. padyaM ettugaDa, virupu, svaraM hechchiMchaDaM, taggiMchaDaM ivannI telisinavALlE padyAnni bAgA chadavagalaru. aMTE telugu pustakAla pAThakuDiki pratyEkamaina tarphIdu guruvu dvArA kAvAlanna mATa. (padyAnni, nATaka phakkIlO rAgayuktaMgA, IlapATa raghurAmayya lAgO, ghaMTasAla lAgO pADaDaM guriMchi mEM mATlADaDaM lEdu. adi vEru.)

pUrtigA #»

bhaktakavi boppana gaMganAmAtyuni SrI mahAbhAgavata paMchama skaMdhaM

AMdhra jAtIyamahAkavi bammera pOtanAmAtyuDu virachiMchina paramapavitramaina SrI mahAbhAgavataMlO bhaktakavi boppana gaMganAmAtyuDu paripUrNiMchina paMchama skaMdhaM gaMbhIramaina tattvArthabOdhakata valla, tirugulEni kavitArAmaNIyakaM mUlAna rasOdaMchitamani pErennika gannadi. I paMchama skaMdhAnni ‘sakalasukavijanAnaMdakaraM’gA sujanamanOharaMgA AMdhrIkariMchi, charitralO pOtanna gAri sahapaMktiki nOchukonna mahAkavi bopparAju gaMganAmAtyuDu nijaMgA dhanyajIvi. SrIkRshNa paramAtmanu ArAdhiMchi, A svAmi vaibhavaprakASanaku tana kavitanu parikariMpajEsi, pOtanagAri valenE tAnu tariMpagOri telugu jAtini tariMpajEsina puNyadhanu DAyana. I kathAkathanamukhAna SRMgAra vairAgyAlaku AlavAlamaina manuvaMSa rAjapurushula yokka jIvitasaMdESabOdhaku, virATpurushuDu kalpiMchina I bhuvanakOSavarNanaku, pApulaku gamyasthAnAlayina narakalOkAla varNanaku avakASaM labhiMchi bhagavanmahimanu, bhagavallIlalanu nOrArA varNiMchi tana SikshaNanu, kArayitrISaktini sArthakaM chEsukonnADu.

gaMganAryuni padyaSaili manOharaMgA uMTuMdi. anuvAdaM mUlAniki atyaMtavidhEyaM. ekkaDainA vyAkhyAnasApEkshamulaina daLAlu kanipistE vATini SrIdharasvAmi bhAvArthadIpikA vyAkhyanu anusariMchi telugu chESADu. SrIdharasvAmi bhAvArthadIpikalO lEkuMDA – A tarvAta velasina vIrarAghavuni bhAgavatachaMdrachaMdrikA vyAkhyalO mAtramE unna paMktulu konni gaMganAryuni anuvAdaMlO yathAtathaMgA kAnavastAyi. avi tALapatrAlalO pUrvakAlaMlOnE chErinavO lEka evarO iTIvali kAlaMlO chErchinavO vrAtapratulanniMTinI pariSIliMchitE kAni nirdhAriMchaTaM sAdhyaM kAdu.

anuvAdapaddhatini chUstE gaMganAryuniki tana kathAkathananaipuNini, padyanirmANakauSalAnni pradarSiMchaTaM kaMTe sannivESAnni subhagaMgA naDupukoni pOvaDamE sammatamani anipistuMdi. pOtanagAri vale saMskRtAniki samasaMskRtaMgA, vyAkhyalanu miMchina vyAkhyagA padyAnni kadanu tokkiMchAlanE abhinivESaM unnavADu kAdu. aMduvalla sAttvikamaina mArgAnni ASrayiMchi dhArALamaina dhArAkauSalaMtO kathanu sarasaMgA saMkshEpiMchADu. vEdAMtaghaTTAlalO koMta toTrupATunnappaTikI SRMgArasannivESaMlO kUrpu sarasaMgAnE koluvu tIriMdi. apratItapadAlatO prauDhamaina prayOgAlanu chEyaTaM kaMTe mUlAnni saraLaMgA telugu chEyaTamE Ayana abhimataM. anuvAdakaLalO mArana, vennelakaMTi sUranala vale paurANika kavula kOvaku cheMdinavADu.

1. gaMganAmAtyuni jIvita viSEshAlu

telugu kavulalO pekkumaMdi valenE gaMganAmAtyuni jIvitaviSEshAlEvI charitra kekkalEdu. skaMdhAMtagadyalalO — “idi SrIsakalasukavijanAnaMdakara boppanAmAtyaputtra gaMganAryapraNItaM baina SrImadbhAgavatamahApurANaMbu naMdu,” ani cheppukonnadAnini baTTi niyOgi brAhmaNuDani, boppanAmAtyula vAri tanayuDani mAtramE telustunnadi. sakalasukavijanAnaMdakaruDu kAvaTAniki EmEmi vrASADO manakippuDu teliyadu. Iyana nijAmu rAshTravAsi ani AMdhrakavitaraMgiNilO chAgaMTi SEshayyagAru UhiMchAru.

gaMgana annapEru telaMgANaMlOni nETi dharmapuri cheMta pOtannagAriki SrIrAmachaMdraprabhuvu sAkshAtkAraM siddhiMchi, SrImahAbhAgavatAvaraNaku kAraNatIrthamaina puNyagaMganE sUchistunnadanI, gaMganAmAtyuDu A samIpaprAMtavAsi anI akkaDi peddalaMTAru. bammera pOtanAmAtyulavAru dattamaMDalaMlOni oMTimiTTaku cheMdinavArani viSvasiMchina vimarSakulevarU Iyana prAMtIyatanu guriMchi charchiMpalEdu. aMtamAtrAna I vivAdaM parishkRtamainaTlu bhAviMchaTaM sarikAdu. ubhayavAdAlanu iMkA samIkariMchi, nijAnni niggu tElchavalasi unnadi. bhAgavatakavulu telaMgANAnikE cheMdinavArayinA, reMDu prAMtAlalO saMchariMchi uMDarani, prAMtIyAbhimAnAlu vaTTi nirAdhAra kalpanalani nirNayiMchaTaM kashTaM.

iMtava~raku sAhitya charitrakArulu gaMganAryuni kAlAdikaM nirNayiMchEMduku sAdhanAlEvI chUpalEdu. EkAdaSa skaMdhAnni rachiMchina veligaMdala nArayaku tarvAti vADani koMda~ru, shashThaskaMdhAnni rachiMchina ErchUri siMganaku samakAlikuDani koMda~ru bhAvistunnAru. ayitE, vArevarU gurtiMpani sAhityikaviSEshaM okaTunnadi. A viSEshAnni vivaristAnu:

#        1.1.# gaMganAryuDu – haribhaTTu

gaMganAryuniki atyaMta samIpakAlikuDaina mahAkavi haribhaTTu rachiMchina matsyapurANaMlO, gaMganAryuni paMchama skaMdha padyAnni pOlina rachana okaTi kanupistuMdi. matsyapurANaM 1912lOnE achchayinappaTikI aMta prasiddhiki rAnaMduvalla I vishayaM charitrakArula dRshTiki rAlEdu. matsyapurANa – paMchama skaMdhAlalOni A padyAlu reMDiMTinI saripOlchi, evaru evariki anukartalO niSchayiMpagaligitE I chikkumuDi vIDutuMdani nA bhAvaM.

A reMDu padyAlanU chUDaMDi –

graivEyakaMkaNAMgadahArakuMDalaprabha lalitasphUrti@M bariDhavilla
navaratnakIlitOnnatakirITadyutu lASAvakASaMbu lalamikona@Mga@M
gaTivilaMbitahEmakAMchIvilagnamai rAjitapItAMbaraMbu me~raya
SrIvatsakaustubhaSrIramAyukta mai tulasikAdAmaMbu toMgaliMpa

natirayaMbuna garuDavAhanasamEtu@M
Daguchu vishNuMDu SaMkhachakrAdi viSru
tAyudhaMbula dhariyiMchi yavanipatiki
dakshaNaMbuna nachaTa bratyaksha mayye. — (haribhaTTu matsyapurANamu, 4-140)

idi haribhaTTu matsyapurANaMlOni padyaM. kaMThasImanu divyahArAlu, muMjEtula kaMkaNAlu, kAli aMdelu, vaksha@hsthalAna velalEni mutyAla daMDalu, chevulaku makarakuMDalAla velugu SRMgAravisphuraNatO atiSayistuMDagA; navaratnAlu podigina samunnatamaina kirITamu yokka dIdhitulu elladikkulanu AvariMpagA; nennaDumunu ASrayiMchina baMgaru molatrADuku dITugA pasimi vanne paTTupaMche mirumiTlu goluputuMDagA; bhRgumaharshi kannuminnu gAnaka tanninapuDu rommuna tatpadAghAtarUpamai ErpaDina SrIvatsamanE machcha, munupu dEvadAnavulu kshIrasamudrAnni chilikinapuDu AvirbhaviMchina kaustubharatnaM, A kalaSaratnAkaraM nuMchE veluvaDina SrIdEvitO kUDi Ayana vakshOlaMkRtamaina tulasIdaLa mAlika nUtnavikAsamunu poMdagA; SaraNAgatarakshaNatvaratO garutmadrathAnni adhirOhiMchi SaMkhachakrAdulaina vikhyAtAyudhAlanu chEtabaTTi A kshaNamaMdE SrImahAvishNuvu bhUmipati kannula muMdu pratyakshamainADu – ani bhAvaM. ika paMchama skaMdhaMlO gaMganAryuni padyAnni chUDaMDi:

aMta nAvishkRtakAMtachaturbhujaMbulunu, bItAMbaraMbunu veluMga
SrIvatsakaustubhaSrIramAchihnaMbu luramaMdu ramyamai yiravupaDa@Mga
SaMkhachakragadAMbujAtakhaDgAdi divyAyudhaMbulu sEtulaMdu me~raya
natulitanavaratnahATakAMkitanUtnaghanakirITadyutul gaDalukona@Mga@M

garNakuMDalakaTisUtrakanakaratna
hArakEyUravaranUpurAdibhUsha
Namula bhUshituM Daina SrInAyakuMDu
daMpatula kappu Dedura@M bratyaksha mayye. — (gaMganAryuni paMchama skaMdhamu, 1-43)

reMDu padyAlalOni varNanAMSamU okkaTE. Artula mrOla SaraNAgatatrAta ayina SrIhari sAkshAtkAraM. haribhaTTu padyaMlOni “navaratnakirITOnnatadyutu lASAvakASaMbu lalamikona@Mga” anna pAdaM gaMganAryuni paMchama skaMdhaM lOni “atulitanavaratnahATakAMkitanUtnaghanakirITadyutul kaDalukona@Mga” annadAnikE paryAyaM. haribhaTTu padyaMlOni “SrIvatsakaustubhaSrIramAyuktamai tulasikAdAmaMbu toMgaliMpa” anna pAdaM paMchama skaMdhaM lOni “SrIvatsakaustubhaSrIramAchihnaMbu luramaMdu ramyamai iravu paDa@Mga” annadAniki pUrtigA samAnaM. haribhaTTu padyaMlOni “vishNuMDu SaMkhachakrAdiviSrutAyudhaMbula dhariyiMchi yavanipatiki dakshaNaMbuna nachaTa@M bratyaksha mayye” anna pAdaM paMchama skaMdhaM lOni “karNakuMDala kaTisUtra kanakaratnahArakEyUra varanUpurAdibhUshaNamula bhUshituMDaina SrInAyakuMDu daMpatula kappu Dedura@M bratyaksha mayye” anna parisamApaka vAkyAniki pratibiMbanyAyaMgA saripOli unnadi. haribhaTTu padyaMlOni “SaMkhachakrAdiviSrutAyudhaMbula dhariyiMchi” anna daLaM kUDA “SaMkhachakragadAMbujAtakhaDgAdi divyAyudhaMbulu sEtulaMdu me~raya” anna paMchama skaMdha padyapAdaM lOnidE.

gaMganAryuDu, haribhaTTu rachiMchina I reMDu padyAlU okadAnikokaTi pratibiMbAlanna vishayaM vErE cheppanakkaralEdu.

gaMganAryuni padyAniki mUlamaina saMskRta bhAgavataMlO nAbhi mahArAju chEsina yaj~naMlO vEdikapai SrImahAvishNuvu avatariMchinappaTi varNana A saMdarbhaMlO I vidhaMgA unnadi:

va. atha ha ta mAvishkRtabhujayugaladvayaM hiraNmayaM purushaviSEshaM kaTikauSEyAMbaradhara murasi vilasachChrIvatsalalAmaM daravaravanaruhavanamAlAchChUryamRtamaNigadAdibhi rupalakshitaM sphuTakiraNapravaramaNimayamakuTakuMDalakaTakakaTisUtrahArakEyUranUpurA dyaMgabhUshaNavibhUshitaM…” (adhyAyaM 3; vachanaM 3)

(aMtaTa nAbhirAjuku yaj~nESvaruDaina SrImahAvishNuvu pratyakshamayyADu. Ayana sAlaMkRta chaturbhujAlanu kaligi unnADu. hiraNmayatEjassu uTTipaDutunna purushOttamarUpaMlO unnADu. kaTidESAna pasimivanne paTTupaMchenu dhariMchADu. rommuna SrIvatsachihnaM merumulInutunnadi. pAMchajanya SaMkhamu, vaijayaMtI vanamAla, sudarSana chakramu, kaustubha maNi, kaumOdakI gada amRtAyamAnaMgA virAjillutunnAyi. kAMtulanu virajimmutunna maNimayakirITaM, chevulaku makarakuMDalAlu, daMDakaDiyAlu, bAhupurulu, baMgaru molatrADu, kAli aMdelu modalaina aMgabhUshaNAlatO bhUshituDai unnADu)

I mUlaMlOni “AvishkRtabhujayugaladvayaM” annadE gaMganAryuni anuvAdanaMlO “AvishkRtakAMtachaturbhujaMbulu” ayiMdi. takkina daLAlannI saMskRtamUlAnni yathAtathaMgA AvishkaristunnAyi. saMskRtAMdhrAlu reMDiMTini saripOlchitE gaMganAryuni padyaM bhAgavata mUlAniki yathAtathAnuvAdamani spashTaMgA telustUnE unnadi. matsyapurANaMlO I ghaTTaMlOni varNana haribhaTTu padyAniki mUlamani UhiMchEMduku E mAtraM vIlulEkuMDA unnadi. aMduvalla haribhaTTu padyamE gaMganAryuni padyAniki anusaraNamani, matsyapurANa rachanAsamayaMlO haribhaTTu muMdu bhAgavata paMchama skaMdha padyamE nilichi unnadani, gaMganAryuni padyaM haribhaTTu padyAniki anukaraNaM kAdani, manamu niSchayiMpavachchunu. haribhaTTu gaMganAryuni pai padyAnni anukariMpa lEdani; bhAgavatamUlAnni tAnukUDA palumArlu chadivinaMduvalla aMdulO tanaku nachchina oka bhAgAnni mechchi svataMtraMgA anusariMchADani vAdiMchEMduku vIlulEkuMDA ubhayapadyAla saMvAdaSilpamE sAkshyaM istunnadi. I sAkshyAnni baTTi gaMganAryuni kAlanirNayaM sAdhyamavutunnadi.

haribhaTTu chEsina matsyapurANaM anuvAdaM krI.Sa. 1525 nATidani, aMtaku munupu krI.Sa. 1500 nATikE Ayana muMdugA bhAgavataMlOni EkAdaSa – dvAdaSa skaMdhAlanu; A tarvAta krI.Sa. 1520 prAMtAla bhAgavata shashTha skaMdhAnni pUrtichESADani vimarSakulu bhAvistunnAru. gaMganAryuni paMchama skaMdhaM krI.Sa. 1500 nATiki pUrvamE velasi unnaMduvalla – dAnini chaduvukonna haribhaTTu tana anuvAdAniki paMchama skaMdhAnni chEpaTTaka viDichivESADani bhAviMchaTaM samaMjasaMgA uMTuMdi. kanuka gaMganAryuni kAlaM haribhaTTu EkAdaSa skaMdhAnuvAdAniki kanIsaM ayidu lEdA padEMDla munupu – aMTE, krI.Sa. 1490 nATiki pUrvaM avutuMdi. A prakAraM bopparAju gaMganAryuDE bammera pOtana gAriki atyaMta samIpakAlikuDu, sannihituDu ani spashTapaDutunnadi.

pOtana gAri SrImahAbhAgavataM krI.Sa. 1480 nATiki pAkshikaMgAnainA utsannamaipOyiMdi. 5, 6, 11, 12 skaMdhAlu pUrtigA dhvaMsamayyAyi. takkinavi akkaDakkaDa pADayyAyi. gaMganAryuniki A vishayaM telisi, pOtana gAri paMchama skaMdhaM pratulu lOkaMlO lEvani niSchayiMchukonnAkanE tana anuvAdayaj~nAniki upakramiMchi uMTADu. aMduvalla puNyagaMgaku samIpaprAMtavAsi ani peddalu bhAviMchinadi tarkasahamE avutuMdi. pOtana gAri anuvAdaM koMta paMchama skaMdhaMlO unnadani, gaMganAryuDu kEvalaM luptapUraNaM mAtramE chESADani, paMchama skaMdhaM pUrtigA gaMganAryuni rachana kAkapOvachchunani chAgaMTi SEshayyagAri vaMTi koMdaru vimarSaku lannAru. adi kEvalaM Uha mAtramE. aMduku eTuvaMTi AdhAramU lEdu. pOtana gArE tana SishyuDaina gaMganAryuniki I bhAgAnni appajeppi vrAyiMchi uMDavachchunanaTamU bhAvyaM kAdu. pOtana gAru appajeppi uMTE, rachana svarUpaM Ayana paryavEkshaNalO sAginaTlugA lEdu. aMtEkAka pOtanna gAri itaraskaMdhAlalOni padyAla anukaraNalu – marI mukhyaMgA saptama, ashTama skaMdha padyAlaku anukaraNalu iMdulO kanupistAyi. aMduvalla pOtanna gAri bhAgavataM parisamAptamai, vAru paramapadiMchina koMtakAlAniki tarvAtanE I utsannapUraNaM modalainadani UhiMpavachchunu. I paMchama skaMdhaM anuvAdAniki SrIkAraM chuTTEmuMdu gaMganAryuDu tanaku labhiMchina pOtana gAri bhAgavata bhAgAnni pUrNaMgA bhAvagataM chEsukonnADu. guruSishyulu EkakAlaMlO rachananu konasAgiMchivuMTE adi sAdhyaM kAdu.

aMduvalla krIstuSakaM 1485 – 90la naDimi kAlaMlO tana anuvAdAnni pUrtichEsE nATiki sumAru 50 – 55 saMvatsarAla vADanukoMTE gaMganAryuni jIvitakAlaM sthUlaMgA krI.Sa. 1430(±) – 1490(±) ani nirNayiMchaTaM samaMjasaMgA uMTuMdi.

pUrtigA #»

AchArya chEkUri rAmArAvu bhAshASAstra pariSOdhana, mArgadarSanaM

AchArya chEkUri rAmArAvugAridi vilakshaNa vyaktitvaM. itarulanu noppiMcharAdu anE manastatvaM. sagaTu mAnavuDi AlOchanA dhOraNiki addaMpaTTE chillara AlOchanalanu paTTiMchukOnaTuvaMTi mAnasuDu. sUkshma grAhyata asImita AlOchana Ayana svaMtaM. vITanniTikI mUlaM vAri hEtubaddha tArkika AlOchanA saraLi. ivannI kalisi telugu bhAshASAstra viSlEshakuDigA chErA niluvettu chitrAnni mana kaLlamuMdu nilipAyi. chErA telugu bhAshASAstra pariSOdhanalO diggajaM. telugu bhAshA viSlEshaNanu bhAshASAstra paraMgAnU sAhityaSAstra paraMgAnU kalanEtagA allina nErpu gala panivADu. Ayana bhAshASAstra rachanallO rAjIpaDani pariSIlanA niSitatvaM, vyApti paripUrNata, aniMdAparaka suniSita vimarSa koTTochchinaTTu kanipiMchEvi. pariSOdhanA vidhAna prakriyE kAdu dAnini prakaTiMchE vidhAnaM kUDA chAlA vilakshaNaMgAnU SAstra paddhatiki okiMta gUDA taggani paribhAshalO chakkani kathana kauSalaMtO naDustAyi chErA gAri bhAshASAstra rachanalu.

chErA bhAshASAstra rachanalu

chErAgAri rachanalu annI okachOTa anni AdhArAlatO dorakavu. dAniki kAraNaM vATini gudiguchchi nEnu iMta rASAnu ani cheppukoni pogiDipOyE tattvaM kAdu Ayanidi. chErA amerikA nuMDi tirigivachchAka Ayana iMglIshulO rAsina oka telugu grAmaru kApI aitE mEmu kaLlArA chUSAM gAnI adi maLlI evarO prakaTistAmani cheppi chEyakapOvaTaM mAku koMta nirASa kaligiMchiMdi. ayitE chErAgAri telugu vAkyaM (1975), telugulO velugulu (1982), bhAshAnuvartanaM (2000), bhAshAMtaraMgaM (2001), iMkA ennO vyAsAlU A paina iMkO amudrita telugu bhAshA vyAkaraNaM (idi iMglIshulO tvaralO prachuraNaku vastOMdi) bhAshASAstraj~nulanu AlOchiMpachEsEvi. (ImATa bhadrirAju kRshNamUrti pratyEka saMchikalO chErA bhAshAparivEshaM (2003) muMdumATa.) ivi vAri bhAshASAstra rachanalalO machchuku konni mAtramE. aitE vAri pratibhaku reMDava pArSvaM kUDA uMdi. adi sAhitI SramajIvulanu abburaparichE vidhaMgA bhAshASAstrAnni mELaviMchi lakshaNa charchanu raMgariMchi telugu ChaMdOrItula sUtrIkaraNalu chErAvAri svaMtaM. aitE nEnu chErAgAri bhAshASAstra rachanalalO konniMTini mAtramE ikkaDa charchistAnu.

‘telugu vAkyaM O aya@hpiMDa’mani abhiyOgamunnA dAnni chadivi arthaMchEsukonnavArE telugu bhAshASAstraj~nu lani cheppAlanE nAnuDI uMdi. telugu vAkyaMlO kottadanaM telugu vAkya viSlEshaNE ayinA paiki kanipiMchakuMDA utpAdaka parivartana siddhAMta prakriya bhAvajAla parithilO rAsina telugu vAkya viSlEshaNA dAni paribhAshA kAraNaM kAvachchu. konni sArlu pariSOdhanA vishayaMtOpATu bhavishyattulO bhAshASAstra vidyArthulu EyE vishayAlalO eMta lOtugA pariSOdhana chEyAlO kUDA pErkoMTAru. udAharaNaki, telugu vAkyaMlO telugu bhAshapai kriyAsahita vAkyAla guriMchi chebutU telugu vAkyanirmANa rItulanu viSlEshiMchaDAniki telugulO kriyala arthaparakamaina vargIkaraNa jaragavalasi uMdi ani chebutAru.

chErA bhAshASAstra pariSOdhanalu

telugulO bahuvachanaM mIda chErA (1970,76) chEsina pariSOdhana vAri vishaya viSlEshaNakU Apaina sUtrIkaraNakU eMta prAmukhyatanu istArO teluputOMdi. mukhyaMgA, idi vAri rATudElina pariSOdhanApaddhatiki gITurAyi. idi prapaMchaMlOnE aMdari mannanalaMdina reMDu viSishTa sAMpradAyAla kalanEta. idi prAchIna pANinIyavyAkaraNa paddhatinI Adhunika parivartanAtmaka utpAdaka vyAkaraNa prakriyanU kalabOsi niggudElchina vaMTakaM. chErAgAru bahuvachanarUpa nishpattiki (1970, 1982: 173-196) padAMSa vidhEyasUtrAlu anI varNavidhEyasUtrAlu anI reMDu rakAla sUtrAlanu pratipAdistAru. A pratipAdanalO padAMSa vidhEya sUtrAlu saraina sapadAMSa nishpAdanaku avasaramaitE varNa vidhEya sUtrAlu vATi uchchAraNA rUpAlanu nishpannaM chEstAyi. vITilO 14 padAMSa vidhEya sUtrAlU, 3 varNa vidhEya sUtrAlU, (mUrdhanya kAraka, svarasamIkaraNa, vyaMjanAlalOni adviruktatA sAdhaka sUtrAlu) mukhyamainavi. chErAgAru pANinIyavyAkaraNa paddhatilOni #elsewhere# niyamAnni pATistU chEsina I pratipAdanalO konni adhikAra sUtrAlu appaTikE padAMSa vidhEya sUtrAla dvArA nishpanna padAlapai vartiMchi vyaktarUpAlanu sAdhiMchaDaMdvArA apavAdAlanu pariharistAru. udAharaNaku, svarapUrvaka ralanaTaDOpathalaku bahuvachana pratyayaMmuMdu lOpamU Apaina mUrdhanyakArakasUtra pravartanatO -LLu AdESaM.

chErAgAri svarasamIkaraNapai (1976) pariSOdhana nAku ishTamaina varNaSAstra pariSOdhanalalOkellA uttamamainadi. appaTi varakU vachchina telugu svarasamIkaraNapai vachchinavATini pariSIliMchi prakaTiMchina patraM svarasamIkaraNaM. iMdulO kriyApadAlU nAmapadAlU reMDiTinI kalipi chEsina samagra varNana adi. aMdulO svarasamIkaraNa sAmAnya svarUpAnni AvishkaristU I kiMdi sUtrAlanu pratipAdistAru.

  1. #[α high] -> [α back]/_+[ α back]

    #(ikkaDa α aMTE: + {pratyayAlU , kriyalalOnU};
    -{nAmapadAlalOnU}; +/- {saMkhyAvAchaka padAlalOnU})

  2. #[+back,+high] -> [+low] /(C)VC_C+V[+low]

#modaTi sUtraM grAMthikabhAshakU Adhunika bhAshakU vartistE reMDavasUtraM mAtraM Adhunika bhAshalO vachchina svarasamIkaraNa mArpunu sUchistOMdi.

chErAgAri pariSOdhanalalO varNanalalOnU sUtrIkaraNalalOnU nirNayAlu chEsETappuDu vyAptini guriMchina lakshaNa pariSIlana atyAvaSyakamainadigA parigaNiMchEvAru. vIlainaMtamEraku dESakAlAvadhulanu vidhigA dATipOyEvAru. appuDE A bhAshAMSAla tattaM bOdhapaDutuMdanukonEvAru. udAharaNaku, telugu vAkyAlalO kriyAsti nAsti vichikitsa lO telugulO kriyArahita vAkyAlu anI dvidaLa vAkyAlu anI cheppukunE vAkyAlalO anusaMdhAna kriya (uMDu lEka avvu/agu) konni vyakta nirmANAlalO kanapaDakapOvaDaM marikonni nirmANAlalO kanipiMchaDaM (udA. Ayana prophesaru, Ayana prophesaru kAdu mo.), dInni anEka samAna lakshaNa bhAshalalO pariSIliMchina uddaMDa pariSOdhakulaina yamunA kachrU gAri kriyAkAlabOdha vAdaM, i. annAmalai gAri sOdarabhAshA sAkshyAdhAra vAdaM, pEri bhAskararAvu gAri vikalpaprayOga vAdaM, je. grIn barg gAri padakrama vAdaM modalainavAdAlu samarthiMchE prakriya, guptanirmANaMlO alAMTi kriyanu pratipAdiMchi konni vyakta nirmANAlalO dAnni lOpiMpajEyaDAnni chErAgAru telugunuMDI iMkA anEka bhAshalanuMDI pariSOdhanalanuMDI sEkariMchina ennO sAkshyAdhArAlatOnU rujuvulatOnU pratikUlaM chEsi O kotta pratipAdana tIsukurAvaDamEkAdu parivartanAtmaka utpAdaka vyAkaraNa prakriyalalO, guptanirmANa pratipAdanalu phyAshan ayipOyinappuDu churakallAMTi sUchanalanu chESAru. I pratipAdanalu unna chikkulanu parishkariMchakapOgA lEni chikkulanu techchipeDutunnAyanI, guptanirmANaM kAmadhEnuvU kalpataruvU kAdanI vAdiMchi bhAshA nirmANAnni unnadi unnaTlE chEyAligAnI manaku kAvalasinaTlugA lakshaNa nirmANaM chEyaTaM aSAstrIyamU, avAstavamU aMTU kriyArahita vAkyAlu sthitibOdhakAlanI guptanirmANaMlO kriyE lEdanI lEnidAnni vyaktanirmANaMlO lOpiMchAlsinapanE lEdani spashThaMchESAru.

chErAgAri bhAshASAstra rachanalalO marO asAdhAraNamaina pariSOdhana ‘ani chEsE pani’. aMdulOnU anukRti. ‘bhAshanuguriMchi bhAshalO cheppaTAniki anumatiMchE sAdhanaM anukaraNa’ ani nirvachistAru. appaTiki I anukaraNa guriMchi aMtagA pariSOdhana jaragalEdani chebutU viSAlaviSvAnnE garbhIkRtaM chEsukOgala Sakti anukaraNaki uMdanI telugulO anukaraNAniki chAlA vistRtamaina praNALikE uMdanI I pariSOdhana valla bhAshalO anukaraNa tattvAnni pariSIliMchaTAniki paniki vastuMdaMTAru. bhAshaku dESakAla niravadhikatvAnni ApAdistuMdanI aMTAru. anukRti sarvabhAshAsAmAnya lakshaNaM anI pratyaksha parOkshAnukRtulanu vEru cheyyaDAniki anni bhAshalakU vartiMchE kolamAnaM sarvanAmAla mArpu mAtramEnani pratipAdistAru.

ilAMTivi ennO viluvaina pratipAdanalEkAka atyaMta Asaktikaramaina viSEshavishayaM sarvanAmAla mArpu. aitE adi kriyAnvayAbhAsAniki dAritIstOMdi. udAharaNaku, pratyakshAnukRtilOni vAkyaM ‘atanu (nAtO) nEnu uMTAnu annADu’ => parOkshAnukRtilO uttamapurushaku tanvAdESaMtO ‘atanu (nAtO) tanu uMTAnu annADu’ autOMdi. dInni parishkariMchaTAniki anEka ettugaDalanu chErA ennukonnAru. chivariki, ‘uttamapurusha parivartita sarvanAmaM kartagA unna vAkyAllO vartiMcharAdu’ anE AMkshanu vidhiMchi kriyA vibhakti saMdhAna sUtrAnni aNichipeTTi sAdhistAru. kAnI I prakriya sUtra rachanapai adhikabhArAnni mOputuMdanI ainA, I AMksha bhAshAsiddhAMtAnikE avasaraM kAvachchu kAbaTTI chivariki dInni bhAshA siddhAMtaMlO bhAgaMgA pratipAdistAru. paipechchu, iMkA mElaina vidhAnaM dorikEvaraku idE mArgaM ani talustAru. I vishayAnni koMcheM pariSOdhiMchi 1989lO anukuMTA nEnU nA sahAdhyAyI ramaNayya kalisi kriyA vibhakti saMdhAna sUtra parivartana nilipivEyabaDaTAniki O kAraNAnni pratipAdiMchAM. kriyA vibhakti saMdhAnaMtO vAkyArthabhaMgaM kalagavachchunanE nepaMtO kriyAnvayAbhAsAnni bhAsha bharistuMdanI aMTE vAkyavinyAsaM kaMTE arthanirUpaNE balavattaraM (#semantics overrides syntax)# ani UhiMchAM. chErAgAri ‘anukRti ani chEsE pani’ telugu bhAshASAstraMlO oka utkRshTa pariSOdhana, pariSOdhakulaku penusavAlu.

jIvi nADini paTTi jIvatattvAnni oka DAkTaru eTlA grahistADO chErA telugu bhAshA tattvAnni iMkA cheppAlaMTE drAviDa bhAshA tattvAnni nAmnIkaraNAlatO AvishkaristAru. vibhaktyarthaka nAmnIkaraNaMlO EyE nAma vibhaktulu lOpiMchi EyE nAmAlu sAdhyamO nirUpiMchE lOtaina pariSOdhana idi. nAmnIkaraNa prakriyallO nAma vibhaktula lOpAnnibaTTi aMtaruvulu unnAyani EDava daSakaMlOnE nirUpiMchina ghanata Ayanadi. alAgE itara nAmnIkaraNAlu, bhAvArthaka, vishayArthaka, ityarthaka, vidhyarthaka nAmnIkaraNaM modalainavi telugu vAkya vinyAsaMlO gaNanIyamaina pAtra kaliginavE.

nETi sahajabhAshA prakriyalalO atyavasaramaina paddhati, vistRtamaina, lOtaina (#breadth and depth)# viSlEshaNa chErAgAri svaMtaM. vividha kArakAlanu sAdhyaparichE kArakavibhaktulanU kriyAvyApArAlatO vATiki unna saMbaMdhAlanU A saMbaMdhAlaku AdhArabhUtamaina nAmAla arthaparaka viSlEshaNa prAchInula sattAvAdAnni terapaiki tIsukuvastuMdi. oka vidhaMgA idi Adhunika pariSOdhanalaku mArganirdESanamE.

telugu bhAshaku saMbaMdhiMchina anni raMgAlapainA chErA pariSOdhanalu eMtO koMta mEraku prabhAvaM chUpiMchinavanE cheppukOvAli. amerikAlO mEDisanlOni viskAnsin A taruvAta kArnel viSvavidyAlayalalO AchAryulaina kelI gAridaggara chEsina SishyarikaMlO Adhunika paSchima saMpradAyaMlO telugu bhAshapai pratyEkaMgA phonAlajI, mArphAlajI iMkA pratyEkaMgA siMTAksu raMgAlalO viSEsha kRshi chESAru. I raMgAlalO chErAgAru prakaTiMchina vyAsAlU rAsina graMthAlU vATipai Ayanaku unna SraddhAsaktulanEgAka prAvINyAnni gUDA paTTichUputuMTAyi. ivi vAri rachanalalOnE gAka chErAgAri vidyArthigAkUDA nAku anubhavaMlOki vachchina vishayAlE. taragatigadilO kUDA pratyEkaMgA ‘enalaiTikal Tekniks’ klAsulO Ayana pravartana gaMTannarasEpu UdaragoTTE upanyAsaMtO gAkuMDA E ‘lAjik’ klAsulOnO ‘mEthamATiks’ klAsulOnO unnaTTu uMDEdi. O vidESI bhAshalO O samasyanu ichchi mammalni AlOchiMchamani cheppi padi nimishAlaku OsAri padi nimishAlapATu dAniguriMchina guptatattvAnni vyaktaparichEvAru. adI chErAgAri klAsu. A vAkyAlu chAlu manani iMtagA prabhAvitaM chEyaTAniki. nAku ippaTikI gurtE kahmu anE AsTrOnESiyanu bhAshalO O samasyanu bOrDumIda rAsi parishkariMchamani (sAlvuchEyamani) cheppi kUrchunnAru. nEnokkaDinE dAnni parishkariMchinappuDu Ayana nannu mechchukOvaDamU dAniki nEnu uppoMgipOvaDamU jarigiMdi. iTlAMTi anubhavaM nAkE kAdu mareMdarikO nAkaMTE muMdU tarvAtA uMdanI uMTuMdanI telusu.

upayuktarachanalu

  1. umAmahESvararAvu gArapATi. 2005. bahuvachanarUpAla saMgaNanAtmaka viSlEshaNa. maM.vE.ramaNayya, ka. tOmAsayya (saM.) telugu bhAsha, siddhAMtaM-anuvartanaM, 62-78.haidarAbAdu: poTTi SrIrAmulu telugu viSvavidyAlayaM.
  2. umAmahESvararAvu gArapATi, maM. vE. ramaNayya. 1987. telugulO akshara nirmANaM. telugu. punarmudraNa, 2009.22-46. haidarAbAdu: telugu akADamI.
  3. #Uma Maheshwara Rao, G,. 2001. Syllable Parsing and Vowel Harmony in Telugu: A Non-Linear Analysis. In B. Vijayanarayana et al (Eds.) Language Matters, Papers in Honour of Prof. Chekuri Ramarao. Hyderabad: Booklinks Co.
  4. # kRshNamUrti, bhadrirAju. 1977. plUral phArmEshans in telugu (rAtaprati). usmAniyA viSvavidyAlayaM.
  5. kRshNamUrti, bhadrirAju, gvin, je.pi.el. 1985. e grAmar Aph mADarn telugu. DhillI:AkspharD yUnivarsiTI pres.
  6. rAmachaMdrarAvu, si. 1975. telugu bahuvachanaM. telugu 4, 44-51.punarmudraNa; telugu varNaM. 31-49. haidarAbAdu: chaMdanA eDyukEshanal pablishars.
  7. rAmArAvu chEkUri, 1970. telugulO bahuvachana rUpa nishpatti. bhArati 476, 12-25. punarmudraNa: telugu lO velugulu. 1982. 173-196. haidarAbAdu.
  8. #Ramarao, C. 1975. Dravidian Evidence for Abstract Phonology. OPiL, 1:30-44.
  9. # rAmArAvu chEkUri, 1976. marOsAri telugu lO bahuvachanaM. bhArati 53.12. punarmudraNa: telugu lO velugulu. 1982. 197-208. haidarAbAdu:AMdhrasArasvati parishattu.
  10. rAmArAvu chEkUri, 1976. #Vowel Harmony in Telugu. Papers in Linguistic Analysis, vol.1.1:25-36.
  11. Ramarao, Chekuri, 1976. Rule Chase. Indian Linguistics, vol.39:183-8.
  12. Ramarao, Chekuri, 1986. The Treatment of Syntax in Bala and Proudha VyakaraNas. Osmania Papers in Linguistics, vol.12:23-35.
  13. # rAmArAvu chEkUri, 2000. bhAshAnuvartanaM (bhAshA vyAsAlu). haidarAbAdu: poTTi SrIrAmulu telugu viSvavidyAlayaM.
  14. rAmArAvu chEkUri, 2001. bhAshAMtaraMgaM (bhAshA nirmANa vyAsAlu). haidarAbAdu: poTTi SrIrAmulu telugu viSvavidyAlayaM.
  15. rAmArAvu chEkUri, 2002 (prathama parishkaraNa 1975, reMDava parishkaraNa 1999). telugu vAkyaM, padavarNa sahitaM. haidarAbAdu:navOdaya buk hauj.
pUrtigA #»

malayALa ChaMdassu – oka vihaMga vIkshaNamu

parichayamu

sumAru mUDu kOTlakanna ekkuva maMdi bhAratadESamulO malayALa bhAshanu mATlADutAru. bhAratIya bhAshalalO dIni sthAnamu tommidavadi. gaDachina saMvatsaramu dIniki prAchIna bhAsha hOdAnu kUDa kEMdra prabhutvamu ichchinadi. kEraLa rAshTramulO 90% kanna ekkuva maMdiki idi mAtRbhAsha. drAviDa bhAshalalO idi arvAchInamainadi. I bhAshAcharitraku AdhAramulu sumAru tommidava SatAbdamunuMDi unnavi. moTTamodaTa idi tamiLa bhAsha nuMDi puTTinA, oka reMDu SatAbdamulalO tanadaina pratyEkatanu kaligiMchukonnadi. malayALa bhAsha janiMchaka muMdu I prAMtamu nuMDi tamiLamulO SilappadikAra rachayita iLaMgO aDigaL, saMskRtamulO ennO graMthamulanu, stOtramulanu rachiMchina advaitamata pravakta Adi SaMkarulu suprasiddhulu.

teluguvAriki saMskRta ChaMdassutO ekkuva parichayamu, paTima galadu. sOdarabhAshayaina kannaDamulOni ChaMdassu kUDa parichitamE. I reMDu bhAshalalO akkarala, ragaDala vaMTi baMdhamulu galavu. adi mAtramE kAka kaMdamulO, khyAta vRttamulayina mAlAvikrIDitamulalO vrAyabaDina kAvyamulu I reMDu bhAshalalO unnAyi. tamiLa ChaMdassu pratyEkamugA ma~roka bhinna rItilO puTTi periginadi. chAla takkuva maMdi tamiLa ChaMdassulOni meLakuvalanu e~ruguduru. malayALa ChaMdassunu gu~riMchi nEne~riginaMtava~raku okka prastAvana mAtramE galadu. adi sarvOttamarAvu vrAsina dAkshiNAtya dESi ChaMdOrItulu pustakamulO 15 puTalu. I vishayamulu kUDa oka saMkshipta rUpamulO nunnavi. aMtEkAka aMdulOgala ChaMdObaMdhamulaku udAharaNamulu takkuva, telugulO asalu lEvu. kAvuna malayALa ChaMdassulOni viSEshamulanu vivaristU vATiki telugulO udAharaNamulanu ichchi, chivaraku vATinuMDi nEnu krottagA nErchukonna vishayamulanu kUDa I vyAsamulO charchistAnu. I kAraNamulavalla I vyAsamu telugu pAThaka janAniki ati nUtanamainadi ani cheppaDamulO saMdEhamu lEdu.

malayALa sAhityamu

malayALa ChaMdassunu gu~riMchi charchiMchaDAniki muMdu malayALa sAhityamunu gUrchi saMkshiptamugA telisikonuTa avasaramu. E bhAsha charitrainA moTTamodaTa pATalu, gEyamulu modalaina vATitO prAraMbhamavutuMdi. malayALa bhAsha dIniki minahAyiMpu kAdu. kALIpUja chEyunappuDu pANattOTraM anE pATalanu 6-9 SatAbda kAlamulalO pADEvArani aMTAru. aTTi oka pATa lEka padyamu –

AdiyE akhila nAthE ariporuLAya dEvI
vEdiyE vimalE vidyE viNNavar tOTruM peNNE
chOditA NuDichcha pOlE suMdarattODu kUDi
nIdiyil kathayu nIDELi ~naruLga vANI

(idi sarasvatini stutiMchuchu kAvyAraMbhamulO vrAsinadi. anniTiki Adiyaina akhilanAyakI, vastuvu kunikiyaina dEvI, vEda rUpiNI, vimalA, vidyAsvarUpiNI, dEvatalu pogaDudAnA, sauMdaryavaMtamaina padamulatO nItitO cheppunaTlu nannu ASIrvadiMchu tallI)

tamiLa saMskRtamula prabhAvamu prAraMbhadaSalO malayALamu paina ekkuvagA nuMDinavi. aMduvalana maNipravALamu anu kottadaina bhAsha gOchariMchinadi. maNipravALamu paina vrAyabaDina lakshaNagraMthamu lIlAtilakamulO modaTi sUtramu ‘bhAshA saMskRtayOgO maNipravALaM.’ dESabhAsha, saMskRtapu kUDikayE maNipravALamu ani arthamu. ikkaDa maNi aMTE malayALamu, pravALamu aMTE saMskRtamu. maNipravALa bhAshalO lIlAtilakamu nuMDi vasaMtatilaka vRttamulO oka padyamu -

vasaMtatilakamu -
ponnOlayuM vaLayumAramuven~rivellA
mallAgayilla kaLabhAshiNi bhUshaNAni
ellOrkumE rasakaraM satataM nibaddhaM
saujanya men~ridu vibhUshaNamaMganAnAM — (lIlAtilakamu 16)

(baMgAru kammalu, gAjulu, hAramulu ivannI nagalE, aMdulO saMdEhamu lEdu kalabhAshiNI, kAni anniTikaMTe minnayaina viSEsha AbharaNamu aMda~riki rasavaMtamagunaTlu eppuDu sauhArda bhAvaMtO nuMDaDamE kadA!)

AraMbha kAlamulO maNipravALa bhAshalO uNNiyachchicharitaM, uNNiyaDi charitaM, uNNi chirudEvi charitaM, rAmAyaNamu, bhAratamu vaMTi chaMpUkAvyamulu vrAyabaDDAyi. malayALamulO nETiki kUDa chIrAmakavi vrAsina rAmacharitaM kAvyamunE moTTamodaTi uttama sAhitya graMthamugA parigaNistAru. dIni kAlamupaina kUDa tarjanabharjanalu iMkA jarugutunnAyi. koMda~ru idi 12va SatAbdamu nATidaMTE ma~ri koMda~ru idi 14va SatAbdamu nATidaMTAru. 1814 padyamulatO (pATTugaL lEka pATalu), 164 parichChEdamulatO nuMDE I kAvyamulO ekkuva pAlu tamiLamE, ChaMdassu kUDa drAviDa ChaMdassE. rAmacharitamu nuMDi oka udAharaNamu –

drutakAkaLi -

vaNNamEluM marAmaraM koMDAn
taNNayAkki yakaMpanan meyyellAM
eNNilAyiraM kU~riDu mA~rupOy
maNNil vILavan mAruti taLLinAn — (rAmacharitaM, 21.2)

(idi yuddha kAMDa lOnidi. akaMpanuDanE rAkshasuni hanumaMtuDu oka cheTTutO nEla kUlchADu.)

muMdE cheppinaTlu rAmacharitamu lOni bhAsha tamiLamu, saMskRtamu, malayALamu kAdu. dakshiNa kEraLalO niraNaM anu grAmamulO 1350-1450 kAlamulO mAdhava paNikkar (bhagavadgIta), SaMkara paNikkar (bhAratamAla), rAma paNikkar (rAmAyaNa, bhArata, bhAgavata, SivarAtrImAhAtmyamu) anE mugguru kavulu jIviMchAru. vIru vrAsina kAvyamulE pUrtigA malayALamulO vrAyabaDina moTTa modaTi kAvyamulu. vIru brAhmaNa kulamunaku cheMdakapOyinA, saMskRtamulO vIri bhAshApaTima naMbUdiri brAhmaNulaku E mAtramu tIsipOdu. kriMda oka reMDu paMktulu –

mEdiniyilevaninnu vEdamUrtiyAyeNNuM
bOdharUpanAM ninakku pUja cheydiDunnaduM

(mEdinilO ninnu vEdamUrtigA talachi bOdharUpuDaina nIku pUja chEyuTayu…)

ta~ruvAta che~russEri (1446-1475) kRshNagAthanu rachiMchenu. idi malayALamulO oka mahOnnata graMthamugA parigaNiMchabaDinadi. malayALa sAhityamulO pitRsthAnamunu AkramiMchukonna kavi tuMjattu eLutachchan (1475-1575). itaDu AdhyAtma rAmAyaNamunu kiLippATTugA rachiMchenu, anagA rAmAyaNa gAthanu oka chiluka nOTilO cheppiMchenu. AdhyAtmarAmAyaNamunuMDi oka padyamu –

kEka -

kAraNanAya gaNanAyakan brahmAtmakan
kAruNyamUrti SivaSaktisaMbhavan dEvan
vAraNamukhan mama prArabdha vighna~mgaLe
vAraNaM cheydIDuvAnAvOLaM vaMdiykunnEn — (bAla, paMktulu 15-18)

(mUlakAraNuDaina gaNanAyakuni, brahmasvarUpuni, dayAmUrtini, SivapArvatulaku puTTina dEvuni, gajamukhuni, nA prArabdhamuchE kaligina aDDaMkulanu pUrtigA tolagiMchumani prArthiMchuchunnAnu.)

17va SatAbdamulO ATTakathalu (rAmanATTaM, kRshNanATTaM) avatariMchAyi. ivi rAmAyaNa, bhAgavata gAthalanu nRtyarUpamulO chUpiMchunappuDu vrAsina pATalu. ta~ruvAta kuMjan naMbiyAr (1705-1770) OTTan tuLLal ani chiMdulanu pravESa peTTinADu. idi pradarSanalaku kathakaLilA anuvainadi. mRdaMgamu, iDakka vAdyamulu kUDa pATalaku pakkavAdyamulugA nuMDunu. idi oka purushuni EkapAtrAbhinayamu ani cheppavachchunu. I tuLLal padamunaku oka hAsyarasapUrita udAharaNamu –

annanaDa -

che~riya pappaDaM, valiya pappaDaM
ku~riya chOruma kka~riyu madbhutaM

(chinna appaDAlu, pedda appaDAlu, annamu, mAMsapu kUra ivvannI bAgu bAgu.)

19va, 20va SatAbdamulO kumAran ASAn vaMTi kavulu malayALa sAhityamulO AMgla bhAshA prabhAvamu nanusariMchi nUtana mArgamulalO tIsikoni veLlinAru. ASAn padyamu nokadAnini mattakOkila vyAsamulO telipiyunnAnu.

malayALa ChaMdassu

kannaDa, telugu ChaMdassulalO kAlaparibhramaNamulO ekkuva mArpulu lEvu. kannaDamulO aMSa lEka upagaNamulatO nirmiMchabaDina jAtulu kAlakramENa mAtrAgaNa nirmitamainavi. telugu ChaMdassulO gaDachina padi SatAbdulalO mArpulu chAla takkuva. kAni malayALa ChaMdassulO manamu ChaMdaSSAstramu E vidhamugA oka ghaTTamunuMDi ma~roka ghaTTamunaku chErutuMdO anE vishayAnni bAgugA gamaniMchavachchunu. malayALa ChaMdassulO saMskRta vRttamulu unnAyi, kAni aMdulO konni saulabhyamu kOsamu mAtrAvRttamu layyAyi. malayALa dESi ChaMdassu prAraMbha daSalO tamiLa ChaMdassunuMDi enniyO vRttamulanu grahiMchukonnadi. kAlakramENa avi kUDa mArpuku lOnayyAyi. I mArpulaku mukhya kAraNamu malayALamulO padyamulu pATalu. avi gAnayOgyamulu, tALabaddhamulu. tamiLamulO kUDa tEvAramu, tiruppugaL lOni vRttamulanu nEDu kUDa virivigA pADutAru. kannaDamulO shaTpadalalO, sAMgatyamulalO kAvyAlanE vrAsinAru. avi gAna yOgyamulu. kAni telugulO nannaya nuMDi viSvanAtha satyanArAyaNa va~raku padyamulu chaduvuTaku mAtramE vrAsinAru. dIniki minahAyiMpulu bahuSA dvipada kAvyamulu, pOtana bhAgavatamu ani cheppavachchunu. pATalu, padyAlu telugulO samAMtaramugA naDichAyi. avi yakshagAnamulalO mAtramE saMdhiMchAyi. kAni yakshagAnamulanu teluguvALlu nirlakshyamu chEsina tIrunu talachukoMTE kannILlu rAka tappadu!

pATa – padyamu

malayALamulO pATaku padyamulakanna ekkuva prAmukhyamu. pATaku, padyAniki madhya uMDE vyatyAsamulEmi? reMTikI ChaMdassu avasaramu. sAmAnyamugA pATalanu tALabaddhamugA pADukonavachchunu, anni padyAlanu pADukonaDAniki vIlayinA, aMdulO konniMTini mAtramE tALayuktamugA pADukonavachchunu. gaNabaddhamugA nuMDi, yatiprAsalu saripOyina pakshamulO padamulanu E vidhamugAnainA saMdarbhamunaku saripOyE vidhamugA padyamulalO ennukOvachchunu. kAni pATalaku alA kAdu. padamunaku padamunaku madhya virAmamu pATalOni tALagaNamunaku saripOyE vidhamugA nuMDAli, lEka pOtE pATa vinaDAniki soMpugA nuMDadu. padyamulO kanabaDE padamulanu okE vidhamugA mAtramE uchchariMcha vIlagunu. udAharaNaku oka guruvu, oka laghuvu uMDE nIvu anE padamunu A vidhamugA mAtramE palukuTaku vIlavutuMdi. kAni adE nIvu padamunu nIvU lEka nIఽvUఽ ani tALamunaku saripOyETaTlu poDigiMchi pATalO paluka vachchunu. aMTE laghuvu laghuvugA mAtramE kAka guruvugA (reMDu laghuvula kAlamu), plutamugA (mUDu laghuvula kAlamu), kAkapadAksharamugA (nAlugu laghuvula kAlamu) palukavachchunu. adE vidhamugA guruvunu laghuvugA kUDa palukavachchunu, udA. kalalO -> kalalo. tamiLamulO ai aksharamunu a-kArAMta laghuvugA vADuTa paripATi, udA. kalaiyE en vALkayin diSai mATrinAy -> kalayE en vALkayin diSay mATrinAy. telugu, kannaDa padyamulalO pAdAMta virAmamunu pATiMchuTa aichChikamu. dvipadalaku, ragaDalaku idi niyatamainA, sIsa, gItAdulaku kUDa dInini pATistAru. kAni vRttamulalO pAdAMta virAmamunu pATiMchakuMDa uMDaDamu mAtramE kAdu, adoka padya Silpamu ani kUDa koMda~ru bhAvistAru. kAni pATalalO iTTi virAmamunu tappanisarigA pATistAru. appuDE pATa SrOtalaku arthavaMtamugA uMTuMdi. ilA pATa niyamamulu vE~ru, padya niyamamulu vE~ru. aMdukE yakshagAnamulalO tappa telugulO pATalu, padyamulu bhinna mArgAlalO prayANamu chESAyi. kAni malayALamulO (tamiLamulO kUDa) gAnayOgya ChaMdObaMdhamulaku pAdAMtayati, pAdamu madhyalO virAmamu, tALagaNamulaku saripOyETaTlu padamula ennika, konni samayamulalO hrasvamulanu dIrghamugA nuchchariMchuTa sarvasAmAnyamu. aMtE kAka vAru chatushpadulakannA dvipadalanu ekkuvagA ennukonnAru.

pUrtigA #»

kALOjI kavitvaMlO manishi

samAjAniki, sAhityAniki kEMdra biMduvu manishi. samAjaM, sAhityaM manishi kOsaM manishi sRshTiMchinavi. manishiki manishiki madhya vairudhyAlanu parishkariMchE kramaMlO rUpoMdE nirmANAlu, bhAvajAlaM vATini nAnATiki unnatIkaristuMTAyi. manishi tanu evarinanna jij~nAsatO tananu tAnu telusukonaTAniki, tananu tAnu nirvachiMchu konaTAniki chEsE niraMtara anvEshaNa phalitamE tattvaSAstraM. adi samAjAniki,sAhityAniki kUDA chOdaka Sakti. aMduvalla manishi tananu tAnu gurtuMchukoni, tananu tAnu nirvachiMchukonE kramaMlO A anubhavAnni naluguri tOnU paMchukonaTAniki kavi kAvaTaM jarugutuMdi. kavi aMtarbahiryuddhArAvamE kavitvaM ani chalaM cheppina mATalu I saMdarbhaMlO gurtu chEsukOdaginavi. I nEpadhyaMlO kavi kALOjI manishigA manishi guriMchi paDina tapana Ayana kavitvaMlO pratiphaliMchina tIru telusukonaTaM AsaktikaraMgA uMTuMdi.

Adhunika kAlaMlO manishi kEMdraMgA abhivRddhi cheMdina tattvaSAstraM astitvavAdaM (#Existentialism).# manishiki sarva svataMtrata, svEchChAnuvartana, svayaM saMpUrNata sahajaM ani, manishi astitvaM okkaTE unnatamayina vAstavaM ani, prapaMchaM vaipu chUDaTaM, dAni guriMchi AlOchiMchaTaM, vyaktigA pratispaMdiMchaTaM, pravartiMchaTaM — A kramaMlO tana svabhAvAnni nirvachiMchukoMTU manishigA rUpoMdaTaM niraMtaraM jarugutUnE uMTuMdani astitvavAdaM cheptuMdi. I siddhAMta prakAraM bhagavaMtuDi pEru mIdanO, saMghaM pEru mIdanO, mataM pEru mIdanO manishini SAsiMchaTaM, nirdESiMchaTaM kudaradu. prati manishi tana jIvita sUtrAlanu, viluvalanu tAnE sRjiMchukoni, vATi prakAraM jIvistU tanaku tAnE bAdhyata vahiMchaTaM jarugutuMdi. A rakaMgA manishi tana jIvitAniki tAnE karta, tana jIvita paramArdha nirNEta. manishi guriMChi 1940-1960la madhyakAlaMlO abhivRddhi cheMdina Ividhamayina bhAvajAla prabhAvAniki pratyakshaM gAnO parOkshaM gAnO lOnayina buddhi jIvulalO kALOjI kUDA okaDu. astitva chEtana mUrtIbhaviMchina kALOjI vyaktitvAniki niluvuTaddaM Ayana kavitvaM.

1914 sepTeMbar 9na puTTi haiskUl chaduvula nATi nuMDE adhikAraMpai Agraha prakaTana oka prajAsvAmika charyagA chEpaTTi, aTu nijAM prabhutva pAlananu, iTu briTish valasa pAlananu AnADu eMtagA nirasiMchADO, svAtaMtryAnaMtaraM kAMgres adhikAra rAjakIyAlanu aMtagA vimarSaku peTTADu. prajAsvAmya manugaDaku pradhAna sharatu ayina paura chaitanyaM guriMchi, paurula paTla pAlakavargapu bAdhyata guriMchi tapana paDi kavitvaM rASADu. 1953lO Ayana modaTi kavita saMkalanaM nA goDava achchu ayiMdi. yAbhay ELla kAlaM mIda Ayana rAsi achchu vEsina kavitvamaMtA nA goDava anna pEru tOnE vachchiMdi. goDava prapaMchAnidi. dAnini tanadigA chEsukonnADu. alA chEsukOnaTaM lOnE prajAkavi ayinADu. ‘nA’ anaTaMlO astitva chEtana mElkonna lakshaNaM unnadi. A astitva chaitanyaM kALOjI kavitvaMlO manishini nirvachiMchaTaMlO, nilabeTTaTaMlO, manishi pakshAna nilabaDaTaMlO kUDA kanipistuMdi.

jarigiMdaMtA chUstU
eraganaTlu paDi uMDaga
sAkshI bhUtuNNi gAnu
sAkshAttU mAnavuNNi

ani mAnavuNNi anna chinna kavitalO tananu tAnu nirvachiMchukunnADu kALOjI. sUryuDini sarvasAkshi aMTAru. sUryuDu anniTinI chUstADu. kAnI dEni painA tana abhiprAyaM cheppalEDu. paMchabhUtAla sAkshigA, dEvuni sAkshigA, anE padaprayOgAlu unnAyi. kAnI avasarAniki nOru vippi satyaM cheppagalavi kAvu. aMdukE rAviSAstri vATiki saMbaMdhiMchina asalu vAstavAnni kOrTuku rAni sAkshulu anE kadhalO bayaTa peTTADu. avasarAniki rAlEni, mATlADalEni Saktulaku eMta telisinA teliyanaTlE annadi kALOjI abhiprAyaM. upayOgAniki rAni chaduvula vale upayOgAniki rAni eruka kUDA vRdhAnE. eraganaTlu paDi uMDaga / sAkshIbhUtuNNi kAnu ani cheppaTaM dvArA sUryuni Adhikyatanu taggiMchi sAkshAttu mAnavuNNi ani mAnavuni Adhikyatanu aMtima tIrpugA prakaTiMchADu. mAnavulaMTE prapaMchAnni chUstU maunaMgA uMDEvALLu kAdu, AlOchistU, pratispaMdistU avasaramu, auchityamu ayina charyaku digEvALLu annadi kALOjI bhAvana. I kramaMlO kALOjI dEvuni unikini kUDA nirAkariMchaTAniki saMdEhiMchalEdu. unnadi kEvalaM mAnavuDu ani prakaTistU Ayana oka kavita rASADu.

dEva dAnavula hayAmu lO
SishTa rakshaNa dushTa saMhAraM chEya
avatArAletti yetti
visugettina dEvuDu
mAnavuNNi sRshTiMchi uMTADu

anna ettugaDatO prAraMbhiMchina kavitalO kALOjI dAni pariNAmaM dEvatalu rAkshasulu mAyaM kAvaTamU SishTa, dushTa anE nirdishTa rUpAlu naSiMchaTamU aMTADu. manishi lOnE SishTa dushTa lakshaNAlu bhAgamayi uMTAyi. manushulanu maMchivALlanO cheDDavALlanO viDadIsi cheppalEmu. vALLa vALLa charyalanu baTTi A nirdishTa saMdarbhaM nuMDi vALLu maMchivALLO cheDDavALLO avutuMTAru. I astitva bhAvananu palikiMchaTaMtO pATu I kavita dEvuDi avasarAnni kUDA nirAkariMchiMdi.

dEvuDu, dEvatalu, rAkshasulu evarU lEru
unnadi kEvalaM mAnavuDu -
vADE aMtAnu

ani mAnavuDi astitvaM okkaTE satyamani nirdhAristU tana kavitanu mugiMchADu.

manishilO maMchi cheDulu anE vairudhyAlu avibhAjyaMgA uMTAyani, maMchi cheDulu ani okaranukunEvi nirapEkshamainavi kAvani chAlA saraLaMgA, sunnitaMgA, chamatkAraMgA manishi anE kavitalO cheppADu kALOjI.

manishi eMta maMchivADu!
chanipOyina vAni cheDunu
venuveMTanE marustADu
kani maMchine talustADu

idi kavitalO modaTi bhAgaM.

manishi eMta cheDDavADu!
bratiki unnavAni maMchi
gurtiMchaDu kAni vAni
cheDunu vetiki kelukutADu

anna nAlugu paMktula reMDava bhAgaMtO kavita mugustuMdi. cheDunu maravaTaM, maMchini talavaTaM – okari vishayaMlO; maMchi gurtiMchaka pOvaTaM, cheDunu vetiki kelakaTaM – marokari vishayaMlO; eMduku jarugutunnadi? elA jarugutunnadi? annadi praSna. vITillO idi maMchi, idi cheDu ani nirdhAriMchi cheppE pramANAlu evaru rUpoMdiMchAru anna vichikitsa lEkuMDAnE maMchi cheDula guriMchi tIrpulu ichchE manishi guriMchina digulu kALOjIdi. aMdulOnuMDi puTTina vELAkOLaM I kavitanu dIptimaMtaM chEsiMdi.

manishi astitvAniki bhaMgakaraMgA manishiki manishiki madhya, manishiki samAjAniki madhya prabalamavutunna paristhitulapai kALOjI kavitalu vimarSanu saMdhiMchAyi. manishiki svIya astitva chEtana eMta sahaja hakkO tOTi manishi astitvAnni gurtiMchaTaM, gauraviMchaTaM aMta sahajamaina bAdhyata. A bAdhyata marachina paurula paTla kALOjIki asahanaM. evaniki vADE kavita A asahanaM nuMDE puTTiMdi. evaniki vADugA, evani goDava vAnidigA manishi manugaDa sAgaTaM kALOjIki kashTamaina vishayaM. aMdari goDavanu tana goDavagA chEsukonna kALOjIki adi sahajamE. aMdukE evani goDava vALLadigA kuMchiMchuku pOvaddani cheppAlanna tapanatO vinEvALLa koraku vetukulATa I kavitalO kanapaDutuMdi.

samUhaMgA jIviMchaTaM saukaryavaMtaMgA, saukhyaMgA uMTuMdani manushulu samAjAnni nirmiMchukunnAru. manushula ichCha SaktigA mAri manushulanE SAsiMchaTaM asalu vishAdaM. “manujula chEtanE maneDu prapaMchamu / mAnavunE mananIdu prapaMchamu” ani kALOjI prapaMchamu (1942)kavitalO cheppinadi adE.

SAstrakArlu SAsanakartalu / janulaku tALI kaTTani bhartalu“(dvaita jagattu) ani cheppaTaMlO kUDA gatAnu gatikamayina nItulu, dharma sUtrAlu, SAsanAlu manishi mIda baruvai kUrchunna tIrunu gurtiMchi nirasiMchaTaM kanipistuMdi. “mAnavuni mAnavuDu mAnavuni mAdiriga /manniMcha lEnaMta malinamainAdi”ani hRdaya mAlinyaM kavitalO vEdana paDDADu. jAti, rIti, dESaM, vEshaM modalainavi manushula madhya vidvEshAlaku kAraNamavutunnAyani I kavitalO cheppADu. saMgha niyamAlu, sanAtana saMpradAyAlu, laMchAlu, lAMChanAlu modalayinavi manishi lOni kuLLu mAru rUpAlu ani cheppaTaM (mAru rUpAlu) kUDA dAniki konasAgiMpE. manishi sRshTiMchina mara manishi jIvitAnni niyaMtriMchaTaM guriMchi nirasanatO, mara jIvitaM anE kavita rASADu kALOjI.

manishi bratakAlanukuMTE ayipOvAlE mara / maragA mArina manishE ElutADu samAjAnni” anna paMktulu kIlakamainavi. svatahAgA, sahaja astitatO, sRjanAtmakaMgA tana bratukuku tAnE bAdhyuDugA bratikE avakASaM manishiki abhAvaM chEstunna sAmAjika Saktula mIda kOpAnni ivi pratidhvanistAyi.

manishigA bratakaTamaMTE Atma gauravaMtO jIviMchaTaM. ishTamainadi chEyaTaM. chEsE dAniki cheppE dAniki madhya vairudhyaM lEkuMDA pravartiMchaTaM. I mUDiTiki tappi chariMchE vALLanu EM manushulu ani IsaDiMchukunnADu kALOjI. EM manishi anna kavita Ividhamayina kALOjI drukpadhAniki prAtinidhyaM vahistuMdi.

Atmaku avamAnaM jariginA
davaDa paLLu rAlatAyanna bhayaMtO
pedavi vippalEni manishi EM manishi

ani prAraMbhamavutuMdi I kavita.

lAbhAla koraku
lAbhaMtO samakUDe hAyi koraku

ishTaM lEni pani chEyaTamayinA, ishTamunna pani mAnukonaTamayinA manishini manishigA migalanIyadani bhAviMchADu kanuka aTuvaMTi manishi manishE kAdani taruvAti bhAgaMlO sUchiMchADu. mUDava bhAgaMlO pAmu nepaMgA dvaMdva vaikhari manishini manishigA migalchadani hechchariMchADu.

bratikunna pAmu
ekkaDa bussani paDaga vipputuMdOnani
pagabaTTi kATEstuMdani
ApAda mastakaM vaNiki pOtU
nAga svarAla AsarAtO meppistU
pUjistU nAgulachaviti mokkubaLLu chellistU
chachchinapAmunu baDitaltO bAdi
nirasana jUpi, bharsana jaripi
vishanAgulni chitaka poDavAle
ani ninadiMchE manishi EM manishi

ikkaDa pAmu oka saMkEtaM mAtramE. adi adhikAraM. dAnini chUstEnE bhayapaDETlu manishi taratarAlugA poMdutU vachchina SikshaNa phalitamE bhakti. pUjiMchaTaM, mokkubaLlu chelliMchaTaM bhaktiki pariNAmaM. adhikAraM paTla bhaya bhaktulu pradarSiMchaTaM oka paddhati ayitE adhikArAnni duvvutU praSaMsalatO meppistU pabbaM gaDupukOnaTaM maroka paddhati. bratiki unna pAmu paTla manushula sAdhAraNa dhOraNi adi. adE manushulu chachchina pAmu paTla vIrula valE pravartiMchaTaM hAsyAspadaM. adhikArAnni avasaramayinappuDu ediriMchalEru gAnI tama bratuku bhadrataku muppu lEdani telisinappuDu telivigA, adhikAraM naSiMchAli ani ninadiMchE manushula manushyatvAnni saMdEhiMchADu kALOjI. dushTulaku dUraMgA uMDAlaMTU saukaryavaMtaMgA tappiMchukonE vALLE dushTulanu SikshiMchAlani ninadistuMTE aMdulO nijAyitI E pATidi ani kALOjI saMdhiMchina praSna I kavitaku muktAyiMpu. kALOji manishi tana saukhyaM guriMchi, muddu muchchaTla guriMchi AlOchiMchETappuDu manishigA tOTi manushulapaTla bAdhyatagA pravartiMchAlani kOrukuMTADu. A viSAla prajA kshEma kAmananu, muktakaM anE chinna kavitalO goppagA vyaktIkariMchADu.

eruguduvA nEstaM
enni moddu bratukula
muddulu muchchaTlu
raMpapu kOtala pAlaitE
mana muddu muchchaTlu

nEstaM ani saMbOdhiMchaTaMlO manishigA tAnu tOTi manishitO samasthAyi saMbaMdhAlanu neripE prajAsvAmika dRkpadhaM uMdi. nEstaM kaTTina chOTa vALLa hitavunu kOraTaM uMTuMdi. eruka kaligitEnE hitaM kaligEdi. kALOjI tana mitrulaMdariki evarayinA tama abhivRddhi guriMchi AlOchiMchETappuDu aMdarikI adi aMdubATulO uMdA lEdA anI, eMtO maMdini abhivRddhi Avali aMchulaku neTTEsE abhivRddhi vAMChanIyaM kAdanI telisi pravartiMchAlani anukoMTADu. A vidhaMgA oka samagra mAnavuDi AvishkaraNa kALOjI kala. A kalanu paduguriki paMchina kaLa Ayana kavitvaM.

(sepTeMbar 9 kALOjI puTTina rOju.)

pUrtigA #»

viSvasvarUpaM: TeliskOpulu

1. avasarAniki tagga panimuTlu

viSvarahasyAlani ChEdiMchaTAniki mAnavuDu anEkamaina panimuTlani vADEDu. vITanniTilOki muMdugA vADukalOki vachchinadi niTrATa.

I niTrATanE iMglIshulO nOmAn (#gnomon)# aMTAru. I nOmAn anna iMglIshu mATa, j~nAnaM anna saMskRtaM mATa sahajAta padAlu. kanuka nOmAn anna mATani j~nAnadaMDaM ani manaM telugulO pEru peTTi vADukOvachchu. kAni niTrATa aMTE pratyEkaMgA vipulIkaraNa akkara lEkuMDA arthaM avutuMdi. I niTrATa prasariMchE nIDani baTTi mana pUrvulu ennO vishayAlu telusukunnAru.

niTrATa taruvAta cheppukOdaggadi sUryaphalakaM lEdA sUryayaMtraM lEdA nIDa gaDiyAraM. dInini iMglIshulO san^Dayal (#sundial)# aMTAru. I sUryaphalakaM kAlaj~nAnAnni istuMdi; aMTE vELa eMtayiMdO chebutuMdi. ippuDu kAlAnni kolavaTAniki chAla sunnitamaina gaDiyArAlu unnAyi. kAlAnni ati nikkachchigA kolichE SrEshTamaina gaDiyArAnni iMglIshulO krOnOmITar (#chronometer)# aMTAru. dInini telugulO kAlamApakaM anochchu.

A taruvAta cheppukOdagga panimuTTu durbhiNi. durbhiNi, dUradarSani anE reMDu mATalu TeliskOp (#Telescope)# anna iMglIshu mATaki paryAya padAlu. bhArata prabhutvaM, dUradarSani anna pEruni vAri Telivijan prasAra saMsthaki peTTaka pUrvaM dUradarSani aMTE TeliskOp anE arthaM ayEdi. idi dUraMgA unna vastuvulani chUDaTAniki upayOgapaDutuMdi. taruvAta cheppukOdagga panimuTTu varNamAlAdarSani. dIninE iMglIshulO spekTrOskOp (#spectroscope)# aMTAru. kAMti yokka rahasyAlu baTTabayalu cheyyaTAniki idi eMtagAnO upayOgapaDutuMdi. A taruvAta cheppukOdagga parikaraM kalanayaMtraM lEdA kaMpyUTar. I kalanayaMtrAlu lEkuMDA I rOjullO E panI jaragaTaM lEdu. aMtE kAkuMDA prastutaM kaMpyUTar aMTE teliyani vALlu arudu kanuka dAni guriMchi chebutU kAlayApana cheyyaTaM anavasaraM.

AkharugA cheppukOdaggavi: rENutvaraNi (#particle accelerator),# nabhOnauka (#spacecraft).# dUradarSani nElamaTTaM mIda kaMTe aMtarikshaMlO uMTE bAgA upayOgapaDutuMdi kanuka dUradarSanini aMtarikshaMlOki lEvanettaTAniki nabhOnaukalu kAvAli. dUradarSani sEkariMchina kAMtini viSlEshiMchi arthaM chEsukOTAniki varNamAlAdarSani kAvalasi uMTuMdi. aNugarbhaMlO unna rahaSyAlani viSvajananaMtO samanvayaparachaTAniki rENutvaraNi kAvAli.

dUradarSani (durbhiNi) eppuDu elA puTTiMdO, elA pariNati cheMdiMdO anna vishayAnni mAtraM ippuDu, ikkaDa, I vyAsaMlO prastAviMchabOtunnAnu.

2. nElamIda durbhiNulu

chIkaTi rAtri durbhiNini AkASaM vaipu sAriMchi chUstE reMDu vidhAlaina anubhOgAlu kalugutAyi. kaMTiki kanipiMchE dRSyAniki nOTa mATa rAka AScharyachakitulaM kAvaTaM – modaTi anubhOgaM. SanigrahaM chuTTU kanipiMchE valayaM! nallaTi mukhmal guDDa mIda jallina vajrAlalA merisipOtU kanipiMchE nakshatrAlu! prakASistUnna tellaTi mEghAlalA kAMtulInE kshIrasAgarAlu! I bhUlOkaM mIda mAnavuDu avatariMchakamuMdE – daridApu reMDu miliyanu saMvatsarAla kritaM – I kshIrasAgarAlalO bayaludErina kAMtikiraNAlu ippuDu mana kaMTi lOni akshipaTalAnni chErAyanE spRha manaki kaligEsariki oLlu jaladariMchaka mAnadu. iMtakaMTe SaktimaMtamaina durbhiNilO chUstE iMkEmi kanabaDutuMdO anEdi reMDava anubhOgaM.

nAlugu vaMdala ELla kritaM geliliyO (#Galileo Galilee)# tana chEtilO unna chinna durbhiNini AkASaM vaipu etti chUsinappuDu I reMDu rakAla anubhOgAlani poMdE uMTADu. nagnanayanAlaki kanabaDani tAralu ennO Ayanaki A durbhiNilO kanabaDDAyi. okE oka rASilO – mRgavyAdhuDi rASilO (#Andromeda constellation) –# kanabaDutUnna nakshatrAlani lekkapeTTaTAniki prayatniMchi, alasipOyi, viramiMchukunnADu. anni nakshatrAlu kanipiMchEyiTa, geliliyOki! chaMdruDi mIda koMDalani chUSADu. gurugrahaM chuTTU tirugutunna nAlugu upagrahAlani chUsEDu. chUsi, saMtRpti paDi UrukOkuMDA aMtakaMTE SaktimaMtamaina (pedda) durbhiNini nirmiMchaTAniki samakaTTEDu. peddavi, nANyamainavi ayina durbhiNilu nirmiMchAlaMTE ekkuva kAMtini pOgucheyyagala pedda pedda kaTakAlu (lenses, #lenses)# kAvalasi uMTuMdi. aTuvaMTi kaTakAlu tayAru chEsE paddhati A rOjulalO vAriki teliyadu. pratyAmnAyaMgA poDugATi durbhiNulu cheyyaTaM modalupeTTEDAyana.

ikkaDa koddigA SAstraM chebutAnu. kaTakAlaguMDA kAMti prasariMchinappuDu A kAMti kiraNAlu vakrIbhavanaM (#refraction)# cheMdutAyi; aMTE oMgutAyi. karrani vaMchinappuDu aMdulOni Inelu viDipOyinaTlu kAMti vaMginappuDu A kAMtilO unna raMgulannI viDipOyi prati raMgu kiraNaM tana dAri tanu chUsukuMTuMdi. I prakriya kAraNaMgA pratibiMbaMlO vADitanaM pOyi chediripOyinaTlu kanipiMchaTamE kAkuMDA vastuvulO lEni raMgulu pratibiMbaMlO kanabaDatAyi. dInitO durbhiNi nANyata pADavutuMdi. I samasyani parishkariMchaTAniki oka mArgaM durbhiNi poDugu peMchaTaM kanuka modaTi rOjulalO nirmiMchina durbhiNula poDugu AMjanEyuDi tOkalA alA perugutU vachchEyi.

yohAnes havIliyas (#Johannes Hevelius)# anE AsAmI 150 aDugula poDugunna durbhiNini nirmiMchi, dAnini rATalu, tALlu upayOgiMchi ETavAlugA amarchEDu. chirugAli vIchEsarikE UgisalADipOyEdiTa; iMka dAnitO nakshatrAlani ekkaDa chUstAM? nedarlaMD dESaMlO hay^gans (#Christiaan Huygens)# anE AsAmI, marI poDugATi goTTAnni nirmiMchaTaMlO unna kashTAlani gurtiMchi, goTTaM lEkuMDAnE durbhiNini nirmiMchEDu: itagADu vastugata kaTakAnni (#objective lens)# ettayina vEdika mIda oka chaTraMlO amarchi, dAniki 200 aDugula dUraMlO kaMTi kaTakAnni (#eyepiece)# maroka chaTraMlO peTTi goTTaM lEni durbhiNini nirmiMchEDu. iTuvaMTi prayatnAla valla prayAsa ekkuva, prayOjanaM takkuva ani tElipOyiMdi.

kaTakAlatO nirmiMchina vakrIbhavana durbhiNulalO (#refracting telescopes)# unna maulikamaina ibbaMdulani modaTagA arthaM chEsukunnavADu nyUTan (#Isaac Newton).# kaTakAlaki badulu darpaNAlu (#mirrors)# vADi Ayana parAvartana durbhiNulu (#reflecting telescopes)# anE kotta jAti durbhiNula nirmANAniki SrIkAraM chuTTEDu. kaTakAlaki badulu darpaNAlu vADaTaM valla iMkA lAbhAlu unnAyi. kaTakAlani reMDu pakkalA nunnagA sAnapaTTAli. darpaNAlani oka pakka sAna paDitE chAlu. venaka dannu peTTi eMta pedda darpaNaM kAvAlaMTE aMta pedda darpaNaM tayAru chEsukOvachchu; I pani kaTakAlatO sAdhyaM kAdu. kaTakaM reMDu pakkalA vADatAmu kanuka A kaTakaM aMchu chuTTU chaTraM kaTTi (kaLlajODu chaTraMlA) nilabeTTAli. kaTakaM peddayina koddI, dAni baruvu ekkuva ayipOyi, mottaM pani aMtA kashTaM ayipOtuMdi. ivannI arthaM chEsukunna harshal (#William Herschel)# ennO kashTAlu paDi, tana soMta chEtulatO chEsukunna parAvartana durbhiNi upayOgiMchagAnE, Ayana paDDa kashTAlaki veMTanE phalitaM dakkiMdi. Sani grahAniki avatala, nagnanayanAlaki kanabaDanaMta dUraMlO, sUryuDi chuTTU tirugutUnna sarikotta grahaM okaTi Ayana durbhiNilO kanipiMchiMdi. okka peTTuna sUrya kuTuMbaM paridhi perigiMdi. A kotta grahaM pErE yUrenas (#Uranus).# idE paddhati upayOgiMchi airlaMDulO lArD rAsI (#William Parsons, the third Earl of Rosse)# Aru aDugula vyAsaM unna darpaNaM upayOgiMchi nirmiMchina pedda durbhiNilO chUsEsariki modaTisArigA Ayana sarpilAkAraMlO unna oka kshIrasAgarAnni chUDagaligEDu. mana pAlapuMta (milkIvE gElaksI, #Milky Way galaxy)# kshIrasAgaraM kUDa idE vidhamaina sarpilAkAraMlOnE uMTuMdi kAni manaM dAni madhyalO unnAmu kanuka dAni AkAraM chUDalEmu, dAniki ChAyAchitrAlu tiyyalEmu.


1. pAlomAr koMDa mIda unna hEl TeliskOp.

nATi nuMDi nETi varaku durbhiNi nirmANa SilpaMlO eMtO pragati sAdhiMchEM. I rOjullO pedda pedda durbhiNulalO kAMtini kUDagaTTE darpaNAla vyAsaM 10 mITarlu (33 aDugulu) uMTOMdi. dakshiNa kEliphOrniyAlO, pAlomAr koMDa mIda unna, charitra prasiddhi cheMdina hEl TeliskOp (#Hale telescope)# darpaNaM vyAsaM 5.1 mITarlu (200 aMguLAlu). darpaNaM vyAsaM reTTipu avaTaMtO nETi durbhiNulu hEl kaMTe nAlugiMtala kAMtini sEkariMchagalugutunnAyi. I navataraM durbhiNulu sAdhAraNaMgA aMbara chuMbitAlayina bhavanAlalO, guhala vaMTi gadulalO, uMTAyi. ivi yaMtrAlu naDipE svayaMchAlitAlaina parikarAlu. naDapaTaM aMTE EmiTanukuMTunnArA? mUDaMtastula ettu unna vEdhaSAla TopAraM ardhagOLAkAraMlO uMTuMdi kadA. pagalaMtA I ardhagOLapu talupulu mUsE uMTAyi. chIkaTi paDDa taruvAta vATaMtaTavE teruchukuMTAyi. rAtraMtA eMtOmaMdi pariSOdhakulu tamatama pariSOdhanalaki kAvalasina nakshatrAlavaipu durbhiNi dRshTini sAristAru. idaMtA kalanayaMtrAla AdhvaryaMlO mAnava pramEyaM lEkuMDA jarigipOtuMdi. pariSOdhakulu vEdhaSAlalO uMDanakkaralEdu. evari svasthAnAlalO vAru uMDochchu. durbhiNi tIsina chAyAchitrAlu aMtarjAlaM dvArA paMpiNI ayipOtAyi. oka rAtri jaragavalasina pani vyarthaM ayitE laksha amerikA DAlarlu nashTapOyinaTlE. durbhiNi kEMdrAlalO kAlAniki aMta viluva!

I rOju prapaMchaMlO unna ati pedda durbhiNulalO peddavi mUDu havAyi rAshTraMlO (#Hawaii)# unnAyi. vATi pErlu uttara jeminai (#Gemini North),# sUbarU (#Subaru),# kek (#Keck).# havAyi dvIpAlalO maunA keyA (#Mauna Kea)# anE challAripOyina agniparvataM okaTuMdi. dAni SikharaM 14,000 aDugula ettuna uMdi. iMta ettu veLlE sariki bhUmi vAtAvaraNaMlO daridApu sagaM dATi paiki veLlinaTlE. ilA koMDa mIda vEdhaSAlalu kaTTaTaM valla oka prayOjanaM uMdi. dUraM nuMDi vachchE parAruNa kiraNAlani (#infrared rays) # mana vAtAvaraNaMlO unna nITi kAviri (#water vapor)# chAlamaTTuki pIlchEsukuMTuMdi. koMDamIdaki veLitE A kiraNAlu mana parikarAlaki ‘kanipistAyi.’ kAni aMta ettuki veLitE akkaDa gAli takkuva kAbaTTi gAli pIlchaTaM, vadalaTaM kashTaM. paipechchu pagalE chali! rAtri iMkA chali! I paristhitulalO burra panicheyyadu (medaDu bAgA pani cheyyaTAniki Amlajani kAvAli kadA!) inni kashTAlaki OrchukuMTE phalitaM dakkutuMdi. kashTE phalI annAru.

uttara jeminai durbhiNiki unna 8.1 mITarla darpaNAlu sEkariMchina kAMtini viSlEshiMchaTAniki durbhiNiyokka nAbhi (#focus)# daggaragA nAlugu aMka pattAsulu (#digital detectors),# guMDraMgA tiragaTAniki vIlaina rATnapu chaTraMlO (#carousel)# bigiMchabaDi unnAyi. samayAnukUlaMgA I pattAsulalO oka dAnini kAMti mArgaMlOki vachchETaTlu chaTrAnni tippi vADukOvachchu. I pattAsulalO mukhyamainavi varNamAlAmitulu (#spectrometers)# ChAyAchitragrAhakulu (#cameras).# ivi okokkaTi 5 miliyanu DAlarlu kharIdu chEstAyi. E samayaMlO durbiNini E nakshatraM vaipu sAriMchAlO, A nakshatraM nuMDi vachchE kAMtini eMtasEpu sEkariMchAlO, A kAMtini E pattAsu chEta viSlEshiMchAlO, alA viSlEshiMchagA vachchina phalitAnni E pariSOdhakuDiki paMpAlO – I vyavahAraM aMtA svayaMchAlakaMgA (ATOmETik gA) jarigipOyETaTlu kalanayaMtrAlE chUsukuMTAyi. akkaDa uMDE sibbaMdi kEvalaM nimittamAtrulu. paryavEkshaNa bAdhyatalu tappa vAriki pedda panulu uMDavu.


2. sUbarU durbhiNi.

sUbarU durbhiNi japAnu vAridi. dIni nirmANaM, upayOgiMchE tIru koMcheM tEDAgA uMTAyi. sUbarU durbhiNitO panicheyyavalasina parikarAlu annI kUDa oka alamArulO varasagA amarchabaDi uMTAyi. eppuDu E parikaraM kAvalasi vachchinA dAnini A alamAru nuMDi tIsi durbhiNilO amarchaTaniki oka chAkaru (#robot)# tirugutU uMTuMdi. kaMpyUTaru paryavEkshaNalO A rObATu cheyyavalasina panulannI chEsukupOtuMdi. sUbarU pratyEkata EmiTaMTE I durbhiNiki unna kaMTi kaTakaM guMDA manaM kUDa aMtarikshapu lOtullOki chUDavachchu. upagrahaMlA bhUmi chuTTU tirugutunna habul TeliskOpuki (#Hubble telescope)# EvEvi, eMtabAgA kanipistAyO daridApu avE dRSyAlani sUbarUlO manaM chUDaTAniki avakASaM uMdi; aDiginavAraMdarikI anumati dorakapOvachchu, adi vErE vishayaM.


3. kek durbhiNi uMDE gRhaM.

migilinadi kek TeliskOpu. nijAniki kek vEdhaSAlalO unnavi reMDu durbhiNulu. reMDiMTiki 10 mITarla darpaNAlu unnAyi. vITi pratyEkata EmiTaMTE – guMDraMgA unna okokka addaMlO 36 tonalu (#segments) # uMTAyi. aMTE addaM aMtA guMDraMgA, paLleMlA unna EkAMDI mukkatO chEsinadi kAdu. okokka tona, dAnini svayaM pratipattitO niyaMtriMchE saraMjAmA, aMtA kalupukuni 500 kilOla baruvu uMTuMdi. okokka tona kharIdu miliyanu DAlarlu uMTuMdi. I durbhiNiki kUDa ‘goTTaM’ aMTU EdI lEdu. kaTTaDaM aMtA sannaTi ukku baddIlatO nirmiMchabaDi chUTTAniki sAlegUDulA uMTuMdi.

I durbhiNulu unna guyyArAlalO allibilligA allukupOyinaTlu unna rATalu, dUlAlu, vAsAla madhya dhULi, dUgara chEritE paDDa kashTaM aMtA vyarthaM kadA. ekkaDO viSvapu aMchula nuMDi (aMTE viSvaM puTTina kotta rOjula nuMDi) bayalu dErina kAti kiraNaM nirAghATaMgA iMtadUraM vachchi mana gummaM chErukunna taruvAta dAnini oka sAle gUDulO dAraM aDDukuMTE mana aprayOjakatvAniki aMtakaMTe tArkANaM EmiTi kAvAli? aMdukani kAMti chEsina A mahA prasthAnaMlO A chiTTachivari aDugulaki E aDDaMki lEkuMDA chUsukuMTE manaM paDDa kashTAniki, vechchiMchina Dabbuki phalitaM dakkutuMdi.

I Adhunika yugaMlOni pedda pedda TeliskOpulu AkASapu aMchula nuMDi vastUnna kAMtini sEkariMchaTaMlOnE kAkuMDA, iMkA anEka vidhAlugA mana sAMkEtika parij~nAnAnni upayOgiMchi manaki kanipiMchE bomma spuTaMgA, kalata lEkuMDA kanipiMchETaTlu chEstunnAyi. udAharaNaki, bhUmi vAtAvaraNaM valla kaligE arishTAlu samudra maTTaM nuMDi daridApu 10 kilOmITarlu paiki veLlEvaraku uMTUnE uMTAyi. I arishTAlavalla bomma nilakaDagA uMDaka chediripOtuMdi — phoTO tIstUnnappuDu cheyyi kadilitE bomma chedipOyinaTlu. kAMti kiraNaM prayANaM chEsE dArilO unna vAtAvaraNaMlO samIritaM (#turbulence)# eMtuMdO telistE appuDu A samIritaM valla bomma eMtalA kadilipOyiMdO aMchanA vEsi, dAnini kalata cheMdina bommalO savaristE manaki spuTamaina bomma vastuMdi. I rakaM savariMpu lekkalu cheyyaTAniki lEsaru kiraNavAraM (#laser beam)# vADatAru. AkASaMlOki lEsaru kiraNavArAnni 56 maiLlu (90 kilOmITarlu) dUraM veLlE varaku prasariMpa chEstAru. I kiraNAlu akkaDa unna sODiyaM aNuvulani uttEja parustAyi. appuDu avi dIpaM veliginaTlu velugutAyi. I veluguni kRtrima tAra (#artificial star)# aMTAru. I tArani mana durbhiNi dvArA chUsi, bhUmaTTaM nuMDi 56 maiLla ettu varaku vAtAvaraNaM eMta kallOlaMgA uMdO lekka kaDatAru. ilA vachchina lekkani ‘kalatAMSaM’ aMdAM. nijaM nakshatrAla nuMDi vachchE kAMtivAkEtAla (#light signals)# nuMDi I kalatAMSAlani tIsivEstAru. aMtavaraku masakagA unna bomma amAMtaM spuTaMgA kanipistuMdi. idi panichEstUnnappuDu kalatAMSa savariMpuni ‘An’ chEsi oka sAri ‘Aph’ chEsi chUstE kAni I paddhati lOni goppatanaM namma buddhi kAdu. I prakriyani iMglIshulO eDApTiv ApTiks (#adaptive optics, AO)# aMTAru. chatvAraM unna manishiki kaLladdAlu elAMTivO TeliskOpuki I paddhati alAMTidi.

pUrtigA #»

anuvAdAlu

manishikeMta bhUmi?

“paTnaMlO jIvitaM elA uMdi?” madhyAhnaM tIrubaDigA kUrchuni, chAlAkAlaM tarvAta tanani chUDaDAniki vachchina akkani, chellelu aDigiMdi.

“bAnEvuMdi. akkaDi sukhAlu akkaDivi. ikkaDa palleTUrlO unnaMta dummU dhULI lEvu. pillalaki ADukOvaDAnikI EdainA kottadi nErchukOvaDAnikI rakarakAla mArgAlunnAyi. maMchi tiMDI, guDDA kaTTukOgalugutunnAM.”

chelleliki EmainA anipiMchiMdO lEdO kAnI I mATallO akkaDE unna chellelu koDukki mAtraM ettipoDupu vinipiMchiMdi. veMThanE annADu, “kAdu marI? pAlallO nILlakI, roTTepiMDilO kaltIki alavATu paDitE annI bAgAnE uMTAyi.”

akkaki tagalavalsina chOTE tagiliMdi I mATa. “avunlErA, kanIsaM paMdulatO, goDlatO, doDDilOMchi iMTlOki nimushAnikOsAri vachchEpOyE kODipeTTaltO vEgakkarlEdu” ettipoDichiMdAviDa.

“EM? avi lOpalaki vastE mAku nashTamEmiTI? mAtO pATE avI kUDA batukutunnAyi. mIku paTnaMlO Akhariki kashTaM sukhaM cheppukunE tODu uMTuMdA? mEmunnaMta sukhaMgA uMDagalugutunnArA?” I sAri koMcheM saumyaMgA aDigEDu kurrADu.

“I pallelO EM sukhaM? mI nAnnani aDugu cheptADu. mIku chAlinaMta bhUmE lEdu. pakka iMTlO vALLa goDlu mI polaM mIda paDitE paMTa nASanaM avutOMdi. vALLani aDigitE adO pedda debbalATa. nijAniki EM paMDistunnArO, EM migultOMdO? eppuDU polaM puTrA chAlaTlEdanE gOla.”

I sAri chellelu koDuku EmI mATlADakuMDA nOru mUsukunnADu vADiki teliyani vishayAlu vachchEsariki. kAnI A pakkanE viMTunna chelleli moguDu pAhOM chevilO paDDAyi I mATalannI. vALLa kaburlU annI ayyEka rAtri paDukunETappuDu pAhOMki gurtochchAyi maradalu anna mATalu. “eMta nijaM! nAku I ara korA bhUmitO chachchE chAvu vachchiMdi kadA. AviDa cheppiMdI nijamE. unna polaMlO paMTa pakkavALLa goDlu vastE nASanaM avutOMdi. vALLatO chepdAmaMTE mohamATaM. pOnI ani cheppinA vALLEmI kaTTaDi chEstunnaTTu lEdu. soMta bhUmi uMDaTaM vErU, kauliki tIsukuni chAvu konitechchukOvaDaM vErUnu. tAmu pOgEsina DabbultO EmAtraM bhUmi vachchEnu I UrlO?” ilAMTi AlOchanalatO nidralOki jArukunnADu.

maradalu veLLipOyina konni vArAlaki tama UrlO unna bhUmi ammakAnikochchinaTTu telsiMdi pAhOMki. kAnI adi vaMdekarAla paimATE. okkaTigAnE tappa mukkalugA ammaruTa. vaMdekarAlu konE tAhatu kAdu pAhOMdi. UrlO raitulaMdarikI ammE yajamAnini kALlA vELLA paDi batimAlEsariki iravai ekarAla choppuna ammaDAniki oppukunnADu Ayana. tana daggirunnadI, bhArya meDalO nagA naTrA annI UDchEsi, ikkaDA, akkaDA koMta mottaM appO soppO techchi mottAniki iravai ekarAlu konagaligEDu pAhOM.

reMDELlu gaDichAyi.

paMTa bAguMDaTaM valla appulu tIripOyEyi sarE. kAnI I kottagA konna iravai ekarAlu tana iMTiki daggira kAdu. muMdunna bhUmI ippuDunna bhUmI vEru vEru chOTla. tiragaDAniki oLLU hUnaM avutOMdi. pakka chElallO uMDE goDlu tana chElOki rAvaDaM, tAnu vALLani aDagaDaM, vALLu EmI chEyakuMDA UrukOvaDaM anEdi alA sAgutUnE uMdi. I debbalATallO nyAyasthAnAla chuTTU tiragaDaM O pedda pani ippuDu. ekkuva bhUmi uMTE sukhapaDadAmanukunnADu kAnI chachchE chAvochchiMdi pAhOMki.

O rOju madhyAhnaM anukOkuMDA O bATasAri vachchEDu pAhOM iMTiki. vErE Uru veLtU ikkaDa chikku paDipOtE rAtriki kAsta chOTistArEmO ani pAhOMni aDigEDu. pAhOM Ayanni sAdaraMgA iMTlOki AhvAniMchEDu. bhOjanAlayyAka kaburlalO cheppEDu pAhOM tanakunna talaneppulannI. annI cheppi annADu chivariki, “ekkuva polaM uMTE sukhaM anukunnAnu kAnI digE dAkA lOtu teliyadannaTTu uMdi nA paristhiti.”

vachchinAyana annI vini cheppEDu, “mIku vOlgA nadi telusu kadA? A nadiki paina bhUmulu chAlA chavaggA unnAyaMTunnAru. mA ULLOnE unna okAyana – EmI unnavADu kAdu asalu – taTTA buTTA sardukuni akkaDiki veLLipOyEDu. mUDELLalO iravai aidu ekarAla bhUmI, pADI, paSuvulU annI saMpAdiMchEDu. kottavALlu veLtE akkaDunna janaM aMtA saMtOshaMgA rammani pilichi bhUmi chavaggA ammutAruTa. mA UriniMchi veLLinAyana alA saMpAdiMchiMdE A pAtika ekarAlUnu. vOlgA nadi paina aMTE iMka cheppEdEmuMdi? avannI sukshEtrAlu. ikkaDa mIkiMta kashTaM aMTunnAru kanaka vIluMTE akkaDa chUDaMDi. okE chOTa EkAMDi polaM mukkalu lEkuMDA dorukutuMdi.”

marnADu A bATasAri veLLipOyEDu. chali rOjulu venakapaDi vAtAvaraNaM kAsta bAgunnAka pAhOM iMTi bAdhyatalannI peLLAM pillalaki appacheppi vOlgA painunna bhUmulu chUDDAniki bayaldErEDu. veLLAka telsiMdi – tana iMTikochchina bATasAri cheppinadi aksharAlA nijaM! kottagA vachchinavALLaki pAtika ekarAlu istunnAru. DabbuluMTE maiLLa koddI bhUmi uMdi konukkOvaDAniki; adI kAru chaukagA! pAhOM maTTi chEtilOki tIsukuni parIkshagA chUsEDu. adbhutaM! venakki vastU dArlOnE EM chEyAlO pAhOM niSchayaM chEsukunnADu.

“ippuDunna UrlO tanaki jagaDAlu tappavu. I UrlO uMTE tana batuku eppaTikI gorre tOkE. A mUla nuMchi I mUlakI, I mUlanuMchi A mUlakI tirigEsariki tana oLLu hUnaM avutOMdi. ayinA vOlgA paina bhUmulakI ikkaDa bhUmulakI nakkakI nAkalOkAnikI unnaMta tEDA!”

iMTikochchina nelalOpuna tana AstulannI ammEsEDu pAhOM. polAlaki maMchi dharE vachchiMdi. A painelalO bichANA ettEsi vOlgA painunna bhUmula kOsaM pAhOM kuTuMbaMtO sahA bayaldEri veLLipOyEDu.

veLLAka polaM konabOtuMTE appuDu talupu taTTiMdi adRshTaM. akkaDunna vALLu manishikoka pAtika ekarAlu istAruTa, kuTuMbAniki pAtika kAdu. pAhOM egiri gaMtEsEDu. alA pAhOMki vachchiMdi nUTa pAtika ekarAlu! tanaki munupunna iravai ekarAlu ippuDu chinna nATumaDi kiMda lekka! ayitE O chikkochchiMdi ikkaDa kUDA. nUTa pAtika ekarAlu okE chOTa ivvaDaM kudarlEdu. maLLI ikkaDO mukkA, akkaDO mukkA ichchEru. annI vadulukuni vachchinavADiki nUTa pAtika ekarAlu uttinE vastUMTE chEdA? avi mukkalaitEnEM? pAhOM maLLI vyavasAyaM modalu peTTEDu. vOlgA nadi nILLO marEmO kAnI pAhOM paTTiMdallA baMgAramaiMdi polAllO.

gOdhumalu adbhutaMgA paMDutunnAyi ikkaDa. kAnI anni polAllOnU okE paMTa vEyaDaM kashTamaiMdi. okE EkAMDi bhUmi mukkalu lEkuMDA uMTE polaM chUsukODaM, sAgu chEyaDaM sulabhaMgA uMDEdi kAnI tanakunna vErvEru mukkala valla gOdhuma paMTa sAgu chEyaDaM kashTamautOMdi. iMtalO pAhOM gOdhumalu vEsina paMTa pakkanE unna AsAmI polaM kaulukistunnADani telsiMdi. adi tIsukuni EkAMDigA gOdhumalu paMDiMchaDaM modalupeTTADu pAhOM. ikkaDunna chikkEmiTaMTE phalasAyaM bAgunnA kauluki Dabbulu pOtunnAyi. aMchEta rAbaDi peddagA lEdu. okEchOTa bhUmi EkAMDIgA uMTE eMta bAguNNO ani ennOsArlu anipiMchiMdi pAhOMki.

idE sthitilO koTTumiTTADutU marO mUDu saMvatsarAlu gaDipEDu pAhOM. okarOju O saMgati telisiMdi. ULLO okAyana padamUDu vaMdala ekarAlu chavaggA ammutunnADu. adaMtA ikkaDO chOTA akkaDO chOTA kAdu, aMtA okE EkAMDI chekka. pAhOM roTTe virigi nEtilO paDDaTTaiMdi. veMThanE veLLi bEraM chEsEDu. padihEnu vaMdala rUbuLlaki bEraM siddhaM chEsukuni kAyitAla mIda saMtakAlu peTTaDAniki tayArautUMTE bhUmi konaDAniki pAhOMlO kanabaDE utsAhaM chUsi akkaDE unna okAyana cheppEDu:

“mIku polaM konAlanE ubalATaM ekkuvagA unnaTTuMdi. dAnikOsaM inni Dabbulu tagalEyaDaM eMdukU? nEni ippuDE dUradESaM nuMchi vastunnAnu polaM koni. akkaDa iMkA chavaggA dorukutuMdi bhUmi.”

“eMta chavakalO dorakochchu?”

“nEnu padamUDu vEla ekarAlu veyyi rUbuLLaki konnAnu.”

“EmiTI?” pAhOM nOru veLLabeTTEDu.

“kAvalistE chUsukOMDi,” aMTU O kAyitaM chUpiMchADu Ayana.

I kAyitaM chUsina pAhOMki kALLU chEtulU ADalEdu. tAnu ikkaDa padihEnu vaMdalu peTTi konE bhUmi dubArA! pa-da-mU-Du-vE-la e-ka-rA-lu! ikkaDunna nUTapAtika ekarAlatO tAnu eppaTiki veyyi ekarAlu saMpAdiMchagaligEnu? A bhUmulelAMTivO, avi elAga konAlO iMkA vishayAlu cheppamani vEdhiMchADu pAhOM A kottAyanani.

“I bhUmulammE vALLu bashkIrlu. vALlaki peddagA chaduvU saMdhyA lEdu. alA ani Dabbunna vALLU kAdu. nEla maMchidE. vyavasAyaM chEsukuMTE chEsukunnavADiki chEsukunnaMta. mIku chavaggA bhUmi kAvAlaMTE nEnu EM chEsEnO adE chEyochchu.”

“mIrEM chEsEru? cheppaMDi,” toMdarapeTTEDu pAhOM Ayanni.

“nEnu vALlaMdarikI bahumatulU, TI, vaMdarUbuLlaki samAnamaina tinubaMDArAlU avannI ichchEnu. vALLu ivannI jIvitaMlO chUDalEduTa. mI ishTaM vachchinaMta bhUmi konukkOMDi annAru. nA daggirunna veyyi rUbuLLaki padamUDuvEla ekarAlu vachchiMdi. ApyAyaMgA palakariMchaMDi. koMcheM bAgA mATlADi, maMchi bahumatulu ivvaMDi. A tarvAta mIrE akkaDa rAju!”

bashkIrla daggiraki elA veLLAlO dArI, akkaDiki veLLAka evarni kalavAlO A vivarAlannI saMpAdiMchi pAhOM dAdApu parigeDutunnaTTU iMTiki vachchEDu.

marnADE O pAlErni veMTabeTTukuni, peLLAM pillaltO cheppi bashkIrlani kalusukOvaDAniki bahumatulU, tivAchIlU, tEyAkU, DabbulU paTTukuni prayANaM sAgiMchEDu pAhOM.

EDu rOjula prayANaM tarvAta EdEmaitEnEM, pAhOM, atani pAlErU bashkIrlu uMDE guDArAlaki chErEru. pAhOM akkaDa gamaniMchinadEmiTaMTE bashkIrlaki chEsE panEmI lEdu. vALLakunna gurrAlaki ADavALLu pAlu tIstunnAru. A pAlU vennA tini magavALLaMdarU O chOTa chEri kaburlu cheppukOvaDaM, lEkapOtE chuTTU unna aDivilOMchi EvO techchukuni tinaDaM. vALLaki vyavasAyaM rAdU, chEyarU. anniMTikI miMchI E panI chEsE avasaraM unnaTTu kanipiMchalEdu kUDA. ayitE vALlaMdarU maMchivALlavaDaM valla pAhOMni chUDagAnE rammani sAdaraMgA AhvAniMchEru. ayitE vALLaki pAhOM mATlADE rashyan bhAsha rAdu. unnavALLalO oka dubAsIni paTTuku mATlADDaM modalu peTTAru — pAhOM eMdukochchADO, tamaki bahumatulu eMdukistunnADO telsukOvaDAniki.

pAhOM tAnochchina pani guriMchi cheppEDu, “mEmunna pradESaMlO bhUmi takkuvA, janaM ekkuvA. mI bhUmi mA dAni kaMTE sAravaMtaMgA kanipistOMdi. nEnu ikkaDa bhUmi konaDAniki vachchAnu. mIru eMta aDugutArO chUsi dAnni baTTi manaM bEraM kudurchukOvachchu.”

pUrtigA #»

Sabda taraMgAlu

akkara lEni saMgatula

rAgaM: dharmavati
tALaM: Adi

svara rachana, gAnaM: SrIvidya badarInArAyaNan
rachana, svara kalpana: kanaka prasAd

<><>

#sAhityaM

pallavi:
akkara lEni saMgatula
chakkera pAguna Iga vale
akkaDa vAli ikkaDa vAli
chakkarulATalu mAnavugA?!
charaNaM:
aggalamai nI atiSayamu
paggelapOyETidi ahamu
taggU moggula tAlikalO@MbaDi
tanalO tAnani talachavugA?! #         #|akkara|
charaNaM:
podduTa lEchina modalukoni
niddura varakU negulukoni
adduva chUpuku oddika chUpE
aNakuvanaitE kAnavugA?! #          #|akkara|
charaNaM:
appala@Mkappa aruNa giri@M
yoppina velugu ramaNa muni
cheppinayaMdE cheluvaiyuMTE
tappulu noppulu tOpavugA!#         #|akkara|

#For Rev. Fr.# jalumUru AnaMdarAvu.


pUrtigA #»

dESabhakti gEyAlu

I paryAyaM konni dESabhakti gEyAlu mI muMduMchutunnAnu. nA chinnatanaMlO vijayavADa rEDiyO kEMdraM dvArA tarachugA prasAramaina pATalivi. I pATalaku pratyEka parichayaM avasaraM lEdanukuMTAnu. kluptaMgA:

1. jayajayapriyabhArata janayitrI – bRMdagAnaM – dEvulapalli kRshNaSAstri.

2.# kalagaMTini – bi. suSIla, subbalakshmi – madhurAMtakaM rAjArAM.

3.# SrIpurANadhAtriki – SrIraMgaM gOpAlaratnaM, eM.vi. ramaNamUrti – viMjamUri SivarAmArAvu.

4.# namO maMgaLaSrI – TaMguTUri sUryakumAri – rAyaprOlu subbArAvu.

5.# baMgaru pUvulu – bi. suSIla, subbalakshmi- rAyaprOlu subbArAvu.

6.# jOhArulE talli – mallik, SrIraMgaM gOpAlaratnaM – ?

#(IpATa rAsiMdevarO yevarikaina telistE cheppagalaru.)

pUrtigA #»